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II. Find the following words and word-combinations in the text.



Жидкая масса, изделия из стекла, природная смесь, расплавленная масса, связующее вещество, цилиндрическая вращающая печь, нагревание известняка, изготовление раствора и штукатурки, гашеная известь.

 

III. explain in English the meaning of the following words.

Cooling

Putty

Slaked lime

Mortar

Running kilns

 

IV. Group these phrases under the following headings:

a) Cement Production

b) Glass Production

to roast in; large-scale construction; ordinary glass; to move through the kiln; building material; bath-shaped furnace; defi­nite portions; cylindrical rotary kilns; to ignite at a temperature; a mixture of substances; cooling semiliquid mass; to press; the molten mass.

 

V. Speak about the glass production.

 

 

UNIT 6

ASBESTOS

I. Find in the text a definition of asbestos and translate it into Russian.

 

Asbestos

Asbestos has been known and used as a textile since the earliest times. The first written evidence of asbestos was recorded by Pliny *in the first century A. D.l

It is told that one of the Emperors of Rome delighted guests by throwing a tablecloth made of asbestos into fire and then removing it unchanged from the flame. A few centuries later Marco Polo told his friends in Italy about a substance he observed in Siberia. He told that it could be woven into attractive textiles, which did not burn even in direct flame.

Asbestos is one of the strangest of all the naturally occurring fibers. It is a rock, *which has been subjected to unusual treatment during its formation2. Asbestos is the only mineral substance used as a textile fiber in the form it is obtained from natural sources. There are many varieties of asbestos rocks but only chrysotile is widely used for textile products. Chrysotile is mined in many countries of the world. The soft, long, white fibers of this mineral can be spun into yarn by the usual processes. Pure asbestos being very difficult to spin, a proportion of cotton fiber is usually added to help to bind the asbestos fibers together. The strangest characteristic of asbestos fi­bers is their resistance to heat and burning. This property determines 4he ways in which they are used.

Early uses for asbestos included such articles as handkerchiefs and table coverings. The Chinese used asbestos to make false sleeves, which could be cleaned by putting them in the fire. All the dirt was burned off, leaving the asbestos clean. We know commercial devel­opment of the fiber to have started in the 19th century. Asbestos was used in flameproof clothing of many kinds, for laboratory, industri­al and military purposes.

Fabrics made of asbestos have good strength. Today the main applications are those in which non-inflammability is essential such as conveyor belting for hot materials, industrial packings, fireproof clothing, etc. Asbestos is sometimes used with glass fiber in making decorative fabrics for curtains used in hospitals, theatres and other buildings where the public assembles. Some grades of asbestos are used for electrical windings and insulation.

 

Vocabulary

... in the first century AD – в первом веке нашей эры

... which has been subjected to unusual treatment durin its formation – который подвергся необычному воздействию во время своего образования

belt – пояс

dirt – грязь

fiber (fibre) – волокно, нить

handkerchief – носовой платок, косынка

sleeve – рукав

spin – прясть

treatment – обращение, обработка, зд. Воздействие

yarn – пряжа, нить

 

II. Read and translate the text and complete the sentences.

1. Fabrics made of asbestos have...

2..... one of the Emperors of Rome...

3. Early uses for asbestos included such articles...

4. All the dirt was burned off, leaving...

5....fibers of this mineral can be spun into yarn by the usual processes.

 

III. Match the verbs in A with those in B.

to include происходить
to add добывать
to start прясть
to spin использовать
to mine гореть
to occur прясть
to burn начинать
to weave добавлять
to use включать

 

 

UNIT 7

AIR – CONDITIONING

 

I. Read the vocabulary and few explanations to the text

 

an amount of количество чего-л
attic мансарда, чердак
be capable of быть способным
desire желание
duct проток, канал
exceed превышать, превосходить
humidity влажность
inhabit жить, обитать
moisture влажность
motion движение
outlet выпускное или выходное отверстие
precipitator осаждатель, ускоритель
purity чистота
stuffy душный
velocity скорость
waste бесполезная трата
... one for the processing of materials первый для обработки материалов
... a uniform temperature and humidity одинаковую температуру и влажность
... neither..., nor... ни…, ни…
A stove causes the hot air around it... Сушильная печь заставляет воздух вокруг…

 

II. Read the following text. Prepare several questions for discussion and discuss them in your group.

 

Air-conditioning

Air-conditioning is the bringing of air in a building to a desired temperature, purity, and humidity throughout the year to maintain healthy and comfortable atmosphere.

Air-conditioning may be divided into two main sections: *one for the processing of materials1 in industry; the other for human com­fort. It has been found that there is an optimum condition of temper­ature and humidity at which the processing of different materials may be carried out with the minimum of wastage and the maximum of goods of specification quality. The system is therefore designed to produce air of predetermined temperature and moisture content and to keep it so despite all external influences. Such air is filtered free of foreign material.

Conditioning air for human comfort may also be divided into two main sections — winter and summer. Frequently, the systems in­stalled in office buildings provide control during both seasons. Com­plete air-conditioning provides the following services.

First, filtration of the air both in winter and summer to remove dust.

Second, circulation of the air at low velocity and with proper diffusion to prevent draughts and maintain *a uniform temperature and humidity2 at all parts of the inhabited space.

Third, introduction of enough fresh air from the outside atmo­sphere.

Fourth, heating of the air in winter.

Fifth, cooling of the air in summer below the outside atmosphere.

Sixth, humidifying the air in winter to a relative humidity of at least 20-25 per cent.

Seventh, dehumidifying the air in summer to a relative humidity not exceeding 55 per cent.

The basic pieces of equipment are the filters, preheat coils, hu­midifiers, reheat coils, additional cooling coils, fans and controls. The control of air purity can be achieved in various degrees. As a minimum control some sort of filtering must be done near the en­trance of the air-conditioning system. Possibly the most efficient fil­tering device is the electrostatic precipitator.

Air conditioning for human comfort is employed in both large and small installations, such as theaters, office buildings, depart­ment stores, residences, airplanes, railways, cars and submarines.

 

II

People are comfortable when they are *neither too cold, nor3 too warm and when the air about them is neither too dry, nor too damp and is not stuffy or dusty. To bring about these desirable conditions the heating or air-conditioning apparatus must be capable of main­taining the following conditions inside the house, whatever the con­ditions outside may be.

To avoid stuffiness, the air should be given a certain amount of motion. Under winter conditions this must be sufficient to distribute the heat uniformly throughout the rooms. It must not be too cold at the floor, not too hot at the ceiling. * A stove causes the hot air around it4 to rise up toward the ceiling and cooler air to flow toward the stove. A radiator acts in this respect like a stove. Warm-air registers bring heated air into a room with a certain motion or velocity which imparts movement to the air already in the room. An outlet for this air should be provided in order to have good ventilation. In summer time much greater air motion is needed, enough to change the air in a room completely from three to ten times per hour. Sometimes a fan is placed in the attic to blow the warm air out and to cause the cooler night air to flow through open windows. When this is done, air in the house can be expected to be changed completely every two or three minutes. When air is brought into a house from outside, heated in a furnace and distributed through all the rooms, it ought to be cleaned by passing it through " filters" before it enters the furnace.

 

III. discuss air-conditioning of the house with your partner using the following phrases:

1. Another important thing is...

2. You must keep in mind that...

3. You avoid this... should...

4.... (this) must be sufficient.

5. What people need most of all...

 

UNIT 8


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