Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Complete the table. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below with the words from the table according to the context.
1. Biomedical engineering is the ______ of physical principles, materials and devices to the understanding and treatment of living organisms.
2. Scientists continue ______ many new techniques for the treatment or correction of disease.
3. This new device can ______ blood pressure.
4. The body needs a ______ control system for thermal ______.
5. We can ______ with people in most parts of the world by telephone.
Rewrite the following sentences in the Passive Voice.
1. Students can replace the ingredients in order to get a new substance.
2. That device regulated the speed of the machine.
3. The designers will develop a new kind of robot next year.
4. We apply all our skills and knowledge in the research.
5. After conducting this experiment we received good results.
In pairs, complete the following diagram.
Discuss the following questions.
1. What is bioengineering?
2. Why is bioengineering important for people?
3. How old is bioengineering?
4. What engineering fields are connected with bioengineering? Why?
5. Do you know any examples from everyday life or different spheres of science when bioengineering changed people’s life for the better?
Key Vocabulary for Module II
(Fundamentals of Engineering)
astute (adj) assume(v)
affect (v) be concerned with
amplify (v) = reinforce (v) biological control system
branch (n) bioengineering(n)
breakthrough (n) bionics(n)
burn fossil fuels biochemical engineering
consume (v) bioenvironmental engineering
consumption (n) construct(v)
conserve energy civil engineer
demand (for) (n) communication(n)
destroy (v) damage(v) design criteria design(v)
emerge (v) deal with
electrical power engine(n)
electrical appliance electrical installation
enable (v) fermentation(n)
field (n) fluid mechanics
human-factors engineering generation (n)
force (n) instrumentation(n)
generate electricity install (v)
handle (v) improve (v)
innovate (v) investigate (v)
insulate (v) life-support fields
manufacture (v) maintain (v)
non-renewable manufacture (v)
perform (v) microscopic systems
power(v) occupation (v)
plug ( into) (v) operate (v)
replace (v) prevent accidents(v)
remove (v) personality (n)
renewable pose danger
resist (v) robotics (n)
surgery (n) safety engineering
supply (v, n) sensor(n)
store (v) the system of health care
shape (v) subfield (n)
Tapescript to ex. 1.16
(From “Oxford English for Electrical and Mechanical Engineering” Answer Book)
1. I work in a power station. I’m responsible for turbine maintenance. I work shift: midnight to eight o’clock this month.
2. I design body scanners. They give doctors far more information than X-rays and there’s no risk to the patient.
3. I work on jet engines. Onboard computers record readings every five hours and every twenty-five take-off. This information allows us to carry out servicing before defects or reduction in performance occurs.
4. The best thing about my job is that I get to go on sea trials after the refit is finished.
5. I’m working with the architects of a new hospital. Getting the heating and ventilation right is important. I have to make sure that the working environment will be comfortable for the patients and staff.
6. Safety is very important in my job. Everything must be earthed to make sure that no one gets a shock.
7. My main areas of expertise are fuel consumption and engine emission. International pressures are really making things difficult for us.
You study at the technical university. You future job may be concerned with engineering. Read the text and think of the job that would suit your abilities and intentions.
Jobs in Engineering
Professional engineers may work as.
Design engineers (инженеры-конструкторы): They work as part of a team to create new products and extend the life of old products by updating them and finding new applications for them. Their aim is to ensure quality and reliability of the design and to introduce new components and materials to make the product cheaper, lighter, or stronger.
Installation engineers (инженеры по монтажу): They work on the customer’s orders to install equipment produced by their companies.
Production engineers (инженеры по производству): They ensure that the production process is efficient, that materials are handled safely and correctly, that possible faults are corrected.
Just below the professional engineers are the technical engineers (инженеры-технологи). They require a detailed knowledge of a particular technology – electrical, mechanical electronic, etc. They may lead teams of engineering technicians (техников). Technical engineers and engineering technicians may work as:
Test/Laboratory technicians (техники по произведению лабораторных испытаний): They test samples of the materials and of the product to ensure quality is maintained.
Installation and service technicians (техники по монтажу и эксплуатации оборудования): They ensure that equipment sold by the company is installed correctly and carry out preventative maintenance and essential repairs.
Production planning and control technicians (техники по планированию и управлению производством): They produce the manufacturing instructions and organize the work of production so that it can be done as quickly, cheaply, and efficiently as possible.
Inspection technicians (техники по контролю за качеством): They check and ensure that incoming and outgoing components and products meet specifications (техническим условием).
Debug technicians (техники по устранению технических дефектов): They fault find (определяют неисправности при помощи дефектоскопа), repair and test equipment and products down to component level.
Draughtsmen/women (чертёжники): They produce the drawings and design documents from which the product is manufactured.
Look through the text again. Who would be employed to:
1. test completed motors from a production line?
2. find out why a new electronics assembly does not work?
3. see that the correct test equipment is installed on a production line?
4. find a cheaper way of manufacturing a product?
5. see that a new product is safe to use?
Using the knowledge you have gained from the text Jobs in engineering try to identify the jobs of these workers from their statements.
Biomass simply means fuel produced from organic sources. Traditional biomass such as wood, charcoal, and other plant matters has been fuel of choice for thousand years, and it remains so in many parts of the world. Modern biomass, however includes other types of fuel derived from plants, such as the residuals of existing agricultural, lifestock and lumber industry, from forests planted and harvested renewably, and from farms dedicated to this purpose, from the processing of pulpwood residues, cereals and logging operations, which can be processed into gas or burned in bio gas power plants to generate electricity. Methane from urban landfills and from animal and human wastes is another potential type of fuel derived from biomass. Modern biomass may have the greatest potential for growth, especially in transportation and powering vehicles. For example, Brazil has been a leading nation in the use of ethanol (alcohol-based fuel) for automobiles. It is derived from sugar cane and grains grown specially to produce ethanol. Biomass also looks promising as a fuel source for electricity in small, local power stations.
Answer the following questions:
1. What is biomass?
2. What does modern biomass include?
3. Can methane be derived? How?
4. Does biomass have potential for growth?
5. What country has been a leading nation in the use of ethanol (alcohol-based fuel) for automobiles?
The use of wind energy is growing faster then any other type of renewable energy because of improvements in the wind turbine technology over the past 30 years. The best locations for wind as an energy source are coasts, mountains, and plains. Like solar rays, wind is also a form of intermittent renewable energy, available only about 30 % of the time. Often when the sun isn’t shining, the wind is blowing; so many users rely on wind turbines to complement solar panels. Most of the world's wind generation capacity is located in the United States, Denmark (the pioneer in wind generation), the Netherlands (famous for its use of windmills), Germany, and India. While wind generation of electricity is clean, some disadvantages include the noise of blades of windmills and the appearance. A large wind farm on a hillside is clearly visible, in the same way that large arrays of solar panels are.
Answer the following questions:
1. Why is the use of wind energy growing faster than any other type of renewable energy?
2. Where can we locate
3. Is wind a form of intermittent renewable energy?
4. Why do many users rely on turbines?
5. Where is most of the world's wind generation capacity located?
Other types of power plants
Steam Turbine Plants
Steam turbine plants can be divided into three general categories: fossil fueled, nuclear, and renewable. Most of electricity produced in the United States, for example, comes from fossil fuel steam turbine plants, about 70%. The dominant fossil fuels are coal, petroleum and natural gas; others include petroleum coke, coke oven gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Steam turbine plants operate by burning fuel, which heats water in a boiler; the water boils and produce steam, which is channeled to a turbine and turns it. The turbine is connected to a generator shaft which turns and produces power. All steam turbine plants function the same way.
Of the many fuels used in steam turbine plants, coal is the most common. Coal is inexpensive and readily available since the US has large deposits. Annually electric utilities purchase over 900 million short tons (короткая\малая тонна = 907, 2 кг) of coal for electric generation.
Answer the following questions:
1. What three categories can steam turbine plants be divided into?
2. What are the dominant fossil fuels?
3. How do steam turbine plants operate?
4. What are the pros and cons of building steam turbine plants?
Fuel Cell Power Plants
Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which directly convert hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich fuels into electricity without combustion. This process is much more efficient than traditional thermal power plants, converting up to J80% of the chemical energy in the fuel (compared to a maximum of 40% for conventional power plants). Although their structure is somewhat like that of battery, fuel cells never need recharging or replacing and can produce electricity as long as they are supplied with hydrogen and oxygen. Fossil flues (coal, oil and natural gas), biomass (plant material), or pure hydrogen can be used as the source of fuel. If pure hydrogen is used, the emissions from a fuel cell are only electricity and water. Fuel cells are small and modular in nature and therefore fuel cell power plants can be used to provide electricity in many different applications, from electric vehicles to large, grid-connected utility power plants. First used in the U.S. space program, fuel cells are a developing technology with a few commercial uses, but may emerge as a significant source of electricity in the near future.
The fuel cell power section contains " stacks" (хранилища) of one or more fuel cells. Most individual fuel cells are small in size and produce between 0.5 and 0.9 volts of electricity. Therefore, any power plants must have a large number of individual fuel cells. This modular nature of fuel cells is one of their advantages. A fuel cell power plant can be built to a certain size and then have its power output quickly and easily increased by adding more stacks of fuel cells when and if demand for electricity increases. Air, (for its oxygen) and hydrogen rich fuel are added to the stacks of the fuel cells, and the output is water, heat and direct current (DC). The power conditioner section of a fuel cell power plant most often consists of an inverter which converts the electricity to alternating current (AC).
(Fuel cell - 1.топливный элемент; 2. топливный бак)
Answer the following questions:
1. Is the process of converting hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich fuels into electricity without combustion efficient? Why?
2. What is emitted from a fuel cell if pure hydrogen is used?
3. Who was the first to produce fuel cells?
4. How much electricity do fuel cells produce?
5. What advantages do fuel cells have?
6. How do fuel cells operate?
Applying for a Job
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