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Consult the dictionary for giving other words as examples with the prefixes given in the list.

8. Find cases of conversion in the following sentences.

1. The clerk was eyeing him expectantly.

2. Under the cover of that protective din he was able to toy with a steaming dish which his waiter had brought.

3. An aggressive man battled his way to Stout's side.

4. Just a few yards from the front door of the bar there was an elderly woman comfortably seated on a chair, holding a hose linked to a tap and watering the pavement.

5. — What are you doing here? — I'm tidying your room.

6. My seat was in the middle of a row. I could not leave without inconveniencing a great many people, so I remained.

7. How on earth do you remember to milk the cows and give pigs their dinner?

8. In a few minutes Papa stalked off, correctly booted and well muffled.

9. "Then it's practically impossible to steal any diamonds?" asked Mrs. Blair with as keen an air of disappointment as though she had been journeying there for the express purpose.

10. Ten minutes later I was speeding along in the direction of Cape Town.

11. Restaurants in all large cities have their ups and downs.

12. The upshot seemed to be that I was left to face life with the sum of £87 17s 4d.

13. "A man could be very happy in a house like this if he didn't have to poison his days with work," said Jimmy.

14. I often heard that fellows after some great shock or loss have a habit, after they've been on the floor for a while wondering what hit them, of picking themselves up and piecing themselves together.

9. Explain the semantic correlations within the following pairs of words.

shelter — to shelter

park — to park

groom — to groom

elbow — to elbow

breakfast — to breakfast

pin — to pin

trap — to trap

fish — to fish

head — to head

nurse — to nurse

10. Translate the sentences into Russian, paying attention to the verbs with postpositions.

1. Listen to me and don't cut in.

2.These political necessities sometimes turn out to be political mistakes.

3. He put him down as one of the hundred refugees.

4. "Well," he said, "they brought me up to do nothing."

5. Do you expect stupid people to love you for showing them up?

6. I mustn't keep you up. It's — it's very good of you letting me come and talk to you.

7. My first reaction, naturally, was to keep my private affairs to myself, but I see that it would be better to speak out.

8. She was left last night, as usual, to turn out the lights — and all that.

9. The young man, snatching off his hat, passed on.

10. I am fed up with his laziness and carelessness.

11. I suppose she wouldn't put up with your nonsense.

12. I can’t figure out what you're getting at.

13. He struck his opponent a heavy blow and knocked him down.

14. Old Smith has just married off his seventh daughter.

15. Speak up just a trifle louder.

11. Identify the neutral compounds in the word combinations given below and write them out in 3 columns:

A. Simple neutral compounds.

B. Neutral derived compounds.

С. Neutral contracted compounds.

an air-conditioned hall

a glass-walled room

to fight against H-bomb

a loud revolver-shot

a high-pitched voice

a heavy topcoat

a car's windshield

a snow-white handkerchief

big A. A. guns

a radio-equipped car

thousands of gold-seekers

a big hunting-knife

a lightish-coloured man

to howl long and wolflike

to go into frantic U-turns

to fix M-Day.

12. Translate the words into English. Compare the structure of the English and Russian words.

1. Старик, рыбак, колокольчик (цветок), свекровь, тесть, зять, невеста, белить.

2. Космодром, космонавт, ракетодром, ракетоноситель.

3. Железная дорога, космический корабль, незабудка, глухонемой, черноволосый, вечнозеленый, голубоглазый.

4. Самоанализ, самовнушение, самообразование, самоучитель, самостоятельный.

13. Read and translate the word-combinations. Pay attention to the stress.

1. To conduct negotiations; the conduct of the government.

2. To record a song; the record of events.

3. To frequent a place; frequent showers.

4. To insult everybody; an insult to everybody.

5. To increase one's vocabulary; to be concerned about increase in crime.

6. To subject somebody to criticism; to be a British subject.

7. To escort the ship; to provide an escort for the ship.

8. To put the rebels in prison; to rebel against a reactionary regime.

9. To present the matter in a false fight; a nice present.

10. To export uranium ore; to increase oil export.

14. Translate the the following reduplicative compounds. Comment on their formation.

Tit for tat, big wig, hodge-podge, helter-skelter, jingle-jangle, down-town, pot-shot, slop-shop, titbit, walkie-talkie, ragtag, topsy-turvy, roll-call, hob-nob, tol-lol, flim-flam, trim-tram, ping-pong, dingle-dangle, knick-knack, hubble-bubble, Humpty-Dumpty, gee-gee, dilly-dally, wishy-washy, flip-flop, hanky-panky, hurly-burly.

15. Classify the neologisms given below according to the word-formation types (affixation, conversion, compounding, clipping, blending, acronymy, back-formation).








box (v)


baby-sit (v)



cowboy (v)



















teen (n)








16. Define the particular type of word-building process by which the following words were formed.

a mike

to babysit

to buzz





to book



to murmur

a pub

to dilly-dally



a make


to bang





to blood-transfuse

a go

to quack


to thunder



a find SALT (strategic armament limitation talks)

a greenhorn (a raw, simple, inexperienced person, easily fooled)

a dress coat (a black, long-tailed coat worn by men for formal evening occasions

D-region (the lowest region of the ionosphere extending from 60 to 8О km)

Additional exercises:

1. Read the following texts and answer the questions:

1. What are the typical semantic relations between the components of a compound?

2. What are the factors most conducive to the productivity of compound words?

3. What is the peculiar feature of preparticles (e.g. over, under) which function as first elements of compounds, e.g. overrate, underestimate?

4. What type of compound words is productive?

5. What does H. Marchand understand by derivation by a zero-morpheme? What reasons does he give for rejecting the terms "conversion" and "functional change"?

6. What is understood by the term "back-derivation"?

7. What types of back-derivation are distinguished by H. Marchand? How are these types connected with derivation by zero-morpheme?

8. What accounts for the limited productivity of back-derivation?

9. How does H. Marchand define "clipping"?

10. What kinds of clippings are distinguished by H. Marchand?

11. What are the main semantic, stylistic and structural peculiarities of clippings?

12. What is the difference between the clipping and the source word?

13. Under what circumstances can clipping be regarded as belonging to word-formation?

14. What is the peculiarity of blending as a means of word-formation?

15. What makes it possible to consider blending irrelevant to word-formation?

16. What structural type of words does blending result in?

Hans Marchand

The categories and types of present-day English word-formation


The criterion of a compound

What is the criterion of a compound? Many scholars have claimed that a compound is determined by the underlying concept, others have advocated stress, some even seek the solution of the problem in spelling. [...] H. Koziol holds that the criterion of a compound is a psychological unity of a combination, adding that there "seems to be" a difference of intonation between a compound and a syntactic group which it is, however, difficult to describe. […]

Stress also has been advocated as a criterion. "Wherever we hear lesser or least stress upon a word which would always show high stress in a phrase, we describe it as a compound member: ice-cream 'ajs-'krıjm is a compound, but ice cream 'ajs'krıjm is a phrase, although there is no denotative difference of meaning." [...] ...Bally defines the compound as a syntagma expressive of a single idea. Jespersen also introduces the criterion of concept and rejects Bloomfield's criterion of stress. [...] As for the criterion of stress, we shall see that it holds for certain types only.

That spelling is no help in solving the problem I will add for the sake of completeness only. A perusal of the book Compounding in the English Language, which is a painstaking investigation into the spelling variants of dictionaries and newspapers, shows the complete lack of uniformity. The fact that a compound-member cannot serve as a constituent in a syntactic construction is no criterion of a compound. Bloomfield argues that "the word black in the phrase black birds can be modified by very (very black birds),but not so the compound-member black in black-birds". This argument holds for phrases as well. We could not modify the first elements of black market, Black Sea by very, yet the phrases are not compounds, as they do not enter the stress type of blackbird. [...]This is correct, but neither can we split up the group black market which is a double stressed syntactic group with a specified meaning.

For a combination to be a compound there is one condition to be fulfilled: the compound must be morphologically isolated from a parallel syntactic group. [...] Blackbird has the morpho-phonemic stress pattern of a compound, black market has not, despite its phrasal meaning; the latter therefore is a syntactic group, morphologically speaking. Stress isa criterion here. The same distinction keeps apart the types stronghold and long wait, the types sharpshooter and good rider, the types bull's-eye and razor's edge, the types writing-table and folding door.

On the other hand, there are many combinations with double stress which are undoubtedly compounds. Most combinations with participles as second-words belong here: easy-going, high-born, man-made. We have already pointed out their synthetic character. Being determined by first-words which syntactically could not be their modifiers, they must be considered compounds. The type grass-green has two heavy stresses, but again the criterion is that an adjective cannot syntactically be modified by a preceding substantive (the corresponding syntactic construction would be green as grass). The adjectival type icy-cold is isolated in that syntactically the modifier of an adjective can only be an adverb. The corresponding coordinative type German-Russian (war) is likewise morphologically distinct. The corresponding syntactic construction would be typified by long, grey (beard), with a pause between long and grey, whereas the combination German-Russian is marked by the absence of such a pause.

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