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Remember some words and expressions after wich the Gerund is used.



1. Give up, to leave off – прекращать, переставать.

2. To keep on, to go on – продолжать.

3. To post pone, put off, to delay – откладывать.

4. Busy – занятый.

5. To avoid – избегать

6. To admit – признавать

7. To mind – возражать

8. Can’t help – не могу не

9. To recall – вспоминать, припоминать

10. Can’t stand – не выносить

11. To enjoy – получать удовольствие

12. To feel like – хотеть

13. To hate – ненавидеть

14. To involve – подразумевать, вызывать

15. It is(of) no use – бесполезно

16. It is worth – стоит

17. In case of, the event of – в случае, если

18. Subject to – при условии

19. To result – приводить к

20. To succeed in – удаваться

21. To look forward to – ждать с нетерпением

22. To be used to – привыкать

23. To accuse of – обвинять

24. To account for - объяснять

 

Ex. 1. Translate from English into Russian. Define the functions of the Gerund.

1. Lowering the temperature increased the storage phase.

2. This effect can be eliminated by heating the substance.

3. There is some reason for between these two extremes.

4. Most taxonomists object to applying there terms.

5. She avoided expressing her opinion in public.

6. Go on telling your story.

7. The director is for extending the time of experiment.

8. Applying irrigation water in arid areas differs very little in principle from applying fertilizer in humid areas.

9. Her greatest pleasure is doing in for sport.

10. You should stop swimming in the river because the weather has got cold and windy.

11. We remember having obtained there data in the previous experiment.

12. He insisted on coordinating their research work.

13. They had experience in attending biological congresses.

14. Substances increasing the rate of chemical change without entering into the reaction are known as catalysts.

15. On using the thermometer we realized that the temperature of the soil was increasing.

16. Objections to using this method were not taken into consideration.

17. Old methods prevented us from obtaining new data.

18. We can’t help remembering that this reaction is often fallowed by an explosion.

19. I gave up going to bed late.

20. She is on the point of performing this experiment.

21. Applying this method to practice was of great importance.

22. Moisture was conserved in case of preventing the capillary rise of water in the soil.

23. The plant was studied in Botkin’s laboratory with a view to introducing it into clinical medicine.

24. I understand his interest in studying characteristics of both plants.

25. His skill in making some simplifications is perfect.

26. They were used to taking part in such experiments.

27. Small blue-green algae prevent mineral salts from being washed out by rain.

28. It is no use maintaining the life in the cells in question.

29. He didn’t mind speeding up the work.

30. This newly discovered method is worth applying.

31. I’m against seeing this film.

32. They were for going sightseeing instead of staying at the hotel.

33. Analyzing our data will help us in the experiment.

34. Finding a new approach to the problems is an important step in scientific work.

35. They feel like trying to bring their views into agreement.

36. Students were busy in planting new trees in the park.

37. Using large amounts of water resulted in germinating.

38. We got many various samples owing to drying leaves and herbs.

39. Some problems were accounted for after having changed the experimental conditions.

40. This suggestion was made subject to receiving your confirmation.

 

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using the Gerund. Employ the verbs in brackets.

Model: She is afraid or … (to lose her key).

She is afraid of losing her key.

 

1. It is no use ... (to cry over spilt milk).

2. Would you mind … (to tell me the news in details).

3. This performance in worth ... (to televise).

4. People enjoy ... (to bathe on a hot summer day).

5. She is incapable of ... (to tell a lie).

6. He was very proud of ... (to set a new world record).

7. We all look forward to ... (to celebrate March 8 Day).

8. They stopped ... (to talk).

9. He had to put off ... (to hunt last winter).

10. The spectators were angry at ... (to break the rules of the game).

 

 

Ex. 3. Replace the subordinate clauses by Gerund.

 

a) the time clause – “in + Gerund”

Model:He made several mistakes when he was typing the paper.

He made several mistakes in typing the paper.

 

1. Great difficulties arose when we were applying this method to practice.

2. Different methods can be used when we determine the binding energy of nuclei.

3. We obtained the desired information when we were analyzing our data.

4. Various approaches are possible when we solve this problem.

5. He found an error when he was taking measures.

 

b) if-clause --- “without + Gerund”

Model: He can't open this door if he doesn't know the code.

He can't open this door without knowing the code.

 

1. We can't use the room for more than a few days if we don't clean it.

2. The work will not be completed if we do not sum up the results.

3. We can't obtain information if we do not conduct a series of experiments.

4. The project will never succeed if there is no understanding among the participants.

5. We shall not start the experiment if we do not get all the necessary equipment.

 

c) the time-clause --- “on + Gerund”

Model: After I have finished school, I started to work at a big plant.

On having finished school I started to work at a Dig plant.

 

1. After he had passed his entrance examinations he became a student of the University.

2. After he had published his paper he received a lot of letters.

3. After we had changed the experimental conditions we repeated the experiment.

4. After we had tried many various samples we selected one.

5. After he had compared some numerical data he could readily obtain new parameters.

 

Ex. 4. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Придя домой, я начал сразу работать.

2. Он привык рано вставать.

3. Дождь помешал мне прийти к вам вчера.

4. Он ушел из квартиры, не заперев дверь.

5. Проверяя контрольные работы, преподаватель нашел мало ошибок.

6. Она была сердита на него за то, что он потерял ее словарь.

7. Вам следует прекратить купаться в море, так как вода стала очень холодной.

8. Я не могу пойти туда, не сказав ему об этом.

9. Я закрою окно, так как боюсь простудиться.

10. Мы слышали о том, что он назначен директором большого завода.

11. Она была разочарована тем, что я отказалась помочь ей.

12. Извините, что я не позвонил вам вчера.

13. Мы настаивали на том, чтобы они начали переговоры немедленно.

14. Он возражает против того, чтобы собрание было назначено на понедельник.

15. Мы ответственны за то, чтобы работа была закончена вовремя.

16. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я здесь курил?

17. Нет надежды, что он приедет вовремя.

18. Я не выношу смотреть мыльные оперы.

19. Мой друг не привык носить костюм и галстук каждый день.

20. Он сделал еще несколько утверждений с целью разъяснить свою точку зрения.

21. Она не привыкла, чтобы с ней так разговаривали.

22. Полицейский приказал ему остановиться, но он продолжал ехать.

23. Это была смешная шутка. Мы не могли не рассмеяться.

24. Несмотря на то, что он тренировался много часов, мой друг проиграл матч.

25. Мне потребовалось много времени, чтобы привыкнуть носить очки.

26. Он не выносит моего пения.

27. Вчера было холодно, поэтому мы отложили посещение ботанического сада.

28. Я избегаю разговаривать с нечестными людьми.

29. Он ушел, ничего не сказав.

30. Она позвонила родителям вместо того, чтобы написать письмо.

Ex. 5. Pay attention to Gerundial constructions. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. We objected to this student taking part in the conference.

2. He insisted on me signing the contract immediately.

3. He insisted on my returning soon.

4. On the lecturer’s appearing in the hall, everybody stood up.

5. There was a probability of Petrov’s being sent to Moscow.

6. She wrote the letter to him without my knowing it.

7. There is no excuse for his doing such a thing.

8. Their leaving before the end of the concert attracted attention.

9. They objected to the experiments being conducted in our laboratory.

10. They informed us of the discussion having already been summarized.

11. We have heard of the agreement having been reached.

12. The loss of heat resulted from oxygen being prevented from releasing in this reaction.

13. In the event of more than one agreement being signed, each agreement is to be considered a separate contract.

14. We know of some animals’ obtaining protection because of their appearance.

15. They heard about desert animals being usually sandy in colour and about Arctic animals being white in winter.

16. The dean insists upon the report being sent without delay.

17. The accuracy of the definition depends on the terms being carefully formulated.

18. In diploid organisms’ meiosis resulted in the chromosomes having been reduced to the haploid number.

19. Rutin attracted much interest owing to its decreasing the fragility of blood capillaries.

20. The basidia are produced in closed hymenium cavity but instead of the latter being exposed to the air at time of spore formation it remains closed until after the spores have been produced.

 

Ex. 6. Translate into Russian and find the difference between Participle and Gerund

 

1. The dog retains his native hunting instinct, but man has thought himto use it in hunting people who are lost.

2. When food is swallowed the nazal opening is closed bу the soft palate thus preventing food from entering the nazal passage.

3. The beetles hare biting mouth parts, the bees licking ones for lapping up nectar, the butterflies and moths long sucking tubes for the sаmе purpose.

4. This book with 68 contributing authors does not restrict itself to describing Australian soils only.

5. The increasing cost of using pesticides and environmental hazard posed by them, evoked efforts for breading plant varieties resistant to diseases and pests.

6. Aculture of small-sized species could be kept for several generations in one tube without changing it, allowing observation on life histories.

7. A mathematical break-down of the brain’s biocarrents will reveal the laws governing the mechanism of thinking.

8. The researcher addressed the problem by formulating a set of conditions regarding similarity and proximity of habitats sampled.

9. Estimating the values of model parameter by fitting this model to CO 2 exchange data, they differ from the corresponding in vitro values.

 

Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the Gerund.

 

1. Тратить деньги легче, чем зарабатывать их.

2. Определение теории самозарождения заняло много времени.

3. Спорить с ней – только понапрасну терять время.

4. Все были за то, чтобы хорошенько отдохнуть в лесу.

5. Он против того, чтобы сообщать им об этом теперь.

6. Это хороший совет. Ему стоит последовать.

7. Он был вынужден прекратить работу над этой проблемой.

8. Я сожалею, что рассказал тебе об этом.

9. Студенты не могут не волноваться перед экзаменом.

10. Попрощавшись, он ушел из комнаты.

11. Это предложение сделано при условии получения вашего подтверждения.

12. Он привык рано вставать.

13. Мы слышали о том, что он назначен директором большого завода.

14. Нет надежды, что он приедет вовремя.

15. Он сделал еще несколько утверждений с целью разъяснить свою точку зрения.

16. Несмотря на то, что он тренировался много часов, мой друг проиграл матч.

17. Он не выносит моего пения.

18. Он ушел, ничего не сказав.

 

 

UNIT 14

GRAMMAR: INFINITIVE.

TEXTS: CONIFEROPHYTA: CONIFERS. ANTHOPHYTA / ANGIOSPERMS: FLOWERING PLANTS.

 

 







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