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Ex. 10. Choose the correct variant to complete the sentence. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Safe operation of freight and passenger trains requires (a system of signaling; an attractive design; double-deck coaches). 2. A (semaphore; color light signal; flag) is considered to be the earliest type of railway signal. 3. The semaphore mechanism is equipped with (glasses; software; lenses). 4. Railway signals can be operated (manually, automatically, both manually and automatically). 5. Cab signals inform locomotive crews about (the weather; political news; the state of the track). 6. A protective device is to (apply the brakes automatically; increase the train speed; increase the volume of freight and passenger traffic). 7. The color-light signal is known to give (vowel and consonant sounds; day and night indications; computer images and pictures). 8. Fixed signals are considered to be (highway area; road signs; wayside signals). 9. The “proceed” position means that the light is (red; yellow; green). 10. Cab signals are identical with that shown by (wayside signals; alarm signals; emergency signals).  


Ex. 11. These are the answers to questions about text A. Write the questions.

1. A system of signaling.

2. Both by day and night.

3. Fixed signals.

4. Yes, they are. They are the earliest type of signals.

5. A horizontal arm.

6. When the semaphore is in the ‘stop’ position.

7. When the aspect changes to one more restrictive position.

8. On some railways.

9. It is called ATC.

10. Station employees.


Ex. 12. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:

1. Семафоры, как известно, раньше были самым распространенным сигналом. 2. Железнодорожные сигналы устанавливаются с определенной частотностью интервалов. 3. Известно, что световые сигналы – красный, желтый, зеленый – дают показания, как в дневное, так и в ночное время. 4. Сейчас, как известно, многие сигналы являются автоматическими. 5. Локомотивы оборудованы локомотивной сигнализацией, которая подает машинисту такие же сигналы, как и путевые. 6. Это устройство называется поездной авторегулировкой. 7. Раньше сигналы подавались вручную станционными служащими. 8. Предохранительное устройство, установленное на некоторых железных дорогах, дает возможность применять автоматические тормоза для остановки поезда.


Text B. Scan the text and write down all the unknown words. Read the text trying to guess the meaning of the unknown words. Retell the text in Russian.

George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world to use steam locomotives and is known as the "Father of Railways". His rail gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.

Stephenson designed his first locomotive in 1814, a travelling engine designed for hauling coal on the Killingworth wagonway, and named Blücher after the Prussian general Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. This locomotive could haul 30 tons of coal up a hill at 4 mph (6.4 km/h), and was the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion locomotive: its traction depended only on the contact between its flanged wheels and the rail. Altogether, Stephenson produced 16 locomotives at Killingworth.

The new engines were too heavy to be run on wooden rails, and iron rails were in their infancy, with cast iron being too brittle. Together with William Losh, Stephenson improved the design of cast iron rails to reduce breakage.

 Stephenson was hired to build an 8-mile (13-km) railway from Hetton colliery to Sunderland in 1820. It was the first railway using no animal power.


Lesson FIVE

Ex. 1. Practice the reading of the following words and phrases:

comply, cause, accident, eliminate, emergency, obstacle, identify, semi-automatic, continuously, freight, feature, apply, virtually, prescribed, research;

traffic capacity, trunk route, permissible speed, complete the circuit, consequent indication, approaching train, appropriate distance, guided radar, double-track lines.

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