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Name the main stages in a listening skills lesson and give some specific ideas for listening tasks.

Before listening: A) encourage the students to think about and discuss what they are going to hear. Create need-to-know activity. Use prompts such as realia, visuals, questions, references to the students experiences, a short discussion to arouse the students’ interests, activate their knowledge about the topic, help them to predict what they are going to hear. B)Teach key words and phrases before listening. Without these words listening might be difficult to understand. Proper names, such as the names of people and places, can really throw low-level students, so it is useful to pick those out, write them on the board, and tell the students how they are pronounced. 2) First listening: A) set a task to help focus on over all understanding. It may be done in the form of 1 or 2 questions or a task. Don’t complicate the task with special details. B) Give the listening text for the first time. It is better not to pause while first listening. This is more realistic and helps students to concentrate on getting the whole picture. C) Feedback. Possible ask students to discuss their answers and opinions in pairs or groups. If the listening text is difficult to understand, ask them whether they would like to listen to the text or its part once more. 3) Second listening: A) set a task on more detailed understanding. Try to differentiate the task: ask questions with factual answers, introduce some special information, which require the students to understand the meaning.B) Give the listening text for the second time. Make the task easier by posing, especially if the students have to write notes. Monitor how well they are doing the task. C) Feedback: encourage students to work together. D) Personal response. Encourage a personal response by asking questions like “What do you think of…”. In this case listening is integrate to speaking if you are going to use the speaking text as the main basic one. (Activities: News headlines, jigsaw listening, live list-g)

Role-plays, simulations. Explain the difference between them

Role playing/simulation clearly promotes effective interpersonal relations and social transactions among participants.

Role plays are creative speaking activity. The students take part of a particular person. These roles are often printed on “role cards”.General ideas about what they are going to say might be prepared before then. This might come out of the text or previous context. Role card is often contained: a job, sex, name, age, personal appearance, character, interests.

Simulation is slightly different type of role play when students are not playing but being themselves. They are given a task or a problem to be solved; some circumstances might be added. There are number of commercial situations.

There is a difference between simulations (where students act out real-life situations, for example the canteen in our university is losing money. And we’ll have to close it soon if changes are not made. Make up your suggestion what could be done to keep it open. Students do play themselves) and role plays where students take on different characters. In a role play, for example, one student may be asked to take on the role of “an angry landowner” in a role play which is concerned with discussing the possible construction of a new road. Role plays will thus require more “imagination” on the part of the student to be able to get “into” the role.

Compare the factors that make a listening text easy or difficult and give some specific ideas for listening tasks

Listening text is easier if: 1) it is short; 2) it has only one speaker or two speakers who tell apart; 3) the speaker speaks slowly(naturally) instead of accent and use simple grammar and vocabulary; 4) the speaker can be heard clearly (there is no distractive noise in the background); 5) the speaker can be seen in the video; 6) the topiс is familiar; 7) the structure of the text is simple (no repetitions); 8) the students are interested and well-prepared what they hear.

Listening text is difficult if: 1) people speak too fast to follow; 2) they can’t tell where words start and stop; 3) people pronounce words they just don’t recognize; 3) distractive noise in the background; 4) a lot of interlocutors; 5)Clustering 6)Repetition 7)Reduced forms8) Performance variables 9) Colloquial language 10) How fast someone speaks 11) Stress, rhythm, and intonation 12)Interaction.; 13) unfamiliar words. Also: Lack of time to process information, lack of concentration and anxiety about longer texts.Too fast. Can’t distinguish separate words.Can’t follow the rhythm. Not able to recognise sense groups, inferred message, mood or intonation.

Difficult accents.

As a general rule, exercises for listening comprehension are more effective if they are constructed around a task. The students should be "required to do something in response to what they hear that will demonstrate their understanding". Examples of tasks are answering questions appropriate to the learners' comprehension ability, taking notes, taking dictation, and expressing agreement or disagreement. Listening activities should require the students to demonstrate listening skills. Consequently, listening exercises should be dependent upon students' skills in listening, rather than skills in reading, writing, or speaking. (+Name the main stages in a listening skills lesson and give some specific ideas for listening tasks.курсив)

Work out different interaction or information gap activities

Information gap (Long- 1980): An information gap is created when each participant holds information that the other does not already know, and must exchange it in order to complete a task. Such gaps of information between people give us a need and desire to communicate with each other. An information gap task is a technique in language teaching where students are missing information necessary to complete a task or solve a problem, and must communicate with their classmates to fill in the gaps. It is often used in communicative language teaching and task-based language learning. Information gap tasks are contrasted with opinion gap tasks, in which all information is shared at the start of the activity, and learners give their own opinions on the given information. Info Gap activities are excellent activities as they force the students to ask each other questions; these activities help make the language classroom experience more meaningful and authentic.

Three types of information gap: As such, the Jigsaw, Spot the Difference, and Grammar Communication tasks have been shown to promote interaction and attentional processes among learners.'Spot the difference' is a kind of task, in which participants are given similar but slightly different pictures, and without looking at each other's pictures are asked to come to a consensus about the differences between them. The jigsaw (Elliot Aronson)technique is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assembles to complete the (jigsaw) puzzle. A jigsaw listening or reading activity is an information gap exercise. Learners hear or read different parts of a text, then exchange information with others in order to complete a task.

Information gap activities can also reinforce vocabulary and a variety of grammatical structures taught in class. They allow students to use linguistic forms and functions in a communicative way. These activities bring the language to life for students. Grammar is no longer a concept they have difficulty applying to their speaking. Students have the opportunity to use the building blocks of language we teach them to speak in the target language.

Give the definition of the “Before reading stage” and select the appropriate reading tasks. Work out satisfactory procedure of the stage

Before listening: is a kind of preparatory work which ought to make the context explicit, clarify purposes and establish roles, procedures and goals for listening.

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