Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


Change of word—meaning: the causes, nature and results.




1. Антрушина, Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: учебник для студ. пед. ин-тов по спец. № 2103 "Иностр. яз." / Г.Б. Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева, Н.Н. Морозова; под ред. Г.Б. Антрушиной. — М.: Высш. школа, 1985.

2. Воробей, А.Н. Глоссарий лингвистических терминов / А.Н. Воробей, Е.Г. Карапетова. — Барановичи: УО "БарГУ", 2004. — 108 с.

3. Дубенец, Э.М. Современный английский язык. Лексикология: пособие для студ. гуманит. вузов / Э.М. Дубенец. — М. / СПб.: ГЛОССА / КАРО, 2004. — С. 74—82, 123—127.

4. Лексикология английского языка: учебник для ин-тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. / Р.З. Гинзбург [и др.]; под общ. ред. Р.З. Гинзбург. — 2-е изд., испр. и доп. — М.: Высш. школа, 1979. — С. 28—33.

5. Лещева, Л.М. Слова в английском языке. Курс лексикологии современного английского языка: учебник для студ. фак-в и отдел. английского языка (на англ. яз.) / Л.М. Лещева. — Минск: Академия управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь, 2001. — С. 44—49.

Key terms:semantics, referent, functional meaning, grammatical meaning, lexical meaning, denotational meaning, connotational meaning, polysemanticword, polysemy, lexical-semantic variants, basic meaning, peripheral meaning, primary meaning, secondary meaning, radiation, concatenation, lexical context, grammatical context, thematic context, ellipsis, differentiation of synonyms, linguistic analogy, metaphor, metonymy, restriction, extension, ameliorative development of meaning, pejorative development of meaning.

Compulsory tasks and exercises:

1. Provide answers to the following questions:

1. What is word meaning?

2. What are the main postulates of the referential approach to meaning?

3. What are the main postulates of the functional approach to meaning?

4. What is the difference between the lexical, grammatical and part-of-speech meaning of the word?

5. What types of semantic components can be distin­guished within the meaning of a word?

6. What component of meaning is recurrent in the given words: actors, boys, chairs, dreamers, girls, pens, schools, students, tables, trees, tulips?

7. How is the grammatical meaning of a word expressed?

8. What are the causes of polysemy?

9. What role does context play in determining the meaning of words?

10. What are the causes of semantic change?

Comment on the following L. Bloomfield’s quotation. What phenomenon is described?

“Very many linguistic forms are used for more than one typical situation. In English, we speak of the head of an army, of a procession, of household or of a river and a head of cabbage; of the mouth of a bottle, cannon, or river; of the eye of a needle and of hooks and eyes of a dress; of the teeth of a saw; of the tongue of a shoe or of a wagon; of the neck of a bottle and the neck of the woods; of the arms, legs and back of a chair; of the foot of the mountain; of the hearts of celery. A man can be a fox, an ass, or a dirty dog; a woman a peach, lemon, cat or goose; people are sharp and keen or dull, or else bright or foggy as to their wit; warm or cold in temperament; crooked or straight in conduct; a person may be up in the air, at sea, off the handle, off his base, or even beside himself, without actually moving from the spot.”

3. Prove that the meanings in the following polysemantic words are related(use the dictionaries.).

Hand, head, heavy, table.

4. State the denotational and connotational components of lexical meaning in the following pairs of words:

to conceal — to disguise

to choose — to select

to draw — to paint

money — cash

photograph — picture

odd — queer

Within the following words find different examples of meaning development (extension, restriction, degradation, elevation).

To starve, duke, boor, caitiff, room, spinster, deer, hound, knight, minister, clown, silly, place, meat, lady, knave, villain, queen, fowl, wife.

Find cases of metaphor and metonymy.

Black deeds, to devour a story, the eye of a needle, cane, the mouth of a river, Bordeaux, crown, the foot of the mountain, sandwich, the head of a pin, boycott, campaign, sable, the arm of the chair, cold voice, loud colors, the head of the pin, sweet temper, black deeds, to burn with anger, the hands of a clock, every head of cattle, to have a good head for figures.


HOMONYMY

 

Topics for discussion:

1. Homonyms. Classifications of homonyms.

1. Антрушина, Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: учебник для студ. пед. ин-тов по спец. № 2103 "Иностр. яз." / Г.Б. Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева, Н.Н. Морозова; под ред. Г.Б. Антрушиной. — М.: Высш. школа, 1985. — С. 128—129; 134—135.

2. Воробей, А.Н. Глоссарий лингвистических терминов / А.Н. Воробей, Е.Г. Карапетова. — Барановичи: УО "БарГУ", 2004. — 108 с.

3. Дубенец, Э.М. Современный английский язык. Лексикология: пособие для студ. гуманит. вузов / Э.М. Дубенец. — М. / СПб.: ГЛОССА / КАРО, 2004. — С. 127—131.

4. Лексикология английского языка: учебник для ин-тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. / Р.З. Гинзбург [и др.]; под общ. ред. Р.З. Гинзбург. — 2-е изд., испр. и доп. — М.: Высш. школа, 1979. — С. 39—42.

5. Лещева, Л.М. Слова в английском языке. Курс лексикологии современного английского языка: учебник для студ. фак-в и отдел. английского языка (на англ. яз.) / Л.М. Лещева. — Минск: Академия управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь, 2001. — С. 58.

Sources of homonyms.

1. Антрушина, Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: учебник для студ. пед. ин-тов по спец. № 2103 "Иностр. яз." / Г.Б. Антрушина, О.В. Афанасьева, Н.Н. Морозова; под ред. Г.Б. Антрушиной. — М.: Высш. школа, 1985. — С. 130—134.

2. Лексикология английского языка: учебник для ин-тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. / Р.З. Гинзбург [и др.]; под общ. ред. Р.З. Гинзбург. — 2-е изд., испр. и доп. — М.: Высш. школа, 1979. — С. 42—43.



3. Лещева, Л.М. Слова в английском языке. Курс лексикологии современного английского языка: учебник для студ. фак-в и отдел. английского языка (на англ. яз.) / Л.М. Лещева. — Минск: Академия управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь, 2001. — С. 56—57.

3. Polysemy and homonymy: etymological, semantic, distribution and spelling criteria.

1. Лексикология английского языка: учебник для ин-тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. / Р.З. Гинзбург [и др.]; под общ. ред. Р.З. Гинзбург. — 2-е изд., испр. и доп. — М.: Высш. школа, 1979. — С. 43—45.

2. Лещева, Л.М. Слова в английском языке. Курс лексикологии современного английского языка: учебник для студ. фак-в и отдел. английского языка (на англ. яз.) / Л.М. Лещева. — Минск: Академия управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь, 2001. — С. 58—59.

Key terms: homonyms, perfect homonyms, homographs, homophones, polysemantic words.

Compulsory tasks and exercises:

1. Consider your answers to the following questions:

1. Which words do we call homonyms?

2. Why can't homonyms be regarded as expressive means of the language?

3. What are the main sources of homonymy in English? Give examples.

4. In what respect does split polysemy stand apart from other sources of homonyms?

5. What accounts for the abundance of homonymous words and word-forms in English?

6. Does homonymy exist only among words and word-forms? Can we speak about homonymy of other lexical units? Give examples.

7. What types are homonyms classified into by the type of meaning?

8. What types are homonyms classified into if their sound-form / graphic form is taken into account?

9. What homonyms have related meanings?

10. What is essential difference between homonymy and polysemy?

11. What are the criteria for differentiation between polysemy and homonymy?

12. Why is a semantic criterion not always reliable in differentiating between polysemy and homonymy?

13. Prove that the language units board ("a long and thin piece of timber") and boards ("daily meals") are two different words (homonyms) and not two different meanings of one and the same word. Give some other similar examples.

2. Classify the following homonyms into lexical, lexico-grammatical and grammatical homonyms:

1. Ball 1 (n) — ball 2 (n).

2. Bank 1 (n) — bank 2 (n).

3. Bear (n) — bear (v).

4. Draw (n) — draw (v).

5. Found (v) — found (past of "to find").

6. Ground (n) — ground (past of "to grind").

7. Kind (adj) — kind (n).

8. Left (adj) — left (past of "to leave").

9. Mine (n) — mine (of “my”).

10. Own (adj) — own (v).

11. Page 1 (n) — page 3 (n).

12. Use (n) — use (v).

3. a) Find homonyms proper for the following words; give their Russian equivalents.

1. band — a company of musicians;

2. seal — a warm-blooded, fish-eating sea-animal, found chiefly in cold regions;

3. ear — the grain-bearing spike of a cereal plant, as in corn;

4. cut — the result of cutting;

5. to bore — to make a long round hole, esp. with a pointed tool that is turned round;

6. corn — a hard, horny thickening of the skin, esp. on the foot;

7. fall — the act of falling, dropping or coming down;

8. to hail — to greet, salute, shout an expression of welcome;

9. ray — any of several cartilaginous fishes, as the stingray, skate, etc.;

10. draw — something that attracts attention.

b) Find homophones for the following words, translate them into Russian or explain their meanings in English.


Heir

dye

cent

tale

sea

flower

week

peace

sun

meat

steel

knight

idle

sum

coarse

principal

write

key

fair

plain

sight

reign

hare

weather


c) Find homographs for the following words and transcribe both of them.

1. to bow — to bend the head or body;

2. wind — air in motion;

3. to tear — to pull apart by force;

4. to desert — to go away from a person or place;

5. row — a number of persons or things in a line.





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