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Ex. 1. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to modals.

1. A great series of chemical changes has to occur before foods become protoplasm.

2. These plant parts may have been found on and below the soil surface.

3. All measurements should be made with great accuracy.

4. There may be other elements present in some proteins, e.g. magnesium.

5. This means that there must be harmony among all the genes which a population contains.

6. This list could be extended a long way.

7. Yet, again and again, something new must have been introduced into the inheritance if all the higher forms of life that exist today had their origin in such lowly ancestor as Amoeba.

8. This quality was lacking in English wheat, and therefore grain had to be imported from Ameriсa and Canada.

9. Living protoplasm must always be thought as a system in dynamic equilibrium.

10. There should be an equal chance of Xor Y sperm meeting an ovum, and therefore equal members of boy and girl babies should be born.

11. Different techniques again have to be used with microorganisms.

12. This implies that each DNA chain might serve as a template for the synthesis of its complementary pair, and in this way the structure of the molecule could be reduplicated exactly.

13. Nevertheless, " hybrids" made between bacterial strains with different characteristics may show characteristics from both parents.

14. All the laboratory vessels have to be carefully washed before using them for any experiments.

15. The development of this disease must have been considerably favoured by high moisture conditions.


Ex. 2. Choose and use the appropriate modal verb from given in the brackets.

1. Our brain interprets the impulses and (need, to have to, should, can, must) tell where they are coming from and to what they are referring.

2. White-rod fungi (need, to have to, should, can, must) oxidize lignin due to release of enzymes.

3. You can’t park your car here for nothing. You (needn’t, must, mustn’t, has to) pay.

4. Ian doesn’t (can, would, have to, might, must) work very hard. He has got an easy job.

5. (Would, need, may) changes in the structure within nucleus drive differentiation of cells?

6. As we learn more about the chemical signal used by marine organisms, we (need, may, can, would) now think about using these signals to allow human activities to be carried out without damage to the marine environment.

7. Different parts of the tongue (would, should, need, can) detect all types of tastes.

8. A receptor (would, should, need, can, may) respond to the other tastes, but it responds in the strongest way to a particular taste.

9. (Needn’t, ought, could) you give us a consultation tomorrow?

10. To protect environment serious measures to create a system of ecological security (can, may, should) be taken.

11. (Can, ought, need, have) she have been waiting for us all the time?

12. Initial steps to preserve environment are absolutely insufficient and they (can, must, may) be carried onward.

13. Contact lenses were made of methacrylate and (could, would) be easily inserted and taken out.

14. Even the first artificial kidney invented by Dutchman Willem Kolff in 1945 (can, must, would, could) be used for purifying the blood of human being.

15. Mendeleyev found it necessary to alter some atomic weights so that the elements (can, must, should) fall into positions in the periodic table assigned to them by their chemical properties.


Ex. 3. Open the brackets. Use the modal verbs in the appropriate forms and tenses.

1. Such plants (must, to cultivate) by a man long ago.

2. Genetic engineers (to be able, to remake) parasite insects to prevent the spread of diseases.

3. The genetically modified insect’s immune system reacts to the pathogenic organism and kills it before it (can, to transfer) to humans.

4. We (to be to, to meet) at the entrance of the theatre at a quarter to seven, but he didn’t come.

5. What (should, to do) to preserve our wild flowers?

6. At the University of Cambridge Darwin (couldn't, to make) himself care for anything but hunting and natural history.

7. Pasteur (to be to, to use) this technique in preparing a vaccine which protected cattle against anthrax (сибирская язва).

8. Before Eijkman (could, to do) much about chicken’s disease very much like beriberi, the disease vanished.

9. Life (would, to be) impossible without proteins since protoplasm is made of them.

10. You (ought, to plant) this seed in spring.

11. The soil (should, to be) fine and moist.

12. (Need I, to carry out) the lab work?

13. (Could you, to help) me to unload the car?

14. The test tubes aren’t dirty, so you (needn’t, to clean) them.

15. We (not to have to, to study) botany yesterday, the credit test was delayed.


Ex. 4. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Все клетки должны получать необходимое сырьё для метаболизма.

2. С помощью нужной модели микроскопа можно увидеть ядро клетки.

3. Мы сможем полностью блокировать вторжения паразитов с использованием нескольких различных методов.

4. Знаете ли вы, что малярия может поражать более 300 миллионов человек каждый год?

5. Чтобы точно определить структуру ядра, следует выделить и охарактеризовать дополнительные органоиды и структуры.

6. Хромосома, например, может передвигаться на расстояния около 0, 5 мкм в любом направлении.

7. Возможно, они сейчас проводят новый эксперимент.

8. Можно мне взять твой микроскоп, мой чинят.

9. Вам нельзя было этого делать.

10. Вам не надо переписывать этот тест.

11. Нам пришлось обходиться безо всяких инструкций.

12. Мне попросить разрешения?

13. Эту воду должны будут использовать для питья.

14. Кровяное давление должно быть достаточно высоким, чтобы поднимать кровь от сердца к мозгу.

15. Исчерпание (exhaustion) солнечной энергии не должно нас тревожить - Солнце будет светить еще несколько миллиардов лет!

16. Я могла бы поехать туда, но я потеряла его адрес.

17. Вы могли бы сделать опыт тщательнее.

18. Вы, должно быть, видели его.

19. Эти семинары очень скучные, но я вынужден посещать их.

20. Он настолько богат, что ему не приходится работать.

21. Лифт не работал, и мы должны были подниматься сами пешком.

22. Вам незачем было звонить ему. (Зря вы ему позвонили).

23. С какой стати я должен ждать тебя?

24. Вам бы следовало помочь им. Почему вы этого не сделали?

25. Я намерен (хочу) помочь ему.

26. Разве я вам не говорил, что обязательно помогу ему.

27. Ручка никак не пишет.

28. Я пытался говорить с ним, но он не стал (не хотел) меня слушать.

29. Скажите это еще раз медленно, пожалуйста.

30. Они должны были встретиться на вокзале.


Ex. 5. Supply the necessary modal verbs.

1. The roots of this plant (могут быть использованы) for human food.

2. You (придётся изучить) the characteristics of both plants as there (может быть) a considerable difference between them.

3. I’d like to read Ann’s letter. The only problem is I (не могу найти) my glasses.

4. You (не должен помогать) him with this homework. It’s important that he does it himself.

5. I just want a general idea of the article so I (не нужно читать) all the text.

6. Why did you wash this shirt? It was not dirty, you (не надо было стирать) it.

7. I don’t think you (следует смотреть) TV so much.

8. We (пришлось идти пешком) home last night. There were no buses.

9. I don’t want the children to play in this room. They (могут разбить) something.

10. I’m sorry that I didn’t take your advice. I (следовало отправить) this letter a week ago.

11. Our teacher says that we (сможем говорить) English fluently in a few month.

12. Paul doesn’t like his new job. Sometimes he (вынужден) work at weekends.

13. This restaurant (должно быть) very good. It’s always full of people.

14. Cigarette smoke contains thousands of chemical agents, many of them (могут) cause cancer, so smoking (следует запретить).

15. All animals (должны питаться) other organisms or their products to survive.

16. The professor insisted on her repeating the experiment, but she (не захотела).








1. Make sure you know the following words:



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