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A wide road for cars to travel quickly between cities

A road that goes around a city so that people driving cars can avoid it

A hard path at the side of the road made for people to walk on

A natural path in the country


1 a road in a town

Road Main Street

Street back street

High street alley


road /rqud/ a hard level surface made for cars and other vehicles to travel on [n C]

Dixon stepped into the road and raised his hand, shouting, “Taxi. Taxi.” | Before crossing the road, stop, look, and listen. | across/over the road (=on the other side of the road) A window lives in the house just across the road. | along/down/up the road (=on the same road) I went to the girls’ school down the road. | main road (=a large road where there is likely to be a lot of traffic) They turned left at the gas station, into the busy main road. | busy road (=a road where there is a lot of traffic) We’re coming up to a busy road and it’s dangerous, so hold my hand.

street /stri: t/ a road with houses or shops, and usually a path on both sides, in the middle of a town or in a part of a town where there are a lot of houses, shops etc [n C]

There were stores on both sides of the street. | Pablo loved wandering through the streets and cafes of Barcelona. | side street (=a small quiet street away from any main roads) If the car park’s full you might find a space in one of the side streets. | live in a street (British) / on a street (American) She had lived in the same street in London all her life.

high street /'hai stri: t/ a British expression meaning the main shopping street in the middle of a town [n C]

The High Street was crowded with Saturday morning shoppers. | Our bank has a branch in every high street.


Main Street /'mein stri: t/ an American expression meaning the main street in the middle of a town or city where there are a lot of shops, offices, hotels etc [n C]

Every Fourth of July there is a parade down Main Street. | Let’s have lunch at the diner on Main Street.


back street /'bæ k stri: t/ a small street, away from the centre of a town, where there are no large shops or important buildings [n C]

They went exploring the dark, narrow back streets of the old part of town. | It took us almost an hour to find her house in a narrow little back street.


alley /'æ li/ a very narrow street or part between buildings in a town [n C]

A narrow alley led up between the houses to the main street. | Women in white aprons gossiped in the alley between the apartment blocks.


2 a road outside a town

road /rqud/ [n C]


We drove into the countryside, along straight roads lined with trees. | The hospital was right on Route 66, the main road across the United States. | There are many interesting things to see on the road to Cairo.


3 a small road in the country



Dirt road

lane /lein/ a narrow road connecting villages or farms, sometimes with a few houses beside it [n C]

We rode our bikes along the little country lanes. | It’s a great day for the country show, but all those cars will jam the narrow lanes.


track /træ k/ a narrow road leading to a farm or field, usually formed by the pressure of farm or field, usually formed by the pressure of farm vehicles on the ground [n C]

The track was only wide enough for one car. | The road leading to the farm was little more than a rough track.


dirt road /'dE: t rqud/ a narrow road with a dirt or soil surface [n C]

A dirt road ran from the highway past the dump and into some trees. | Rain fell continuously and turned the winding dirt road into a river of slippery mud.

4 a wide road for cars to travel quickly between cities





motorway /'mqutqwei/ a British word meaning a wide fast road that connects big cities and towns [n C]

The speed limit on British motorways is 70 miles an hour. | It’s motorway nearly all the way – you should get there in a couple of hours. | the M1/M62 etc motorway The M1 motorway links London with the north of England.


highway /'haiwei/ an American word meaning a wide fast road that connects big cities and towns [n C]

I was on the four-lane highway now, finally free of the downtown traffic. | highway 61/70 etc There’s a police mobile phone unit somewhere on highway 61.

freeway/expressway /'fri: wei, ik'spreswei/ an American word meaning a wide, fast road that takes traffic into and out of a big ity and is often busy [n C]

Marcia drove onto the freeway, joining the Saturday traffic leaving the city. | They got into the expressway to Manhattan. | We need to build more freeways to speed up traffic around Los Angeles.

5 a road that goes around a city so that people driving cars can avoid it


Ring road


by-pass /'bai pa: s || -pæ s/ [n C]

It will be much quicker if we take the by-pass rather than drive through the middle of town. | The village has become much quieter, since the creation of the by-pass.


ring road /'riη rqud/ a British word meaning a circular road around the edge of a large town, with roads leading from it into the centre of the town [n C]

The ring road goes right around London..

6 a hard path at the side of the road made for people to walk on



sidewalk /'saidwO: k/ a word used especcially in American English meaning a path at the side of a road made for people to walk on [ n C]

We agreed to meet on the sidewalk, in front of the UN building. | A weed grew from every crack in the sidewalk.

pavement /'peivmqnt/ a British word meaning a path at the side of a road made for people to walk on [ n C]

Christopher wandered along the pavement, looking into shop windows. | What annoys me is that everyone parks on the pavement in front of our house.

7 a natural path in the country




path /pa: θ || pæ θ / [n C]

She went through the gate and followed the path across the fields. | There used to be a path down to the stream but it’s all overgrown now. | A narrow grassy path led down the hill to the town.

tootpath /futpa: θ || -pæ θ / a British word meaning a narrow public path for people to walk on through farms, parks, hills etc [n C]

It was a pleasant walk along the public footpath beside the river. | Mining companies are blasting away the sides of beautiful valleys and destroying footpaths and woodland.

trall /treil/ a very rough path, especially in a forest or in the mountains, for people and animals to walk on [n C]

We followed a narrow trail which led into the forest.


[Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.

Scotland, New Lanark: Brockhampton

Press. – 1995. – p. 114]



¨ a horse-laugh a coarse, unmeaning laugh. One night, Mr. Yates being funnier than usual, if possible, a single horse-laugh suddenly exploded among the fiddles.

¨ to flog a dead horse to agitate for the revival of a creed that is extinct.

Arguing against Tom Paine is like flogging a dead horse.

¨ horse-play rough amusement. To be sure it was a boy, not a man, and child’s-play is sometimes preferred by the theatre-going world even to horse-play.

¨ to take horse to journey on horse-back. He took horse to the Lake of Constance, which is formed by the entry of the Rhine.

¨ one-horse mean; petty; in a small way. An Americanism. Oh, well, Phode Island is a one-horse state, where everybody pays taxes and goes to church.

¨ on one’s high horse puffed-up; arrogant. Well, the colonel does seem to be on his high horse, ma’am.


Единицы языка, которые приобрели:

- символическое значение,

- эталонное значение,

- образно-метафорическое значение в культуре, зафиксированное в:











1) как культура участвует в образовании языковых концептов?

К какой части значения языкового знака прикрепляются «культурные смыслы»?

Осознаются ли эти смыслы говорящим и слушающим и как они влияют на речевые стратегии?

4) существует ли в реальности культурно-языковая компетенция носителя языка, на основании которой воплощаются в текстах и распознаются носителями языка культурные смыслы. В качестве рабочего определения культурно-языковой компетенции принимаем следующее: это естественное владение языковой личностью процессами речепорождения и речевого приятия и, что особенно важно, владение установками культуры; для доказательства этого нужны новые технологии лингвокультурологического анализа языковых единиц?



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