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In the following examples the italicized words are formed from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate these derivatives into Russian and explain the difference in meaning.
1. a) Sallie is the most amusing person in the world — and Julia Pendleton the least so. b) Ann was wary, but amused.
2. a) He had a charming smile, almost womanish in sweetness. b) I have kept up with you through Miss Pittypat but she gave me no intimation that you had developed womanly sweetness.
3. — I have been having a delightful and entertaining conversation with my old chum, Lord Wisbeach. — Say, are you doing anything? — Nothing in particular. — Come and have a yarn. There's a place. I know just round be here. — Delighted.
4. a) Sallie thinks everything is funny — even flunking — and Julia is bored at everything. She never makes the slightest effort to be pleasant. b) — Why are you going to America? — To make my fortune, I hope. — How pleased your father will be if you do.
5. a) Long before he reached the brownstone house ... the first fine careless rapture of his mad outbreak had passed from Jerry Mitchell, leaving nervous apprehension in its place. b) If your nephew has really succeeded in his experiments you should be awfully careful.
6. a) The trouble with college is that you are expected to know such a lot of things you've never learned. It's very confusing at times. b) That platform was a confused mass of travellers, porters, baggage, trucks, boys with magazines, friends, relatives.
7. a) At last I decided that even this rather mannish efficient woman could do with a little help. b) He was only a boy not a man yet, but he spoke in a manly way.
8. a) The boy's respectful manner changed noticeably. b) It may be a respectable occupation, but it sounds rather criminal to me.
9. a) "Who is leading in the pennant race?" said this strange butler in a feverish whisper. b) It was an idea peculiarly suited to her temperament, an idea that she might have suggested herself if she had thought of it ... this idea of his fevered imagination.
10. Dear Daddy-Long-Legs. You only wanted to hear from me once a month, didn't you? And I've been peppering you with letters every few days! But I've been so excited about all these new adventures that I must talk to somebody ... Speaking of classics, have you ever read Hamlet? If you haven't, do it right off. It's perfectly exciting. I've been hearing about Shakespeare all my life but I had no idea he really wrote so well. I always suspected him of going largely on his reputation. (J. Webster)
Name the English affixes of negation, resemblance, state and quality. Find the correlative affixes in Byelorussian, Russian (use supplementary material).
9. Form nouns from the verbs and adjectives according to the models:
a) to breathe — breath.
To live, to grieve, to advise, to use, to excuse, to bathe, to believe, to prove, to practise, to relieve;
b) strong — strength.
Wide, deep, long, broad.
Give nouns corresponding to the verbs and adjectives. Transcribe these words and translate them into Russian.
To excuse, to use, to advise, to breathe, to clothe, to house, broad, wide, deep, long, to grieve, to live, to calve, strong, to bathe, to devise, to believe, to relieve, to shelve, to practise, worthy.
Which of the two words in the following pairs is made by conversion? Deduce the meanings and use them in constructing sentences of your own.
star, n. — to star, v.
age, n. — to age, v.
picture, v. — to picture, v.
touch, п. — totouch, v.
colour, n. — to colour, v.
make, n. — to make, v.
blush, n. — to blush, v.
finger, v. — to finger, v.
key, n. — to key, v.
empty, adj. — to empty, v.
fool, n. — to fool, v.
poor, adj. — the poor, n.
breakfast, n. — to breakfast, v.
pale, adj. — to pale, v.
house, n. — to house, v.
dry, adj. — to dry, v.
monkey, n. — to monkey, v.
nurse, n. — to nurse, v.
fork, n. — to fork, v.
dress, n. — to dress, v.
slice, n. — to slice, v.
floor, п. — to floor, v.
Compare the sentences. Translate them into Russian.
1. We had a break-down. —Our car broke down.
2. The story was a take-in. —The story took us all in.
3. Spelling is his most serious hold-back. — Spelling holds him back.
4. The take-off of the plane was in time. — The plane took off in time.
5. The team has won 5 games, against 3 setbacks. — The bad weather will set back our building plans by 3 weeks.
6. The make-up of his character can't be changed at his age. — Too much make-up looks unnatural. — It's time you made up your quarrel.
7. She tried to hide her feelings, but the tears in her eyes were a (dead) giveaway. — His way of speaking English gave him away.
13. Give all the meanings you know of the following phrasal verbs. Use them in sentences of your own.
Blow up, brush up, build up, carry away, draw on, drink in, drop into, fall away, fall into, fall off, give away, go about, go by, go down, go off, go out, go through, lay up, pass off, split up, stand out, tear down, wash up.
One of the italicized words in the following examples was made from the other by conversion. What semantic correlations exist between them?
1. a) "You've got a funny nose,'' he added. b) He began to nose about. He pulled out drawer after drawer, pottering round like an old bloodhound.
2. a) I'd seen so many cases of fellows who had become perfect slaves of their valets. b) I supposed that while he had been valeting old Worplesdon Florence must have trodden on his toes in some way.
3. a) It so happened that the night before I had been present at a rather cheery little supper. b) So the next night I took him along to supper with me.
4. a) Buck seized Thorton's hand in his teeth. b) The desk clerk handed me the key.
5. a) A small hairy object sprang from a basket and stood yapping in the middle of the room. b) There are advantages, you see, about rooming with Julia.
6. a) "I'm engaged for lunch, but I've plenty of time." b) There was a time when he and I had been lads about town together, lunching and dining together practically every day.
7. a) Mr. Bitten rang up on the telephone while you were in your bath. b) I found Muriel singer there, sitting by herself at a table near the door. Corky, I took it, was out telephoning.
8. Use small nails and nail the picture on the wall.
9. a) I could just see that he was waving a letter or something equally foul in my face. b) When the bell stopped, Crane turned around and faced the students seated in rows before him.
10. a) Lizzie is a good cook. b) She cooks the meals in Mr. Priestley's house.
11. a) The wolf was suspicious and afraid. b) Fortunately, however, the second course consisted of a chicken fricassee of such outstanding excellence that the old, boy, after wolfing a plateful, handed up his dinner-pail for a second instalment and became almost genial.
12. Use the big hammer for those nails and hammer them in well.
13. a) "Put a ribbon round your hair and be Alice-in-Wonderland," said Maxim. "You look like it now with your finger in your mouth." b) The coach fingered the papers on his desk and squinted through his bifocals.
14. a) The room was airy but small. There were however, a few vacant spots, and in these had been placed a washstand, a chest of drawers and a midget rocker-chair. b) "Well, when I got to New York it looked a decent sort of place to me ..."
15. a) These men wanted dogs, and the dogs they wanted were heavy dogs, with strong muscles ... and furry coats to protect them from the frost. b) "Jeeves,'' I said, "I have begun to feel absolutely haunted. This woman dogs me."
Read the following joke; explain the type of word-building in the italicized words.
A successful old lawyer tells the following story about the beginning of his professional life:
"I had just installed myself in my office, had put in a phone, when, through the glass of my door I saw a shadow. It was doubtless my first client to see me. Picture me, then, grabbing the nice, shiny receiver of my new phone and plunging into an imaginary conversation. It ran something like this:
"Yes, Mr. S!'I was saying as the stranger entered the office. 'I'll attend to that corporation matter for you. Mr. J. had me on the phone this morning and wanted me to settle a damage suit, but I had to put him off, as I was too busy with other cases. But I'll manage to sandwich your case in between the others somehow. Yes. Yes. All right. Goodbye."
Being sure, then, that I had duly impressed my prospective client, I hung up the receiver and turned to him.
"Excuse me, sir,' the man said, 'but I'm from the telephone company. I've come to connect your instrument."
16. Find compounds in the following jokes and extracts and write them out in three columns:
A. Neutral compounds.
B. Morphological compounds.
C. Syntactic compounds.
1. Pat and Jack were in London for the first time. During a tour of the shops in the West End they came to an expensive-looking barber's. "Razors!" exclaimed Pat. "You want one, don't you? There's a beauty there for twenty-five bob, and there's another for thirty bob. Which would you sooner have?" "A beard," said Jack, walking off.
2. The children were in the midst of a free-for-all. "Richard, who started this?" asked the father as he came into the room. "Well, it all started when David hit me back."
3. That night, as they cold-suppered together, Barmy cleared his throat and looked across at Pongo with a sad sweet smile. "I mean to say, it's no good worrying and trying to look ahead and plan and scheme and weigh your every action, because you never can tell when doing such-and-such — won't make so-and-so happen — while, on the other hand, if you do so-and-so it may just as easily lead to such-and-such."
4. When Conan Doyle arrived in Boston, he was at once recognized by the cabman whose cab he engaged. When he was about to pay his fare, the cabman said:
"If you please, sir, I should prefer a ticket to your lecture."
Conan Doyle laughed. "Tell me," he said, "how you knew who I was and I'll give you tickets for your whole family."
"Thank you, sir," was the answer "On the side of your travelling-bag is your name."
5. An old tramp sailed up the back door of a little English tavern called "The George and Dragon" and beckoned to the landlady.
"I've had nothing to eat for three days," he said. "Would you spare an old man for a bite of dinner?"
"I should say not, you good-for-nothing loafer," said the landlady and slammed the door in his face.
The tramp's face reappeared at the kitchen window.
"I was just wondering if I could have a word or two with George."
6. "Where are you living, Grumpy?"
"In the Park. The fresh-air treatment is all the thing nowadays."
7. Arriving home one evening a man found the house locked up. After trying to get in at the various windows on the first floor he finally climbed upon the shed roof and with much difficulty entered through a second-story window. On the dining-room table he found a note from his absent-minded wife: "I have gone out. You'll find the key under the door mat."
8. One balmy, blue-and-white morning the old woman stood in her long, tidy garden and looked up at her small neat cottage. The thatch on its tip-tilted roof was new and its well-fitting doors had been painted blue. Its newly-hung curtains were gay… Bird-early next morning Mother Farthing went into the dew-drenched garden. With billhook and fork she soon set to work clearing a path to the apple tree.
(From Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator by R. Dahl)
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