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Give the definition to the concept “neural impulse” and explain its function.



Sum up what you have learned about neurons and prepare a report on the topic: “The neuron is an essential constituent of the central nervous system in organisms of different types”.

 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

 

Ex. 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future tense.

 

1. A: I have got a new job!

B: Wonderful! I ... (call) Mum and tell her the good news.

2. A: How old is your daughter?

B: She ... (be) fourteen next week.

3. A: Have you been living here long?

B: Yes. By next month, I ... (live) here for ten years.

4. A: Are you having a party next weekend?

B: Yes. I hope I ... (finish) decorating the house by then.

5. A: Shall I call you at ten o'clock tomorrow?

B: No. I ... (leave) for work by then.

6. A: Are you excited about going to California?

B: Yes! This time tomorrow I ... (fly) across the Atlantic.

7. A: It's seven o'clock.

B: Yes. John ... (leave) the office by now.

8. A: There's somebody at the door.

B: Oh. That ... (be) the postman.

9. A: I've left my jacket at home.

B: I ... (go) back and get it for you.

10. A: Are you nervous about the interview?

B: Yes. This time tomorrow, I ... (talk) to the managing director.

 

Ex. 2. Fill in the future simple or be going to.

 

1. A: Have you finished your essay yet?

B: No, but I'm sure I … (finish) it on time.

2. A: I have decided what to wear for the party.

B: Really? What ... (you/wear), then?

3. A: Why do you need hot soapy water?

B: Because I ... (wash) the car.

4. A: Did you post those letters?

B: No, I forgot. I ... (post) them this afternoon.

5. A: Did you book a table at the restaurant?

B: Yes, but I don't expect it ... (be) busy.

6. A: I'm hungry.

B: Me too. I ... (make) us something to eat.

7. A: What are you doing this weekend?

B: Oh, I ... (probably/visit) my grandparents.

8. A: Look at that dog!

B: Oh yes! It ... (swim) across the river.

9. A: Tony is nearly eighteen, isn't he?

B: Yes. He ... (work) for his father when he leaves school.

10. A: Are you going into town today?

B: Yes. I ... (give) you a lift if you like.

11. A: Your shirt is dirty.

B: Oh dear! I ... (change) into another one.

12. A: I hope we ... (not/arrive) late for the meeting. B: Don't worry. There's plenty of time.

13. A: I'm really thirsty after all that hard work.

B: I ... (make) some tea.

14. A: Did you give Steve his present?

B: No. I ... (give) it to him tonight at dinner.

15. A: Watch out! You ... (bang) your head on the doorframe.

B: Oh! I didn't realise it was so low.

 

Ex. 3. Compare the use of the different tense-forms to express future actions in English. Translate into Russian.

1. If you come tonight, I am sure you’llhavemuch fun.

2. It's Jane's birthday in August. She will besixteen.

3. Phew! It's hot here. — Yes, it is. I’ll turnon the air conditioning.

4. She said she would goto college if she didwell in her exams.

5. I think she’ll have heardall about it by the time I see her.

6. I am going to take my driving test on Wednesday.

7. Take a warm coat. It's very cloudy. I think it is goingto snow.

8. Our guests arriveby the 11.50 train.

9. They are opening an exhibition here next year.

10. How long willyou have been studyingEnglish by the end of the year?

 

Ex. 4. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

A BEN: Are you busy this week, Sam?

SAM: Not particularly. I revise / I’m revising until Wednesday because I've got an exam, but that only lasts / that is only lasting until midday and then I'm free.

B PAT:Oh dear, I've spilt my coffee.

ALAN: I get / I’ll get a cloth.

C WILL: What time does your evening class finish / is your evening class finishing?

LIZ: Half past nine.

WILL: Shall I come / Do I come and collect you?

LIZ: Thanks, but I meet / I'm meeting my sister for a drink.

D MIKE:Mum, will you talk / are you talking to Dad for me?

MUM:What's the problem?

MIKE:Last week he said I could use the car at the weekend but now he doesn't let / he won't let me after all. I need it to get to the match I play / I'm playing on Sunday.

MUM: OK. I try / I'll try to make him change his mind. I expect he's agreeing / he'll agree when I explain.

E VALERIE: How soon are you / will you be ready to leave?

SOPHIE: Oh I can't go out until it will stop raining / it stops raining. I haven't got a coat.

VALERIE:OK. I don't think it goes / it will go on for long. I tidy / I'll tidy my desk while we're waiting / we wait.

 

Ex. 5. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

1. Oh no! Look at the time! I’ll be / I'm going to be terribly late.

2. If you want to go to the shop, you can borrow my brother's bicycle. I'm sure he won't mind / he's not going to mind.

3. I'll go / I'm going to go into town this afternoon. Can I get you anything?

4. Will you hold / Are you going to hold this box for a moment while I unpack it?

5. I hear the government has announced they'll raise / they're going to raise taxes again.

6. My car won't start / My car isn't going to start. It must be the cold, I think.

7. I'll start / I'm going to start a new job next week.

8. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. Why don't you come round tomorrow and I'll cook / I'm going to cook you a meal?

 

Ex. 6. Are the underlined words right or wrong? Correct the sentences that are wrong.

1. The new road shall be open in the summer.

2. The exam starts at 8.30 tomorrow.

3. I've got my ticket. I will go to Spain.

4. You look tired. Sit down. I'm making you a cup of coffee.

5. What time is the sun rising tomorrow?

6. Where do you go for lunch today?

7. Shall we learn Spanish next year?

8. Do you think it is raining later?

9. I can't come because I'll be on holiday.

10. (on the phone) It's Ann you want to speak to. Just one minute, please. I'm going to call her.

11. Don't worry about me, Mum. I'll write to you every day from the States.

Ex. 7. Open the brackets using an appropriate Future tense where necessary.

 

1. I (watch) television from eight o'clock to midnight.

2. I don't know when the concert (be) over.

3. By the end of the summer he (teach) me to work with the computer.

4. I feel terrible. I think I (have) to go to bed.

5. They (move) to a new flat next week.

6. This time tomorrow I (lie) on the beach.

7. What you (do) tomorrow evening?

8. Either you keep quiet or I (have) to ask you to leave.

9. I (have) another English lesson this week.

10. The bus (leave) at eight o'clock on Monday morning.

11. As soon as I (hear) the results I (let) you know.

12. Look at the sun! It (go) to be a hot day tomorrow.

13. When they (find out) about this, there (be) trouble.

14. When the train (arrive) tomorrow night?

15. Can you meet Jack at the station, please? He (arrive) at nine o'clock on the train from Oxford.

16. You (have) to stay at home until you (get) rid of your bad cough.

17. They (not/go) to the football match tomorrow, because they (work) at that time.

18. By the time you (get) back, Simon (leave).

19. I (take) my sun-glasses in case it is sunny.

20. You don't work in class! I (phone) your mother about this.

21. When you (repair) my bike, Daddy? — I (do) it tomorrow if I have time.

22. It's so crowded in here. I think, I (faint). — I (take) you outside for a while.

23. If he doesn't come I (be) upset.

24. I think you (like) Nick when you meet him.

25. We (visit) Vienna on Tuesday, then (go) to Paris on Wednesday and only afterwards we (spend) a few days in London.

26. We both hope that your leg (be) better in a couple of weeks and you (be able) to come to the wedding.

27. I never thought Jack (be) so much upset.

28. We (go) to visit Estonia this summer. We've already received the visas.

29. Supposing it (snow). What we (do)?

30. I was sure he (be late).

31. He felt that he (have) to count on himself only.

32. You (work) late tomorrow night?

33. This parcel looks heavy. I (take) it to the post office for you.

34. Quick! The museum (close) in a quarter of an hour.

35. It is still raining so I think I (have) to take an umbrella.

36. What you (say) if you (see) her?

37. The Stones (be) married for thirty years in May.

38. By the end of the month she (work) in this company for three years.

39. Why don't you come with us? We (go) to have a lot of fun.

40. I (not/go) to speak to her until she (apologize).

41. Martin asked me if I (help) him with English.

42. We (drive) over five hundred kilometres by the time we (reach) the border.

43. You (be) sick if you (eat) more chocolate.

44. Look out! We (go) to hit the car in front.

45. Don't phone too early because I (put) the baby to bed.

46. He was not quite sure when his parents (come) home.

47. By the time you (get) back, all the food (go).

48. You (not/be) able to enter the building if you (not/have) your identity card.

49. The doctor told Carol that a week in the country (make) her feel better.

50. When I (learn) a thousand English words, I (be) able to read a newspaper?

51. Hopefully she (cook) dinner for us by the time we (get) home.

52. I'm sure if we don't get there before seven they (eat and drink) everything.

53. I hope you (not/forget) your promise by tomorrow.

54. I'm sure you (recover) by then from the shock of meeting Jason here.

55. I (stay) up late tonight to watch a film on television.

56. By Christmas I (work) in this office for ten years.

57. A new video shop (open) today. I (meet) my friends there this afternoon.

Ex. 8. What do you say in these situations?

1. You and a friend want to do something this evening but you don't know what. You ask your friend. What shall we do this evening?

2. You try on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not. You ask a friend for advice. … it?

3. It's Ann's birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don't know what. You ask a friend for advice. What ...

4. You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven't decided where. You ask him/her. ...

5. You and a friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to walk. You ask him/her. ... or ...

6. Your friend wants you to phone later. You don't know what time to phone. You ask him/her. …

Ex. 9. Present Simple/Past Simple/Present Continuous/Past Continuous/ Present Perfect/Past Perfect/Past Perfect Continuous

 

Brenda Pearl (join) our firm ten years ago. She (work) for the previous five years with an advertising company and (acquire) much useful experience. For the first eight years with us she (work) in the Sales Department and (work) there when I (become) Managing Director. Since then she (work) as my personal assistant and (prove) herself to be outstandingly capable on many occasions. She (work) on the top floor, in an office next to mine, but at the moment she (work) inLondon on a special assignment.

 

Ex. 10. Past Simple/Past Continuous/Past Perfect/Past Perfect Continuous

 

I (go) to London for the first time in 1990 when I (be) just a child. My parents (be) already there many times so they (know) the city well. But they never (be) there with a child, so they saw a different side of London with me. We (go) out every day and (have) a. fantastic time. My parents (study) English for many years so they (have) no difficulty with the language. It (rain) while we (be) there but we (pack) all our waterproof clothes so it (be) no problem. When the time (come) to leave, I (feel) quite sad because I (have) such a good time.

 

UNIT 6

GRAMMAR: CONSTRUCTION: THERE + BE / IT. PRONOUNS.

TEXTS: THE SKELETON AND MUSCLES. BONES AND MUSCLES.

 







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