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Translate the following word-combinations:

1. tremendous     uncontrolled harmful ecological                    impact irreversible adverse   environmental 5 . purposeful outer space essential         careful                exploration planned intensive current
2 . ecological adverse           various       consequences irreversible social unexpected 6. water atmospheric chemical          р ollution environment radioactive industrial
3. biological massive soil                        depletion natural resources 7. safe natural thermal         environment social
4 . main depleted valuable                  species individual plant and animal 8. adverse possible disastrous        effect biological environmental

8. Read and study the set expression s:

to take into account - принимать во внимание, учитывать;

to be concerned (about) - беспокоится (о);

to turn /transform into – превращать/ преобразовать в;

to meet the needs - удовлетворять потребности;

to be fraught with smth. - чревато ч-л.

to be overconcerned with smth. - быть чрезмерно озабоченным ч-л.

9. Read and translate the text. Analyze the underlined –ing -forms.


    Nowadays human progress has reached the stage of invasive exploration of nuclear and solar energy, the World Ocean and outer space. However, it is evident now that often man is adversely affecting the environment and his activity is sometimes fraught with fatal consequences.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that man cannot and oughtn’t to use his tremendous power so carelessly, infinitely interfere in nature and radically try to change it, without taking into account possible negative effects of his economic activity. The more material wealth people create, the more they realize that they cannot but be concerned about how the biosphere is changing as a result of productive activity. Current ecological research shows that man, overconcerned with technicism can turn oases into deserts, threatening to destroy everything on the Earth, if he continues exerting mostly uncontrolled impact on the biosphere.

    In the 19th – 20th century material production did not require taking into account the consequences which man’s interference in nature may have in the distant future. How different is the situation today while such a consideration is becoming vitally important.

    Nevertheless, it is not only possible but necessary to transform the wild natural environment, which often has a disastrous effect on man (earthquakes, typhoons, hurricanes, floods, drought, magnetic and solar storms, as well as radioactivity, cosmic radiation, etc.) into a safe environment suitable for man and meeting his needs. This means that the ecological problem is not only the problem of environmental pollution and other adverse effects of man’s economic activity, but the problem of turning man’s uncontrolled impact on nature into a purposeful and planned interaction with the latter.

    Of course, the biosphere as a complex system also possesses enormous possibilities for self-regulation. Despite the fact that certain biological species, i.e., individual elements of the biosphere may become extinct as a result of various impacts thereon, it is still capable on the whole of existing and developing. The impact of industry on the biosphere could be compensated for by the inner resources of homeostatic self-organization. Today, however, it has reached such proportions that the biosphere’s inner resources can no longer compensate for society’s influence on the environment, both on individual species and on the life on Earth without help from the outside.

Many ecologists warn that the present situation is fraught with the extinction of animals and plants on a scale much greater than their both natural and man caused extinction for the preceding millions years. If this massive biological depletion of the Earth’s resources goes on uncontrolled for several years the world environment will change irreversibly. All these mean that at present there is pressing necessity to change the character of the interaction between man and nature.

10. Open the brackets choosing the correct grammar form of the verb:

1. Mankind (has reached/reached) the stage of intensive exploration of nuclear energy and for some decades (is working/has been working) to employ widely solar energy. 2. In the 19th century material production (did not require/hasn’t require) so much attention to the ecological consequences of industrial processes. 3. How different is the situation today while such a consideration (is becoming/has become) vitally important. 4. The biosphere (possess/possesses) great possibilities for self-regulation. 5. The impact of industry on the biosphere, however, (reached /has reached) such proportions that its inner resources can hardly (compensate/be compensated) for society’s influence on the environment. 6. If this massive biological depletion of the Earth’s resources goes on uncontrolled for several years the world environment (changes/will change) irreversibly.


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