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Define the parts of speech and translate them without a dictionary.



    To destroy – without destroying – destruction - destructive – destructively – undestroyable; (will) contribute – by contributing – contribution; (can) provide – by providing – provision; to weigh – weighing – its weight – weightless – weightlessness – weighty; to depend – depending – dependence - in dependence – dependent – independent – independently; (must) support – by supporting – their support - unsupported; realize – realization – realizable; simple – simply – simplicity – simplify – simplification; to vary – variation – variety – various – variable.

12. Memorize these commonly used set phrases:

as a whole (в целом); as well as (а также); except for (за исключением); in spite of (вместо); instead of (вместо, взамен); despite smth. (несмотря на), per capita (на душу населения); per year (в год); by comparison with/ in comparison to (по сравнению с).



Read the following passages and arrange them logically. Title the text.

    1. The situation in our modern industrial society differs greatly, since more and more people live in cities, far removed from nature, so man’s technology tends to seem more important than nature’s processes. With great amounts of power at their disposal men now exploit the earth resources on a large scale, often very destructively, and not just for their own use but for additional profit. People learnt to transform these resources both mechanically and chemically, so that they lose all resemblance to their original forms. To the users, therefore, they seem less and less like the gifts of nature, but more and more like men’s own products.

    2. Man’s mastery over the earth, however, makes him more and more its slave. It makes him not less dependent on earth but more so, as he draws from it increasing amounts and varieties of resources to meet the growing per capita needs of a growing population.

    3. Now, in the age of space exploration it would seem that man at last has thrown off his age–old dependence on the earth. However, the vehicles that carry men into space are made of the earth materials and powered by the earth fuels and that the spacemen survive only because their vehicles and their space suits provide them with a little piece of environment basically like that on the earth, except for the weightlessness.

    4. We call our planet "Mother Earth", as from its soil, water, rock, and air come all the materials that support our bodies and build our civilizations. Nevertheless, in recent times, realization of this dependence has tended to decrease.

    5. Thus, in spite of man’s growing power and his increasingly great contributions toward his own support, he still needs the earth materials and conditions. As Goethe said of an artist, so we can also say that mankind as a whole «has a twofold relation to nature; being at once both its master and slave».

    6. Primitive man’s small and simple demands on the Earth were made directly. He took from his own immediate locality the materials that would meet his own immediate needs, and he used them largely in their original form.



U nit III

Grammar: The Passive Voice Review

Reading: Social Roots of Ecological Problems

Writing:  “For and Against” Essay

Speaking: “For and Against” Discussion

Study the active vocabulary.

investment           focus n,v gradual      
cause n,v vulnerability        vulnerable
supply impede fertile
relation undermine favorable
capacity disrupt corresponding
labour counter arid
heredity arise supersonic

Read and translate the international words:

Ecosystem n, dominant a, catastrophic a, anthropogenic a, cycle n, accumulation n, aerosol n, planet n, stratosphere n, ultraviolet a, immune a, ionizing a, pathological a, defect n, genetically adv, chronic a, degeneration n, mutagenic a, insecticide n, pesticide n, herbicide n.

 







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