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II. Read and translate the text.
The term "engineering" is a modern one. The New Marriam-Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word "engineering" as the practical application of scientific and mathematical principles. Nowadays the term "engineering" means, as a rule, the art of designing, constructing, or using engines. But this word is now applied *in a more extended sense. It is applied also to the art of executing such works as the objects of civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical appliances are used. Engineering is divided into many branches. The most important of them are: civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining, military, marine, and sanitary engineering.
While the definition "civil engineering "dates back only two centuries, the profession of civil engineer is as old as civilized life. It started developing with the rise of ancient Rome. In order to understand clearly what civil engineering constitutes nowadays, let us consider briefly the development of different branches of engineering. Some form of building and utilization of the materials and forces of nature have always been necessary for the people from the prehistoric times. The people had to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the conflict with nature.
First the word "civil engineering" was used to distinguish the work of the engineer with a non-military purpose from that of a military engineer. And up to about the middle of the 18th century there were two main branches of engineering — civil and military. The former included all those branches of the constructive art not directly connected with military operations and the constructions of fortifications, while the latter, military engineering, concerned itself with the applications of science and the utilization of building materials in the art of war.
But as time went on, the art of civil engineering was enriched with new achievements of science. With the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and later there came a remarkable series of mechanical inventions, great discoveries in electrical science and atomic energy. It led to differentiation of mechanical, electrical, nuclear engineering, etc.
It is a well-known fact that with the invention of the steam engine and the growth of factories a number of civil engineers became interested in the practical application of the science of mechanics and thermodynamics to the design of machines. They separated themselves from civil engineering, and were called "mechanical engineers".
With the development of the science of electricity, there appeared another branch of the engineering — electrical engineering. It is divided now into two main branches: communications engineering and power engineering.
In the middle of the 20th century there appeared some other new branches of engineering—nuclear engineering and space engineering. The former is based on atomic physics, the latter — on the achievements of modern science and engineering.
At present there are hundreds of subdivisions of engineering, but they all, at one time or another, branched off from civil engineering.
The term "civil engineering" has two distinct meanings. In the widest and oldest sense it includes all non-military branches of engineering as it did two centuries ago. But in its narrower, and at the present day more correct sense, civil engineering includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, metallurgical, and mining engineering.
Here are some fields of civil engineering:
1. Housing, industrial, and agricultural construction.
2. Structural engineering comprises the construction of all fixed structures with their foundations.
3. The construction of highways and city streets and pavements.
4. The construction of railroads.
5. The construction of harbours and canals.
6. Hydraulic engineering which includes the construction of dams and power plants.
The above enumeration will make clear the vast extent of the field of civil engineering.
III. A few explanations to the text
1. ... in a more extended sense — в более широком смысле
2. The former..., while the latter... - первый (имеется в виду из двух упомянутых)..., тогда как последний... (из двух упомянутых)
3. Here are some fields of civil engineering. — Вот некоторые области строительства.
IV. Answer the questions
1. What does the word "engineering" mean?
2. Is engineering a science?
3. Into what branches is Civil engineering divided?
4. How old is the profession of a civil engineer?
5. What distinct meanings has the term "civil engineering"?
6. What fields of Civil engineering do you know?
7. What are the most important branches of Civil engineering?
8. What invention laid the foundation for mechanical engineers?
9. When was electrical engineering developed?
10. What are the main subdivisions of the electrical engineering?
V. Read the text and tell the group what is a home for you?
What is home?
(after Ernestine Schumann-Heink)
A roof to keep out the rain? Four walls to keep out the wind? Floors to keep out the cold?
Yes, but home is more than that. It's the laugh of a baby, the song of a mother, the strength of a father. Warmth of living hearts, light from happy eyes, kindness, loyalty, comradeship.
Home is first school and first church for young ones, where they learn what is right, what is good and what is kind. Where they go for comfort when they are hurt or sick.
Where joy is shared and sorrow eased. Where fathers and mothers are respected and loved. Where children are wanted. Where the simplest food is good enough for kings because it is earned. Where money is not so important as loving kindness. Where even the tea - kettle sings from happiness.
That is home. Sweet home.
God bless it.
I. Read following words and word-combinations and find centences containing them in the text.
II. Without translating find information in the text to the following questions.
1. What purpose is the natural stone used for?
2. What are the buildings made of stone and brick?
3. Should the coverings tie the walls?
4. What must every building be?
5. What are the main parts of a building?
6. What are their functions?
7. What kind of facilities is constructed on a turnkey basis?
8. What are the responsibilities of the contractor?
9. Why is a turnkey contract a long-term undertaking?
10. How is a turnkey contract usually won?
11. What can the Completion Certificate tell us about?
12. What building professions have you come across in the text?
The first houses were built for the purpose of protecting their owners from the weather and, therefore, were very simple—a roof to keep off the rain or snow, and walls to keep out the wind.
The building erected now can be divided into two broad classifications: they are either for housing or for industrial purpose.
As far as the material is concerned, the building can be divided into stone (or brick), wood and concrete types. The brick is an artif-ical material made of clay then burnt to harden it. The natural stone (rubble masonry) is used for footing and foundations for external walls carrying the load. The buildings made of stone or brick are durable, fire-proof and have poor heat conductivity.
The tiers or levels which divide a building into stages or stories are called floors. These may be of timber but in stone buildings they are made of ferro-concrete details in great and small sizes.
The coverings or upper parts of buildings constructed over to keep 6ut rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to the weather, are called roofs. These should tie the walls and give strength and firmness to the construction.
Every building must be beautiful in appearance and proportional in various parts. The interior should be planned to suit the requirements of the occupants while the exterior must be simple without any excesses.
Any building should be provided with water, electricity, ventilation and heating system.
Getting water into the house is called plumbing. The plumbers have also to get the water out after it has been used. The first part of this problem is called water supply and the second one is called drainage or sewerage.
Almost everybody saw the construction of a building and *fol-lowed its progress with interest1. First the excavation is dug for the basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed; after this the framework is erected and clothed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.
The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the framework. It is intended for safety carrying the loads imposed. The floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the building must be carefully designed and proportioned.
The architect or designer must decide, what the size of the walls, the floors, the beams, the girders and the parts, which make up the framework, will be and how they will be placed and arranged.
Here are the main parts of a building and their functions.
Foundations serve to keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, to guard them against the action of frost, to prevent them from sinking and settling which cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.
Floors divide the building into stories. They may be either of timber or may be constructed of a fire-resisting material. Walls are built to enclose areas and carry the weight of floors and roofs. The walls may be solid or hollow. The materials used for the walls construction can be brick, stone, concrete and other natural or artificial materials.
Roofs cover the building and protect it from exposure to the weather. They tie the walls and give strength and firmness to the structure.
Turnkey construction is the type of assistance in building different facilities. In this case the employer engages the contractor to design, manufacture, test, deliver, install, complete and commission a certain project and the contractor undertakes full responsibility for the project construction and commissioning.
The contractor then undertakes endeavors to conduct a survey and design work, as well as to work out *basic and detailed engi neering2 and supply equipment. As a rule, the contractor's highly qualified specialists are made responsible for doing part or full construction works, carrying out installation, *start-up and adjustment operations3.
After the construction is completed the precommissioning starts, that is testing, checking and meeting other requirements, which are specified in the technical handbooks.
As soon as all works in respect of the precommissioning are completed and the project is ready for the commissioning, the contractor notifies the engineer (Project manager) with the message. The contractor begins the commissioning immediately after the engineer does the issue of the Completion Certificate.
The contractor carries out the guarantee test during the commissioning to make sure that the project will reach the designed perfor-mance.
Operational acceptance of the project takes place when the guarantee test has been successfully completed and the guarantees met. As a rule the contractor supplies spare parts so that the project could normally operate during the maintenance guarantee period.
Turnkey contracts are always long-term undertakings involving several parties, among them foreign and local subcontractors. They are usually won as a result of tenders where the bidders compete for the contract on the terms most favourable for the customer.
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