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Choose correct answers from the following.

1. Dino Dini in his definition of design process identifies:

a) three kinds of constraints – physical, mental and spiritual;

b) three types characteristics – weight, volume, and concentration;

c) two types of constraints – negotiable and non-negotiable;

d) two types of characteristics – financial and industrial.

2. Design process according to one video game developer can be defined as:

a) “The management of characteristics”;

b) “The management of cost production”;

c) “The invention planning”;

d) “The management of constraints”.

3. An evaluation of the existent design is often included in which process:

a) projection;

b) financial planning;

c) bank loan application;

d) redesign.

4. According to Dino Dini, the first step in design process is:

a) finding an investor interested in the project;

b) finding clientelle for the future product;

c) classification, identification and selection of constraints;

d) identification, prioritizing and selection of characteristics.

Say whether these sentences are true or false.

1. According to Dino Dini's theory, the second step of the design process

is manipulating design variables so as to satisfy negotiable constrains and optimizing

those which are non-negotiable.

2. Design with no solution can be a result of conflict within a set of nonnegotiable


3. Design process depends on the object under design and/or individuals

participating, and can take many forms.

Insert a correct synonym in the blank spot.

1. Design........ every form of creation from objects to the way we execute

our lives:

a) bears;

b) supports;

c) develops;

d) encourages.

2. A redesign often....... an evaluation of the existent design:

a) results in;

b) contains;

c) remakes;

d) produces.

3. The process of design then....... from here by manipulating design variables:

a) computes;

b) intrigues;

c) continues;

d) entangles.

4. The question “What is Design” appears to........ answers with limited


a) build;

b) imagine;

c) yell;

d) grant.


Approaches to design

There are countless philosophies for guiding design as the design values

and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought and among practicing designers. Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. A design goal may range from solving the least significant individual problem of the smallest element, to the most holistic influential utopian goals. Design goals are usually for guiding design. However, conflicts over immediate and minor goals may lead to questioning the purpose of design, perhaps to set better long term or ultimate goals.

A design philosophy is a guide to help make choices when designing such

as ergonomics, costs, economics, functionality and methods of re-design. An example of a design philosophy is “dynamic change” to achieve the elegant or

stylish look you need.

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a

guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer. A combination of approaches may be used if they don't conflict. Some

popular approaches include:

· KISS principle, (Keep it Simple

Stupid, etc.), which strives to eliminate

unnecessary complications;

· There is more than one way to do it (TIMTOWTDI), a philosophy to

allow multiple methods of doing the same thing;

· Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals and tasks associated

with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on the end user;

· User-centered design, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations

of the end user of the designed artifact.


holistic – целостный, глобальный

Kiss principle – принцип «не ус-

ложняй»; «кисс-принцип» (прин-

цип упрощения конструкции или


ergonomics – эргономика (изучение трудовых процессов и условий

труда, а также возможности человека при выполнении различных видов работ)

Use-centered design – дизайн, со-

средоточенный на цели

User-centered design – дизайн, со-

средоточенный на потребителе


Methods of design

Design methods is a broad area that focuses on:

· exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking

skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services

or the creation of new categories (brainstorming);

· redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better uidelines for traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);

· managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time;

· prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation;

· trendspotting; understanding the trend process.

In philosophy, the abstract noun “design” refers to a pattern with a purpose.

Design is thus contrasted with purposelessness, randomness, or lack of


To study the purpose of designs, beyond individual goals (e.g. marketing,

technology, education, entertainment, hobbies), is to question the controversial politics, morals, ethics and needs. “Purpose” may also lead to existential questions such as religious morals and teleology. These philosophies for the “purpose of” designs are in contrast to philosophies for guiding design or methodology.

Often a designer (especially in commercial situations) is not in a position

to define purpose. Whether a designer is, is not, or should be concerned with

purpose or intended use beyond what they are expressly hired to influence, is

debatable, depending on the situation. In society, not understanding or disinterest in the wider role of design might also be attributed to the commissioning agent or client, rather than the designer.

In structuration theory, achieving consensus and fulfillment of purpose is

as continuous as society. Raised levels of achievement often lead to raised expectations.

Design is both medium and outcome, generating a Janus-like face,

with every ending marking a new beginning.



brainstorming – «мозговая ата-

ка/штурм» (форма поиска реше-

ния сложной проблемы, приме-

няемая в случаях, когда решение

трудно найти обычными мето-

дами или когда его необходимо

найти быстро)

incremental – возрастающий, поднимающийся, увеличивающийся

trendspotting – анализ трендов,


randomness – случайность; произвольность

structuration theory – теория

структурации (according to it, all

human action is performed within

the context of a pre-existing social

structure which is governed by a set of norms and/or laws which are distinct from those of other social structures.

Therefore, all human action is

at least partly predetermined based

on the varying contextual rules under which it occurs. However, the structure and rules are not permanent and external, but sustained and

modified by human action)


1. Explain the following in English: 1) holistic; 2) ultimate goals; 3) ergonomics;

4) functionality; 5) dynamic change; 6) incrementally; 7) complexity;

8) structuration theory; 9) teleology.

2. Match the following terms with corresponding definitions:

1) User-centered;

2) Use-centered;


4) trendspotting;

5) kiss;

6) Brainstorming

a) strive to eliminate unnecessary complications;

b) a philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing

the same thing;

c) a design focused on the goals and tasks associated

with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on

the end user;

d) a design focused on the needs, wants, and limitations

of the end user of the designed artifact;

e) exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing

critical thinking skills to research and define problem


f) method of understanding trend processes.



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