Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
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Learn the information in the Appendix I “How to Make a Review of an Article”. Read and translate some useful phrases given in the table.
12. Read a cut version of the review of the article (ex. 10, p 29) and put the sentences in a logical order.
a) Carbon dioxide is only a trace gas, however, the author emphasizes that CO2 is of critical importance for the life on the Earth as whole, as it provides the basis for all the plants. b) Then the mechanisms of “greenhouse” effect is described in details. c) So, the author predicts that amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will increase twice by 2020. d) In the beginning of the article the data concerning the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are given. e) He points out that this phenomenon is chiefly caused by human activities, namely industrial development.
f) Thus, steadily rising amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can be destabilizing factor in relation to climatological changes.
Read and translate the review without a dictionary. Find out the sentences which
a) express the general idea of the article;
b) point at the subject being analyzed;
c) give detalization;
c) present motivation to research this aspect;
d) summarize the results of this research.
Heavy Metals, Occurrence and Toxicity for Plants: a Review
P. C. Nagajyoti, K. D. Lee, T. V. M. Sreekanth
Metal contamination issues are becoming increasingly common in India and elsewhere, with many documented cases of metal toxicity in mining industries, foundries, smelters, coal-burning power plants and agriculture. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury are major environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Heavy metal accumulation in soils is of concern in agricultural production due to the adverse effects on food safety and marketability, crop growth due to phytotoxicity, and environmental health of soil organisms. The influence of plants and their metabolic activities affects the geological and biological redistribution of heavy metals through pollution of the air, water and soil. This article details the range of heavy metals, their occurrence and toxicity for plants and focuses mainly on zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury, chromium, lead, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, manganese and iron. Metal toxicity has high impact and relevance to plants and consequently it affects the ecosystem, where the plants form an integral component. Plants growing in metal-polluted sites exhibit altered metabolism, growth reduction, lower biomass production and metal accumulation. Various physiological and biochemical processes in plants are affected by metals. The contemporary investigations into toxicity and tolerance in metal-stressed plants are prompted by the growing metal pollution in the environment. A few metals, including copper, manganese, cobalt, zinc and chromium are, however, essential to plant metabolism in trace amounts. It is only when metals are present in bioavailable forms and at excessive levels, they have the potential to become toxic to plants.
/Environmental Chemistry Letters http://link.springer.com/journal/
U nit II
Reading: Fighting Atmospheric Pollution
Speaking: Air Pollution in the City/Region You Live
Study the active vocabulary.
Find the pairs of synonyms in the list and memorize them:
main, stockpile, estimate, pollutant, permissible, original, emit, waste, initial deteriorate, provide, primary, diverse, count, worsen, various, allowable, contaminant.
Give Russian equivalents to the following word-combinations:
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