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СРСП9 Strong and weak form of words
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of his or her mouth, and say tore ([tʰ ɔ ɹ ]) and then store ([stɔ ɹ ]). One should either feel a puff of air or see a flicker of the candle flame with tore that one does not get with store. In most dialects of English, the t is aspirated in tore and unaspirated in store. The diacritic for aspiration in the International Phonetic Alphabet is a superscript " h", [ʰ ]. Voiceless consonants are produced with the vocal cords open and voiced consonants are produced when the vocal folds are fractionally closed. Voiceless aspiration occurs when the vocal cords remain open after a consonant is released. An easy way to measure this is by noting the consonant's voice onset time, as the voicing of a following vowel cannot begin until the vocal cords close.
English voiceless stop consonants are aspirated for most native speakers when they are word-initial or begin a stressed syllable, as in pen, ten, Ken. They are unaspirated for almost all speakers when immediately following word-initial s, as in spun, stun, skunk. After s elsewhere in a word they are normally unaspirated as well, except when the cluster is heteromorphemic and the stop belongs to an unbound morpheme; compare dis[t]end vs. dis[tʰ ]aste. Word-final voiceless stops optionally aspirate. Aspirated consonants are not always followed by vowels or other voiced sounds; indeed, in Eastern Armenian, aspiration is contrastive even at the ends of words.
There are degrees of aspiration. Armenian and Cantonese have aspiration that lasts about as long as English aspirated stops, as well as unaspirated stops like Spanish. Korean has lightly aspirated stops that fall between the Armenian and Cantonese unaspirated and aspirated stops, as well as strongly aspirated stops whose aspiration lasts longer than that of Armenian or Cantonese. (See voice onset time.) An old IPA symbol for light aspiration was [ ʻ ] (that is, like a rotated ejective symbol), but this is no longer commonly used. There is no specific symbol for strong aspiration, but [ʰ ] can be iconically doubled for, say, Korean *[kʻ ] vs. *[kʰ ʰ ]. Note however that Korean is nearly universally transcribed as [k] vs. [kʰ ], with the details of voice onset time given numerically. Aspiration also varies with place of articulation. Spanish /p t k/, for example, have voice onset times (VOTs) of about 5, 10, and 30 milliseconds, whereas English /p t k/ have VOTs of about 60, 70, and 80 ms. Korean has been measured at 20, 25, and 50 ms for /p t k/ and 90, 95, and 125 for /pʰ tʰ kʰ /.
Usage of [ʰ ]
The word 'aspiration' and the aspiration symbol is sometimes used with voiced stops, such as [dʰ ]. However, such " voiced aspiration", also known as breathy voice or murmur, is less ambiguously transcribed with dedicated diacritics, either [d̤ ] or [dʱ ]. (Some linguists restrict the subscript diacritic [ ̤ ] to sonorants, such as vowels and nasal consonants, which are murmured throughout their duration, and use the superscript [ʱ ] for the murmured release of obstruents.) When murmur is included under the term aspiration, " voiceless aspiration" is called just that to avoid ambiguity.
СРСП10 Assimilation (2)
СРСП11 Elision (2)
ПЗ12 Liaison as a form of connecting words
СРСП12 Linking [r]. Intrusive [r]. Intrusive [w] and [j]
Linking R and intrusive R are phonological phenomena that occur in many non-rhoticdialects of English. In all non-rhotic dialects, the phoneme /ɹ / does not appear in the coda of a syllable (so spar is pronounced the same as spa); in dialects with linking and/or intrusive R, however, /ɹ / may appear at a word boundary before a vowel-initial word.
The linking R occurs in most (but not all) non-rhotic dialects of English. In dialects that possess linking R, if a word that ends with /ɹ / precedes a word that begins with a vowel, /ɹ / will be realized at the onset of the next word. Thus, for example, the R in here would not be pronounced in here they are (because it is followed by a consonant), but it would be pronounced in here I am. Likewise, the R at the end of far would only be pronounced if the next word begins with a vowel, as in far away or far off. In other words, in a non-rhotic dialect with linking R, [ɹ ] is retained only if it is followed by a vowel, including across word boundaries.
Some (but not all) dialects that possess linking R also possess intrusive R. In a dialect with intrusive R, an epenthetic [ɹ ] is added after a word that ends in a non-high vowel or glide if the next word begins with a vowel, regardless of whether the first word historically ended with /ɹ / or not. For example, intrusive R would appear in Asia[ɹ ] and Africa or the idea[ɹ ] of it: Asia and idea did not historically end in /ɹ /, but the [ɹ ] is inserted epenthetically to prevent a hiatus. Intrusive R also occurs within words before certain suffixes, such as draw[ɹ ]ing or withdraw[ɹ ]al. This is now so common in England that by 1997 the linguist John C. Wells considered it objectively part of Received Pronunciation, but he noted that it was still stigmatized as an incorrect pronunciation, as it is or was in some other standardized non-rhotic accents.
Examples of intrusive R
СРСП13 Rhythm. Tempo.
Rhythm is generally measured in regular flow of speech in which stressed and unstressed syllables occur at definite intervals. Thre are two kinds of speech rhythm: syllable timed rhythm and stress-temed rhythm. Every language in the world is spoken with one kind of rhythm or with the other. Each language has developed its own characteristic speech rhythm. French and Japanese, for example, are syllable-timed languages, they depend on the principle that all syllables are of equal value. In these languages ayllables follow each other with fairly equal length annd force; and we feel an even rhythm, based on the smooth flow of syllables without a strong contrast of stress. To an English-speaking person this kind of rhythm sounds mechanically regular. English pronounced with such a rhythm would be hard to understand.
Rhythm in English, Russian and some other stress-timed languages is based primarily on the alteration of strongly and weakly stressed syllables. Within each intonation group the stressed syllables occur at fairly equal intervals of time. This means that if there are any unstressed syllables between stressed ones, they have to be fitted in without delaying the regular beat.
Sentence stress is the main means of providing rhythm in speech. Rhythm is the key to fluent English speech. Imagine a metronome beating the rhythm. The stressed syllables are like the beats of the metronome: regular, loud, and clear. The unstressed syllables between the beats are shortened, obscured and joined together.
Look at this sentence: Kevin sent a letter. - Кевин послал письмо.
Let’s mark the stressed syllables: KEVin SENT a \ LETter.
The pattern of stress here is stress - unstress - stress - unstress - stress - unstress, and every “stress” and “unstress” has one syllable behind it. Try to pronounce this sentence rhythmically, it’s easy to do because the alternation of one stressed and one unstressed syllable is easy to reproduce. Be sure to make the stress in the stressed syllables strong, much stronger than normal Russian stress:
KEVin SENT a \ LETter.
Let’s make this sentence a little longer:
Kevin decided to send a letter to his relatives in the village.
Кевин решил послать письмо своим родственникам в деревне.
Mark the stressed syllables and the fall:
KEVin deCIDed to SEND a LETter to his RELatives in the \ VIL lage.
Now we have one, two or several unstressed syllables in the intervals between the stressed syllables, but we have the same amount of time for each interval because the stressed syllables, like the beats of the metronome, have to occur regularly. And the sentence is not very long, so we won’t need noticeable pauses between the thought groups.
How do we fit all the unstressed syllables in the intervals between the stressed syllables without breaking the rhythm that we had in “Kevin sent a letter”? The rules of reduction and linking will help us to do it:
1. All vowel sounds in the unstressed syllables in this sentence will become very short and most of them will be probably pronounced as the neutral sound. In a number of other cases, the neutral sound may be dropped, for example, can - [kn], BAKery - [`beikri], MEMory - [`memri]. By the way, the neutral sound [ә ] is the most common vowel sound of English and deserves your special attention.
2. The final consonant of one word will be blended with the initial sound of the next word, for example, “n-th” will lose part of their articulation at the juncture, “d-t” will blend into one sound (or “d” may be dropped).
3. The sound [h] in the word “his” will disappear. This often happens in the words like “his, him, her, have”.
4. The unstressed syllables will become a stream of sounds jammed together. They will be lower in pitch and much less distinct than the stressed syllables.
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