Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Exercise 1. Translate into Russian. Comment on the use of Tenses.
1. Stainless steels have successfully made their way into engineering applications. 2.The working of metal in some form has engaged man’s efforts for thousands of years. 3. The electrical power industry has traditionally faced corrosion problems. 4. Although many scientists studied motion, it was the great Sir Isaak Newton who formulated the theories of motion. 5. Studies have also shown hardness of stainless steels. 6. Chemistry students put some water into a tube, added some sodium hydroxide and dissolved it. 7. They have recently examined several modern molding machines. 8. The scientists have been working on this problem since 1998. 9. Have you finished your report on resource-saving in non-ferrous metallurgy? You have been working on it for two weeks. 10. For these reasons traditional moulding has taken an advantage over the new methods. 11. The new tecnique resulted in a wide range of material flexibility. 12. Stainless steels have successfully made their way into engineering applications.
Exercise 2.Put the verb into the correct form (Past Simple or Present
1. I . . . (to see) her recently. She . . . (to change) a lot. 2. John . . . (to move) to a new house three days ago. 3. She . . . (to work) at this office for 10 years. Now she . . . (to decide) to retire. 4. I don’t think I . . . (to know) your wife. I . . . (not to meet) her. 5. John . . . (to see) Susan last week but he . . . (not to see) her since. 6. This African boy . . . (never to see) snow. 7. It . . . (to happen) when I was out. 8. She . . . (to take) the envelope, . . . (to open) it and . . . (to take) a small sheet of paper out. 9. I . . . (not to see) him of late. 10. When you . . . (to see) Mr.Brown? 11. You are late for the classes again. You . . . (to be) already late once this week. 12. Jill . . . (not to write) to me for nearly a month. 13. It . . . (to be) cold in winter in Moscow as a rule? - Yes, generally it . . . (to be), but this winter it . . . (to be) very warm. 14. Where is Peter? - He . . . (to go) to the library. 15. You . . . (to read) anything by Mark Twain? Which of his novels you . . . (to read) when a child? 16. I . . . (to be) recently to this picture gallery. There . . . (to be) a very interesting exhibition on. 17. Tom . . . (to lose) his key and can’t open the door. He . . . (to lose) his key yesterday. 18. I ( to phone) him an hour ago, but he (to be) at home . 19. You (to meet) Peter yet, but I am sure you will like him. 20. I (to start) learning English at school and then (to go on) studying it at the Institute.
Exercise 3. Replace the infinitives by the Past Indefinite, the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous:
1. At last you (to open) the door. I (to ring) for an hour at least, I think. 2. Here you are at last. I (to wait) for you for ten minutes. 3. The workers (to work) hard since Tuesday. 4. The scientists (to carry out) a lot of experiments before they (to get) positive results. 5. It (not to rain) for a long time. 6. He (to work) at this project for a long time and (not to finish) it yet. 7. How long you (to know) her? I (to know) her for three years. 8. Last night my friends and I (to decide) to stay in town for the summer. 9. They (to discover) diamonds in South Africa in the 19th century. 10. The concept of the atom (not to exist) before 1804.
Exercise 4.Learn the following dialogues by heart and make up a dialogue of your own using the model
1.A. Have you ever been to the Swiss Alps?
B. Yes, I have. I went there last winter.
A. And I’ve never been there. I’d like to go there next year. Did you
ski much when you were there?
B. No, I didn’t. I can’t ski. I’ve never skied in my life.
A. I can. I learnt to ski in Canada three years ago.
2.A. Have you heard the latest news?
B. What latest news?
A. John has got married at last.
B. Really? And whom did he marry?
A. Ann Simmons.
B. That girl? I’ve never liked her, you know.
A. Yes, but he loves her a lot, and it’s the most important thing.
Pre - reading task
1. What do you know about the geography of Great Britain?
2. What do you know about the climate of Great Britain?
3. What do you know about its political structure?
4. Look through the text and say what facts about this country are new for
A Tight Little Island
Tight Little Island, the title of a film about Britain, best describes the physical and cultural characteristics that condition British politics. The smallness of the island, the uniformity of its climate, and the relative concentration of its population in a small portion of the island - England - provide a distinctive setting.
For Americans, the smallness of Britain is quite striking. The continental United States has a territory of more than 3 million square miles. Britain has only 94.216, less than the state of Oregon. Even more startling, England, with 50,335 square miles of land, is home for more than four-fifth of the entire population. The vast majority of the British population lives in a small area almost exactly the size of the state of New York. More than 46 million persons live in the southeastern portion of Britain; about 12 million of these live in the capital city of London.
The very ‘tightness’ of the British Isles is important to their politics because now, historically, the country has benefited from easy communications. These good communications were important in facilitating economic and social development during the past two centuries. Regional differences within England have traditionally been slight compared with differences within the United States. The differences between England and Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland are more pronounced, but they are not dramatic and involve only about 20 percent of the total population. Probably the best illustration of the ‘tightness’ of Britain is the ‘awayday’ trips offered by British Rail, the state-owned railroad. For a small fare a person can go to even the most remote seaside resort or major city and return the same day.
May be the tightness of the country is the reason for the principal trait of British national character - keeping himself to himself. Britain is a country of reserved and conservative people who like to observe their customs and traditions even if they are completely outdated now.
Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. A monarch is the official head of the state, he opens Parliament, completes the process of passing an act by giving the Royal Assent. Parliament which consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons is the supreme legislative body. The supreme executive body is the Government headed by the Prime Minister. Ministers of the Government represent the political party which has taken office. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party in power.
Any M.P. may introduce a bill to the Parliament. Every bill has three readings at the House of Commons, then it is passed to the House of Lords. If it is approved by the House of Lords, it will go to the Monarch for signature.
Exercise 1.Answer the questions.
1. Why do the words ‘tight little island’ best describe Great Britain? 2. Does the geographical position of Great Britain predetermine the national character? 3. What is constitutional monarchy? 4. What is the role of members of Parliament?
Exercise 2.From the choices given choose one word or phrase which could be
substituted for the underlined word or phrase without changing its
1. For Americans the smallness of Britain is quite striking.
a. funny b. picturesque c. fascinating
2. The differences between England and Scotland are rather pronounced.
a. deep b. unimportant c. respected
3. They have so many differences that they can hardly come to any agreement.
a. variations b. contradictions c. similarities
4. The British like to keep themselves to themselves.
a. to step back b. to speak much c. to keep aloof
5. She is very reserved. One can hardly hear any word from her.
a. cold b. uncommunicative c. friendly
6. Her clothes are completely outdated. She looks rather funny in that dress.
a. unfashionable b. up-to-date c. modern
7. He took office three years ago. I think that in a year he may be re-elected.
a. took for granted b.came to power c. ran for office
8. The initial step is often the most difficult.
a. quickest b. last c. first
Exercise 3. With the help of additional material make up a report about Great Britain.
Asking for things. Shopping
1. What would you like? 1. I’d like a loaf of bread, please.
2. Could you give me a dozen eggs, 2. Certainly, here you are.
3. Would you show me that chop, please? 3. Sure.
4. Can I help you? 4. Yes, I’d like some cheese, please.
5. May I borrow your lighter? 5. Yes, please.
6. Do you sell cigarettes here? 6. I’m sorry we don’t have them here
7. What is the price of it?/ 7. It is 2 pounds 99p.
How much is it?
Exercise 1.Match the shops with the things you can buy there.
Use the list.
Post office milk and cheese sugar
Florist newspapers stamps
Bakery bread and cakes medicine
Boots (Chemist’s) facial creme flour
Dairy tea and coffee beef
Newsagent fruits and vegetables candies
Grocery apples and pears eggs
Greengrocery oatmeal cereals
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