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And Have / Got something done

Exercise 202.

Write sentences in the way shown.

Example: He did not paint the walls. — He had (got) them painted.

1. He did not fix the fridge. 2.1 did not wash the floor. 3. She did not type the article, 4. He did not translate the letter. 5. They did not repair the house. 6.1 did not wash the car. 7. She did not make the dress. 8. He did not cook supper. 9. He did not iron the shirt. 10. They did not build the fence.

Exercise 203.

Choose the right variant.

1. Get your children (to feel/feel/felt) responsible for their studies. 2. She had her husband (to entertain/ entertain/entertained) the guests while she was making tea. 3. He got them (to pay/pay/paid) for the damage. 4. She had her carpets (to clean/clean/cleaned). 5. He couldn't get the dog (to rise/rise/risen). 6. She had the porter (to carry/carry/carried).her luggage. 7. She got her baggage (to carry/carry/carried) in. 8. Peter the Great got his noblemen (to have/have/had) their beards (to shave/shave/shaven). 9. The rebellions had the president (to leave/leave/left) the country. 10. She had to get the tyre (to change/change/changed). 11. The manager had his employees (to work/work/worked) till seven. 12. She got him (to buy/buy/bought) an expensive gold bracelet for her. 13. Din has his things (to wash/wash/washed) in the laundry. 14. She couldn't get the child (to go/go/ gone) to bed. 15. Speak to him, please; try to get him (to refuse/refuse/refused) this offer.


Exercise 204.

Use the correct form of the verb.

1. Her remark made everybody (feel) uncomfortable. 2. They got the manager (sign) the contract. 3. She was made (give up) smoking. 4. They got him (sell) the car. 5. Let him (do) the task himself. 6. He had a fireplace (install) in the corner of the sitting room. 7. She bought a nice dress but she had to get the sleeves (shorten). 8. The professor let Mike (leave) the room. 9. They were made (hand) in their reports on Thursday. 10. He let me (decide) for myself. 11. They had him (contribute) to expenses. 12. The teacher got the pupils (learn) the poem by heart. 13. He took a lot of photos during his holiday and got them (develop). 14. The robber had the teller (open) the safe. 15. The opposition got the government (decrease) prices. 16. Don't let them (attend) the conference. 17. They were made (go) to the police station. 18. He got the chairman (make) an announcement, 19. She made him (forget) the incident. 20. Do you let your children (watch) TV till late at night? 21.1 got my son (shave) his moustache. 22. Let your children (have) tastes in music different from yours.


Exercise 205.

Find and correct the mistakes if any.

1. My mother won't let anybody to think ill of him. 2. It was so difficult for me to get him to believe us again. 3. The party was dull, and we decided to tell stories to make the time to pass. 4. Nick got Mary given him a lift to the school. 5. He will try to get her to replace him. 6. Let's to try to get them join our company. 7. She got the telephone to repair. 8. The thought of his coming made me to feel ill. 9. The wind made the windows rattled. 10. They must have the problem settle. 11. She had the secretary to make another copy. 12. He had the copy to make. 13. They did their best to make themselves agreeing to the proposal. 14. He changed his mind to have his house to paint green, 15. Let him choosing his friends himself. 16. Your enthusiasm makes me to feel young again. 17. She had a desire let her life to go on as though nothing had happened. 18. The director got his paper to type. 19. The teacher made the girl do the exercise again. 20. What makes you to think so? 21. The boy was made to water the garden. 22. She is getting her hair to cut tomorrow. 23. She did not let her daughter to go to discos. 24. Let's try to have him come to the party. 25.1 got him to go to India.

Exercise 206.

Translate the sentences with causative verbs into English (you may have several variants).

1. Грабители (robbers) заставили людей, находящих­ся в банке, встать к стене. 2. Пусть ребенок съест мо­роженое. 3. Я не виноват. Меня заставили сделать это. 4. Вчера мне вымыли окна. 5. Позвольте мне попы-'таться сделать это самому. 6. Дети очень шумят. Пусть они идут гулять. 7. Его заставили выполнять скучную (dull) работу. 8. Я уговорил ее поехать отдохнуть (go for a holiday). 9. Ему отремонтировали квартиру. 10. За­труднительные обстоятельства (circumstances) заста­вили его поступать таким образом. 11. Давай сделаем перерыв (break) на обед. 12. Ты должен заставить ее принять это предложение. 13. Дайте знать, когда захо­тите меня повидать снова. 14. Он уговорил своего со­седа присматривать за собакой во время его отсутствия (absence). 15. Интересно, что заставило его убить президента? 16, Она всегда разрешает своим детям смот­реть мультфильмы (cartoons) в воскресенье, 17. Подо­зреваемого (suspect) заставили лечь на землю (ground). 18. Ей нужно починить часы. 19, Она плохо себя чув­ствует: ей вчера удалили (pull out) зуб. 20. Он не стро­ил дом сам, ему его построили.


Unit 16

The Gerund

Exercise 207.

You can use either gerunds or infinitives after the following verbs. Find the odd word in the chain of the verbs.

Example: fancy avoid agree postpone

1) deny practise afford suggest
2) offer mention risk mind
3) put off prove learn aim
4) admit fancy fail consider
5) expect happen give up tend
6) enjoy endure imagine appear
7) can't help adore refuse carry on
8) delay have difficulty intend spend time
9) can't stand keep resist seem
10) be busy neglect threaten plan

Exercise 208.

Complete the following sentences using gerunds.

1. (Be) free and alone is a good thing if you are tired of big cities. 2. (Find) you here was a quite a surprise. 3. If this is what you intend (ask) me, stop (waste) your time. 4. They kept on (talk) though the band began (play). 5. Everyone enjoyed (swim) in the river. 6. My watch needs (repair). 7. He never mentioned (live) in Prague. 8. He does not seem to mind (air) the room. 9. Just imagine (go) there together! 10. Don't put of (do) it now. If you postpone (receive) a visa again, you will miss an excellent opportunity of (go) there.


Exercise 209.

Match the parts of the sentences.

1) Making money

2) Being born in my provincial town

3) There is a general feeling all around

4) He promised them that no harm

5) Would you mind

a) would come to them for signing the papers.

b) looking up his tele­phone number?

c) is my dream also.

d) wasn't much different from being born in Brooklyn.

e) that her running away was a good thing.

Exercise 210.

Complete the following sentences with gerunds formed from the verbs in the box.

buy comment

answer sign

pay help

recognize make go see


1.___big prices for famous pictures is now a wealthy man's way of___taxation. 2. English grammar is very difficult and few writers have avoided___mistakes. 3. Maurice was saved from___.by Kate's entry with the tray. 4 The elderly ladies enjoyed___who came in and

out, ___old friends, and___unfavourably how these had aged. 5. Of course the contract is mutually beneficial and he is all for___it. 6. The important part of his life is___people. 7. Parks at night is a dangerous place to walk. Avoid___there after darkness. 8. Father suggested

___a new machine.


Exercise 211.

Make up sentences using gerunds.

1. Forgive (I, take up) so much of your time. 2. Do you mind (he, join) us? 3. Does he feel like (stay) here for another week? 4.1 appreciate (you, encourage) him when he failed in his experiment. 5. Do you know the reason for (he, feel) disappointed? 6. " It's no good (you, hate) it, " he said becoming didactic. 7. Only the other day they had been talking about (something, happen), 8, She was listening hard all the time for any sound of (Jan, descend) the stairs. 9. He wishes he'd never told you the truth but it's no use (he, deny) it. 10. Cursing himself for (not learn) to drive a car he woke up Toni. 11. Of course, I should insist on (you, accept) the proper professional fee. 12. Bob was feeling rather unwell, and was not really looking forward to (we, visit) him. 13. My father thinks I am not capable of (earn) my own living. 14. He warned us that there was no point in (we, arrive) half an hour earlier. 15. They were talking about (she, give up) the job and (go) to live in the country.


Exercise 212.

Open the brackets and use the proper gerund either in the active or passive voice.

1. The speaker was annoyed at (interrupt) every other moment. 2. He showed no sign of (hurt). 3. They showed no sign of (recognize) us. 4. He insists on (pay) for his work done. 5. We did not want to speak to the correspondent and tried to avoid (interview) by him. 6. Excuse me for (give) so much trouble to you. 7. After (examining) by the doctor I was given a sick leave. 8. They deny (rob) the bank, but admit (make) plans about it. 9. The problem is not worth (speak of). 10. Why does he avoid (meet) journalists? 11. She insisted on (show) the files to her. 12. She does not stand (remind) people of their duties and (remind) of hers. 13. He is not used to (speak to) like that. 14. He had never thought of security because he had no idea of (kidnap). 15. Did you succeed in (persuade) your colleagues? 16, The TV set needs (repair). 17. He is looking forward to (give) the main part in the play. 18. After (look through) the papers were registered. 19. He can't do anything without (disturb) anybody or (disturb). 20. Have you ever dreamed of (earn) a million dollars?


Exercise 213.

Complete the sentences on the right using the gerunds formed from the verbs in the box.

persuade go

remember gamble

do see

try visit

talk watch

buy get

speak cry

4. Do you ever watch TV? Never. I think it's a waste of time___. 2.1 advise you to see the film which is on at our local cinema. It is worth___. 3. He is speaking too much. I think it's no use___into every detail. 4. Why are you speaking so much of it? To my mind, the matter

is not worth___of. 5. Why are you crying? You are seven years old already. Is it good___over the broken doll? 6. Stay in bed then. It is no good.___anything if you feel bad. 7. Have you talked to Alice? Yes, but we had difficulty ___ to her. I did not expect her to be so stubborn. I think it's a waste of time___her to follow cur advice. 8. She has bought a new fur coat. Well,

to my mind, there is no point in___a new one if she has already got four coats! 9. What are you going to do tonight? Let's go to the casino. I think it is a waste of money___. 10. Where have you been this summer? In Moscow, I had difficulty___, a visa. 11. She has left for Paris. It's no use___to get in touch with her, 12. England and Brazil are going to play tomorrow. I've already bought tickets. Matches between England and Brazil are worth ___. 13. Ronald Reagan often used Russian proverbs in his speech. I think he supposed they were worth___.


Exercise 214.

Fill in the blanks with prepositions after, before, by, on, without.

1. What did she mean___boasting like this? 2. His knowledge has improved___taking a training course. 3. He could tell the funniest story___smiling. 4.___ entering the house she rushed to the telephone___greeting anybody. 5. You can keep healthy and fit___jogging in the morning. 6. Where did he go___finishing his work? 7.___writing an article about the events he must go to

the place where they are taking place. 8.___hearing a woman's cry he jumped up from his seat. 9.___ going through the customs office he went aboard the plane. 10. She was upset___not getting an answer from him.


Exercise 215.

Fill in the blanks with proper gerunds (use the verbs in the box).

Send call go take speak find accomplish come part laugh gamble explain steal Cheat support live take buy

1, He has succeeded in___a difficult task and we are proud of him. 2. You should ask him for help. It seems to me that he is very good at___everything. 3, Mr. Grimsby hasn't got enough experience. I am against___in our work and I object___to the conference. 4. The audience

burst out___at the sight of the monkey going through different tricks. 5. Do you know he has given up___? 6.1 don't insist on ___there by plane. 7. Though nobody suspected him of___, his companions accused him of_______ them when he was responsible for___goods for their

company. 8. They are engaged in___new people for their firm. 9. Why do you persist in___him? 10. He is fed up with___alone. He is looking forward to his family___ in two days. 11. They prevented us from___rash steps. 12. She feels like___too much when she drinks a glass of

champagne. 13. He decided against___her again.


Exercise 216.

Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs where necessary.

1. The policeman accused him ___exceeding the speed limit. 2. She has been dreaming___flying to the Bahamas. 3. The rain prevented him___going to the country. 4. They have decided___buying a new car. 5. He succeeded___being promoted. 6.1 feel___staying

at home. It is rather cold. Let's watch a new film on TV instead___going to the picnic. 7. She is fed_______ staying in the village. 8. He went to the disco despite ___having a headache. 9. She is looking_______playing the leading part in the performance. 10.1 think it's no use ___ trying to get him home. 11. Everybody congratulated her___passing the exam so well. 12. He

is not very good___taking decisions quickly. 13. They don't approve___her getting married to James. 14. The police suspect him___drug smuggling. 15. We have difficulty___installing the new equipment.


Exercise 217.

Paraphrase the sentences using the gerunds. Use prepositions or adverbs where necessary (gerundial phrases are in bold type).

Example: We have no objections. They may leave at once. — We have no objections to their leaving at once.

1. He is unable to resist her charm. It's funny. 2» They told the truth. You shouldn't deny it. 3.You shouldn't take advantage of people's weakness. It's no good. 4.1 confided in this man. I admit it. 5. She accepted the proposal. Her mother was displeased with it. &. We rang the bell» and we were admitted to the hall. 7. I'd like to speak to you frankly. I hope you don't mind it. 8. He is admitted to our closed circle. I object to it. 9. He was afraid that I would change the decision. 10.1 regiet that I gave you so much trouble. 11. After he had studied the weather forecast in great detail, he said he would go back to London. 12. Why do you insist that he should be present there? 13.1 am really ashamed that I haven't written to you for so long. 14. You submitted the report to the secretary. I remember it. 15.1 was prepared to dislike Mr. Kalada even before I met him. 16. He suggested that we should start at once. 17. Mrs, Knight disliked tbatl told the truth. 18. We are looking forward to the fact tl at you will spend the summer with us. 19. He is responsible that the letter is delivered only today. 20. This woman's face attracted his attention as familiar for he remembered that she had passed by him several times.

Exercise 218.

Open the brackets with either gerunds or infinitives. Use prepositions or adverbs where necessary.

1. There is no point (worry) about these things. 2. Do you want me (order) a long-distance call? 3. Before (give) evidence you must swear (speak) the truth. 4. I've seen him (leave) the office early this afternoon. He seemed (be) unhappy about something. 5. She didn't succeed (be) economical. 6. Would you mind (look up) his telephone number? 7. I'm looking forward (make) an appointment with this businessman. 8. It was a lovely day, so I suggested (go) to the country. 9. Would you mind (close) the window? I hate (sit) in. a draught. 10. It's worth (arrange) the things properly. 11. I'd like you (arrange) everything by the time I come back. 12. Jt's very difficult (deal) with him because he got used (do) everything in his own way. 13. The teacher was very strict. Nobody dared (speak) to each other. 14. They don't have much money. They can't afford (go) out very often. 15. It is no use (have) a car if you don't know how (drive).

Exercise 219.

Choose the right variant with the following verbs.

A remember

1. Remember (to look/looking) ahead when driving.

2. When you go on that mission please remember (to point out/pointing out) to people there that our stand on this issue remains the same. — I won't fail to do that. 3. Do you remember (to meet/meeting) them last summer? 4. Remember (to phone/phoning) as soon as arrive. 5. The policeman asked me if I clearly remembered (to lock/ locking) the door before I went to bed. 6.1 remember (to pay/paying) him. I gave him two pounds. 7. Did you remember (to give/giving) him the key to the safe? — No, I didn't. I'll go and do it now. 8.1 don't remember ever (to see/seeing) you. 9. She does not remember (to ask/asking) this question. 10. We remember (to stay/ staying) a weekend with her. She is a nice woman. 11. When you are on holiday remember (to send/sending) postcards to a few close friends.

В regret

1.1 regret (to tell/telling) you all the tickets for this performance have been sold. 2. He's always regretted (not to learn/not learning) to play a musical instrument. 3. They regret (to fail/failing) to understand the importance of your proposal. 4.1 regret (to inform/ informing) you that your application has been rejected. 5.1 don't regret (to quarrel/quarrelling) with him. 6. The manager regrets (to say/saying) that your proposal has been turned down. 7. We regret (to miss/missing) this film. It is worth seeing. 8.1 regret (to say/saying) I won't be able to come. 9. She regrets (not to be able/not being able) say goodbye to him. 10. If you regret (to do/doing) something, you are sorry about an action in the past.

С be (get) used to/used to

1. He used to (be/being) good at mathematics. 2.1 got used to (get up/getting up) very early. 3. In the Dark Ages people used to (think/thinking) that the sun goes round the earth. 4. He wasn't used to (work/working) late at night. 5. He used to (study/studying) late at night when a youth. 6. She was used to (wander/wandering) about the fields by herself. 7. In my childhood my aunt used to (bring/bringing) little presents for me. 8. He quickly got used to (have/having) a good meal and nice suits. 9. He used to (say/saying) that there was nothing like warm crisp brown bread spread with honey. 10. The mother was used to (do/doing) all the work about the house alone. 11. The mother used to (do/doing) all the work about the house,

D try

1. Why don't you try (to lose/losing) some weight? 2. He tried (to go/going) to evening classes but his English was still hopeless, 3. She tried (to explain/explaining) the situation but he refused to listen and went on grumbling. 4. Do stop talking, I am trying (to write/ writing) a letter. 5. He tried (to persuade/persuading) them to sign a contract. 6. Try (to forget/forgetting) it, it is not worth worrying about. 7.1 tried (to catch/ catching) his eye, but he sat motionless. 8. He tried (to cook/cooking) but failed. 9. They had tried (to introduce/ introducing) many other methods in return to the initial one.

E stop

1. If you stop (to do/doing) something, you finish an action. 2. If you stop (to do/doing) something, you interrupt one action in order to do something else. 3. We stopped (to buy/buying) food in the store because the owner raised the prices. 4. We stopped (to buy/buying) food in the store because we were hungry. 5. Do stop (to make/making) this awful noise! 6. We've only stopped (to buy/buying) some petrol. 7. They stopped (to produce/ producing) refrigerators because of their workers' strike. 8. He suddenly stopped (to speak/speaking), got up and left without saying anything.

F be afraid to/be afraid of

1. I'm afraid (to take/taking) an exam because I'm afraid (to fail/failing) it. 2. He was afraid (to leave/ leaving) the house because he was afraid (to meet/meeting) someone who might recognise him. 3. He was afraid (to say/saying) a word because he did not know anybody. 4.1 am afraid (to go/going) by plane. 5. He was afraid (to tell/telling) her the sad news. 6. My sister is such a coward! She can't see horror films because she is afraid (to meet/ meeting) a ghost at night. 7. He was afraid (to make/ making) the next step because he was afraid (to fall/falling) because he was standing on the brink of the precipice.

G can't help

1. It is silly of me, but I can't help (to feel/feeling) anxious. 2.1 can't help (to laugh/laughing)) at his jokes. 3. They can't help him (to do/doing) the exercise. 4. She could not help (to be attracted/being attracted) by the fact that she was being looked at. 5. He couldn't help his son (to solve/solving) the problem. 6. She couldn't help (to phone/phoning) her mother when she heard the news.


Exercise 220.

Open the brackets with either gerunds or infinitives.

1.1 don't remember (switch off) the TV set. I'd better (go) and (check) it. 2. The weather is very nice. Let's (go) for a swim. — I am not particularly good at (swim). What about (go) for a drive instead of (bathing)? 3. We stopped once (buy) some food, and then we stopped again (ask) the way. 4. Do you feel like (dine) out or would you rather (have) dinner at home? — I'd like (go) out. I always enjoy (have) dinner at a restaurant. 5.1 don't mind (travel) by bus but I hate (stand) if there are a lot of people. I think it's better (go) by tube. 6. Would you like (come) to the conference devoted to the theatre? — No, thanks. I like (see) performances but I don't enjoy (listen) to people talking about it. 7. I'm delighted (hear) that you can come for the weekend. We are all looking forward to (see) you. 8. The autumn is wonderful! You got used to (swim) in September, so remember (bring) your bathing suit. 9.1 remember (lend) that book to you. You wanted (write) a report. — Oh, I'm so sorry! I'll bring it back tonight. 10. When would you like (start off)? — In a few moments. — Let's (wait) till it stops (snow) otherwise we may get lost. 11. Do you remember (meet) her at my birthday party? — Yes, certainly. Thank you for the chance (meet) such a beautiful and witty girl. 12. The results are very disappointing, I regret (say). I allow you (to rewrite) the test. But I allow (rewrite) on condition everyone is present. 13. You know I meant (buy) something for supper but the shop was closed. — OK. It means (have) sandwiches and tea for supper.


Exercise 221.

Find and correct the mistakes if any.

1.1 think you made a mistake to come here. 2. When he told me about his plans, I couldn't help to be surprised. It absolutely wasn't in his line. 3.1 can't help you preparing this historical sketch. 4. It's no use persuading such a stubborn person. 5. People often have difficulty to learn a foreign language. 6.1 congratulated Ann to enter University. 7. We called after him, but he did not even stop turning his head. 8.1 don't remember him to tell anything of the kind. 9. They couldn't forgive me for wasting so much time. 10. It is not worth to take up the matter now; it can wait.


Exercise 222.

Choose the correct variant.

1. He was clever enough_______in this delicate situation.

a) avoiding, speaking

b) to avoid, to speak

c) avoiding, to speak

d) to avoid, speaking

2.1 wonder if there is any use_______him.

a) trying, improving

b) trying, to improve

c) to try, to improve

d) to try, improving

3. Please let it ___ clearly. I am not used ___something twice.

a) understand, to saying

b) to understand, to say

c) be understood, to saying

d) be understood, to say

4. Suddenly she burst out___with the words, " I'm sick and tired___soups and porridges for him. I can't go on___my best years."

a) crying, of making, wasting

b) to cry, to make, to waste

c) to cry, of making, wasting

d) crying, to make, wasting

5. He had some difficulty, __his temper. This scene was worth___. After that he avoided___by his friends.

a) to control, to watch, to see

b) controlling, watching, seeing

c) controlling, watching, being seen

d) being controlled, being watched, to be seen


Exercise 223.

Translate into English using gerunds where possible.

1. Я настаиваю, чтобы ты показал нам свой новый автомобиль, 2. Маленький мальчик гордился тем, что у него такой благородный (noble) друг. 3. Этот фильм стоит посмотреть. Вам не сможет не понравиться прекрасная игра (performance) актеров. 4. Было невоз­можно достать билет, и ему пришлось отказаться от мысли послушать знаменитого пианиста. 5, Я помню, он громко смеялся, когда рассказывал эту историю. 6. Она была уверена, что мальчики уже давно переста­ли работать и убежали на речку. 7. Она сидела в гости­ной (drawing room), не говоря ни слова и не обращая внимания на болтовню (chat) своей сестры. 8. Не отве­чая на приветствия, он быстро прошел в зал. 9. Мне надоело быть старым и мудрым, и я не выношу, когда ко мне относятся (treat) как к инвалиду. 10. Он наме­ревался начать свое расследование (investigation) с осмотра сада. 11. Помыв посуду и прибрав все на кух­не, она легла на диван. 12. Если ты не скажешь мне, в чем дело, какая польза оттого, что я здесь? 13. Я даже не мог прогуляться без того, чтобы он ко мне не подо­шел. 14. Он терпеть не может, когда его хвалят. 15. Ему не нравилось, что дочь часами болтает по телефону. 16. Он пытался найти предлог (pretext), чтобы уйти пораньше. 17. Надеюсь, вы не возражаете, если ему все расскажут? 18. Вы не забыли отправить письмо, кото­рое он вам дал? 19. Видя наши затруднения, они пред­ложили свою помощь. 20. Они не могли не рассмеять­ся при виде (at the sight of) клоуна.


Unit 17

The Participle

Exercise 224.

Open the brackets and use the correct form of Participle I.

1. That night, (go) up to his room he thought of his unpleasant duty. 2. She smiled (remember) the joke. 3. A new road will soon be built (connect) the plant with the railway station. 4. He speaks like a man (take) his opinion of everything. 5. (Not know) that she could trust them she did not know what to do. 6. And (say) this he threw himself back in the armchair. 7.1 spent about ten minutes (turn) over the sixteen pages of The Guardian before I found the main news and articles. 8. (Be) so far away he still feels himself part of the community. 9. The boy came out of the water (shake) from top to toe. 10. (Support) her by the arm he helped her out of the taxi.

Exercise 225.

Paraphrase the following using Participle I where it is possible.

Example: The man who is speaking to Mary is a well-known surgeon. — The man speaking to Mary is a well-known surgeon.

1. The woman who is working in the garden is my sister. 2. The man who made a report yesterday came back from the USA. 3.1 couldn't ring them up because I did not know their telephone number. 4. We went to see our friends who had just returned from a voyage. 5. The sidewalks were crowded with people who were watching the carnival. 6. He had a massive gold watch, which had belonged to his father. 7. He stood at the counter and hesitated, he did not know what to choose. 8. The conferences, which are held at the University every year, are devoted to ecological problems. 9. Unable to attend the conference that took place a month ago, we asked to send the typewritten reports. 10.1 looked at the people who were lying on the beach. 11. The people who are waiting for the doctor have been sitting here for a long time. 12. The man who phoned you yesterday is waiting for you downstairs.

Exercise 226.

Open the brackets and use the correct form of Participle II.

1. She looked at the table. There was a loaf of brown bread (divide) into two halves. 2. There was another pause (break) by a fit of laughing of one of the old men sitting in the first row. 3. The child (leave) alone in the large room began screaming. 4. The centre of the cotton industry is Manchester (connect) with Liverpool by a canal. 5. The story (tell) by the old captain made the young girl cry. 6. He did not doubt that the information (receive) by morning mail was of great interest for his competitors. 7. The equipment (install) in the shop is rather sophisticated. 8. We've got a great variety of products, which are in great demand. Here are some samples (send) to our distributors last month. 9. The methods that were applied in the building of the new metro stations proved to be efficient. 10. She warmed over the dinner that she cooked yesterday.


Exercise 227.

Paraphrase the following using Participle II.

Example: These are only a few of the attempts, which were made to improve the situation. — These are only a few of the attempts made to improve the situation.

1. The new job, which has been offered to me lately, seems to be very interesting. 2. He could not recognize the square, which was rebuilt, while he was away. 3. The news, which you've brought to us, is exciting. 4. The things that are left behind by passengers are usually taken to the Lost Property Office. 5. The animals, which were Caught in the morning, struggled furiously. 6. The answer, which had been so long expected, came at last. 7. There was a dead silence in the room, which was broken only by his cough. 8. The sunrays lighted the magnificent house, which was built on the hill. 9. The castle, which was built many years ago, was in good order. 10. The typewriter that was bought a few days ago has gone wrong.

Exercise 228.

Open the brackets and use participial con­structions with the conjunctions when, white, as if, as though, if, till, unless.

Example: When you cross the street, be careful at the crossroads. — When crossing the street, be careful at the crossroads.

1. When he was lying he spoke more quickly than when he was telling the truth. 2. She stood in front of the mirror as if she were speaking to herself. 3. She screamed as though she had been badly hurt. 4. He is a quiet man. He never hurries unless he is pressed for time. 4. While I was waiting for you, I was looking through newspapers and magazines. 5. When he was asked about it, he could say nothing. 6. When the article is translated, it wirH be typed. 7. While I was crossing the street yesterday, I saw an accident. 8. A promise accounts so little till it is kept. 9. When he was a student he used to study at the library. 10. He was hesitating whether for take the step, which if it was mistaken, could put him to trouble.


Exercise 229.

Open the brackets and use the correct form of Participle I Perfect.

1. (see) so little of the country, I am afraid I cannot answer all your questions. 2. (arrive) two days before the conference he had a lot of time t<? see Edinburgh. 3.1 felt very tired (work) the whole day in the sun. 4. (buy) a pair of gloves we moved to the shoe department. 5. She left (tell) us all she had found out. 6. (get) what he wanted he took his hat and left. 7. By this time (get used) to the atmosphere of the big city, he no longer felt a stranger. 8.1 felt refreshed and rested (sleep) for eight hours. 9. (complete) all our preparations we hired a taxi and hurried off. 10. Never (experience) such difficulties she was at a loss.


Exercise 230.

Open the brackets and fill in with the proper participle.

1. He fell asleep (exhaust) by the journey. 2. She" entered the dining room (accompany) by her husband and her father. 3. A snake (sleep) in the grass will bite if anyone treads upon it. 4. (Fill) his pockets with apples the boy was about to run away when he saw the owner of the garden with a stick in his hand. 5. It was a bright Sunday morning of early summer (promise) heat. 6. When I came home, I found the table (lay). 7. (Judge) by the colour of the sun it should be windy tomorrow. 8. (Arrive) at a big seaport, I started to look for a job. 9, He had received an urgent message (ask) him to telephone Sir Matthew. 10. He looked at groups of young girls (walk) arm in arm. 11. In the wood they sat down on a (fall) tree. 12. (See) from the hill the city looks magnificent. 13. (Not know) where to go he turned to a passer by. 14. (Lock) in her room she threw a fit. 15. (Address) the parcel, I went out at once to post it. 16. She often took care of my little sister (give) me a possibility to play with other boys. 17. (Wash) her face in cold water, she came up to the window and shut it. 18. Paul sat down again, evidently (change) his mind about going.


Exercise 231.

Choose the right variant.

1. She stayed___in her room, ___to come downstairs.

a) having locked, refused

b) locked, refusing

c) locking, having refused

2. She had a good practical knowledge of French___as an interpreter for many years in France.

a) working

b) having worked

c) worked

3. When we___from our day's outing came into the kitchen, we found dinner___.

a) returned, serving

b) having returned, served

c) returning, having served

4.___by his elbow, Mary listened to their talk.

a) supported

b) supporting

c) having supported

5.___their meal they went for a stroll in the park.

a) finishing

b) finished

c) having finished

6. Fruits___in hothouses are not so rich in colour, taste and vitamins as fruits___in natural conditions.

a) having grown, grown

b) grown, growing

c) growing, having grown

7.___in the reception room he thought over what he would say when he was asked into the office.

a) waiting

b) waited

c) having waited

8. She used to say sharp and___words to him.

a) having wounded

b) wounded

c) wounding

9.1 admired the grounds and trees___the house.

a) surrounding

b) having surrounded e) surrounded

10 She looked at the scene___to the innermost of her heart.

a) shaking

b) shaken

c) having shaken


Exercise 232.

Find and correct the mistakes if any.

1, Felt tired and having nothing more to do till he came, she sat into the armchair at the window having looked at the mountains lighting by the sun. 2. On the walls there were some common coloured pictures, framing and glazed. 3. His house was close at hand, a very pleasant little cottage, painted white, with green blinds. 4, It was the hour of sunset, having unnoticed in the cities, so beautiful in the country. 5. Finished breakfast, he stayed for some minutes in the dining room. 6. Mother smiled looking at the children played in the garden. 7. While reading a book, I came across several interesting expressions. 8. Some questions having touched upon in the report are worth considering. 9. Leaving our suiteases we went sightseeing. 10. Hearing her come into the house he went downstairs.


Exercise 233.

Translate into English using participles where possible.

1. Будьте внимательны, когда ведете машину. 2. На листе бумаги было несколько строк, написанных ка­рандашом. 3. Получив телеграмму, моя сестра немед­ленно выехала в Глазго. 4. Я не знаю человека, говоря­щего по телефону. 5. Уехав вечером, мы прибыли в город в 6 утра. 6. Полученное известие взволновало всех. 7. Я оставила ей записку, не застав ее дома. 8. Чув­ствуя усталость, они решили передохнуть. 9. Я не за­помнил имя человека, звонившего вам вчера. 10. Мы сидели на террасе, наслаждаясь чудесным видом гор, окружающих наш отель.

Exercise 234

(Revision.) Open the brackets and fill in with the proper verbals (infinitives, gerunds or participles). Use prepositions if necessary.

The Bees

I remember when I was a child (send) (visit) one of our numerous elderly eccentric aunts. She was mad about bees; the garden was full of bees, (hum) like telegraph poles. One afternoon she put on an enormous veil and a pair of gloves, locked us all in the cottage for safety, and went out (try) (get) some honey out of one of the hives. Apparently she did nor stupefy them properly, or whatever it is to do, and when she took the lid off, the bees poured out and settled on her. We were watching all this through the window. We didn't know much about bees, so we thought this was all right, until we saw her (fly) round the garden (make) desperate attempts (avoid) the bees, (get) her veil tangled in the rosebushes. Eventually she reached the cottage and flung herself at the door. We couldn't open it because she had the key. We kept (try) (tell) her this, but her screams of agony and the humming of the bees drowned our voices. It was I believe Leslie who had the brilliant idea (throw) a bucket of water over her from the bedroom window. Unfortunately in his enthusiasm he threw the bucket as well. (Drench) with cold water and then (hit) on the head with a large iron bucket is irritating enough, but (fight off) a mass of bees at the same time makes the whole thing extremely trying. When we eventually got her inside she was so swollen as to be almost unrecognizable.


Choose the right variant.

1. He seemed___all about influenza and said___was nothing___about.

a) to know, it, to worry

b) to be knowing, there, worrying

c) to know, there, to worry

d) to have known, it, to have been worried

2. She put down her book___me___; and___me ___took her workbasket and sat into one of the old-fashioned armchair.

a) to see, coming in, have welcomed, as usually

b) having seen, to come in, welcoming, usually

c) on seeing, come in, having welcomed, as usual

d) after seeing, having come in, to welcome, in a usual way

3. I don't object___there, but I don't want ___ alone.

a) to your living, you living

b) you to live, your living

c) your living, you to live

d) to your living, you to live

4.1 remember___that hill in twilight. An age seemed ___since the day that brought me first to London.

a) descending, to have elapsed

b). to have descended, to have elapsed

c) to descend, to elapse

d) being descended, to be elapsed

5. He stood invisible at the top of the stairs___Irene ___the letters___by the___post.

a) to watch, to sort, bringing, latest

b) watching, sorting, brought, last

c) having watched, sorting, having brought, latest

d) being watched, having sorted, to have been brought, last

6. On his way home Andrew could not help___what ___charming fellow Ivory had turned out___.

a) to reflect, a, to be

b) being reflected, the, have been

c) reflecting, the, be

d) reflecting, a, to be

7.1 wouldn't like___because I'm afraid___.

a) drive fast, crashing

b) to drive fast, of crashing

c) driving fastly, to crash

d) to be driven faster, to be crashed

8.___paper is said___by___Chinese.

a) ___, to have been invented, the

b) the, to have been invented, ___

c) ___, to have invented, ___

d) the, to be invented, the

9. There is no point___to him. He is___last man in the world___by any such circumstances.

a) to speak, the, to trouble

b) to speak, ___, being troubled

c) speaking, a, be troubled

d) in speaking, the, to be troubled

10. It's high time you___like that. He is fond___fun of everybody.

a) get used to him to behave, to make

b) used to his behaving, about making

c) got used to his behaving, of making

d) used to behave, to make

11 „ He felt___something from him and demanded _______truth. He wasn't worth______'_ lie.

a) them to hide, to tell, the, telling, the

b) them hiding, they will tell, a, to tell, a

c) they were hiding, being told, the, telling, a

d) they hide, telling, a, telling, the

12._______words about the author himself, the lecturer went on___of his works.

a) after saying, a few, to speak

b) saying, few, to speak

c) having said, few, speaking

d) to have said, a few, speaking

13. She was looking forward to___the leading part ___that she was greatly___at not even___it.

a) giving, playing, disappointing, being offered

b) to be given, to play, disappointed, to be offered

c) being given, to play, disappointed, being offered

d) give, playing, disappointed, offering

14. Did you remember___the parcel I gave you? —Yes, I remember___it a week ago.

a) to post, posting

b) to post, to post

c) posting, to post

d) posting, posting

15. You___go and check everything by yourself unless you___it.

a) would better, want him to do it

b) had rather, don't want his doing

c) had better, want him to do it

d) would rather, don't want him to do

16. The accused men___near the bank during the robbery. It's no, use___the case without direct___.

a) deny being somewhere, investigating, evidence

b) denies to be anywhere, to investigate, evidences

c) deny being anywhere, investigating, evidence

d) denies to be somewherej to investigate, evidences

17. You___your children___their own way in the end.

a) are to let, to go

b) have letting, going

c) have to let, go

d) are to let, gone

18.1 suggest___as soon as possible. I___before sunset.

a) us to start, would rather to come

b) our starting, had rather come

c) us starting, would prefer to come

d) our starting, would rather come

19.1 am afraid___to him. What if he really has the power to stop___there, and means___them against me?

a) to speak, me go, to turn

b) of speaking, my going, turning

c) to speak, my going, to turn

d) speaking, me going, to turn

20. He's always regretted___school so young. He has not got enough qualifications and education. Unfortunately he often receives letters___with " Dear sir, we regret___you that your application was turned down."

a) leaving, beginning, to inform

b) to leave, to begin, to inform

c) leaving, beginning, informing

d) to leave, to begin, informing


Unit 18 Modal Verbs

Obligation and Likelihood


Exercise 235.

Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs must, have to or be to.

1. You___(not tell) him about it. It's a secret. 2. It looks like rain. You___(take) your raincoats. 3. You ___(not talk) so loudly here. 4. In his youth he ___ (work) from morning till night to earn his living. 5. He ___(wait) at the station till it stopped raining. 6. The secretary informed us when the manager___(come). 7. They___(leave) on Saturday, but because of the delay with their visas they___(book) tickets for Monday. 8. They___(not tell) him anything about it before they

get further instructions. 9. He___(leave) for London that night. 10.___I (do) it all by myself? 11. It was too late to change their plans and they___(put up) with it. 12. You___(not prepare) all this work, I will help you. 13. Stay here till she is free. I think you___(not wait) long. 14. We___(conduct) a series of experiments this week. 15. Remember that we___(be) at this place not later than noon.


Exercise 236.

Choose the correct variant.

1. His German is very poor. He must (study/be studying/have studied) very hard. 2. His German is very good, he must (study/be studying/have studied) very hard. 3. His German is considerably improved, ho must (study/be studying/have studied) hard during hi» holiday. 4. He must (study/be studying/have been studying) German these two years, his German is rather rich and fluent. 5. She must (have taken/be -faking/have been taking/ a bath at that moment that's vhy she did not answer your call. 6. She must (be/be being/ have been) at home now, we saw her leaving the office. 7. She must (be/be being/have been) at home, she can't go away because there is no one to look after her sick mother. 8. You must always (think/be thinking/have thought) twice before you say anything. 9. Now he must (think/ be thinking/have thought) of what she has said. 10. He knows they are coming. They must (write/be writing/ have written) to him of their arrival in due time. 11. She must (play/be playing/have been playing) the piano now. 12. The foreigner must (understand/understood/have understood) me, for he nodded his head. 13. Where is Sara? I haven't seen her for a long time. — She must (stay/be staying/have stayed) at her friends'. She wanted to spend July with them. 14. He must (get/be getting/ have got) all he needed, otherwise he would have come again. 15. We must (meet/have met/have been meeting) somewhere before.


Exercise 237.

Open the brackets and use the proper infinitive after the verb must.

1. Look! All people in the street are going with their umbrellas up. It must (rain). 2. He has changed his job. He must (follow) your advice, 3. He must (fall) ill. Otherwise he would have come to the party. 4. Where is Michael? He must (be) here by now. — He lives in the country. He must (miss) the train. 5. What a dreadful noise! What is the matter? — Our neighbors must (quarrel) again. 6. Nobody must (notice) that he was not used to speaking in public. 7. The criminal must (be) very careful. He did not leave any fingerprints. 8. We are late, I am afraid. Ann must (wait) for us. 9. He must (forget) that he promised to come. 10. They must (write) a composition for two hours. They must (be) tired. 11. You must (misunderstand) me, I did not want to hurt your feelings. 12. Nobody must (see) him enter. Everybody startled when he came in. 13.1 hear someone's steps outside. She must (go). 14. You may find him in the garden. He must (read). 15. It is impossible to change anything. One must (take) things as they are.


Exercise 238.

Paraphrase the following sentences using the verb must.

Example: I am sure they have changed the time. — They must have changed the time.

1. They are in Greece. I am sure they are enjoying themselves. 2. She is an experienced teacher. I am certain she has been working at school for at least twenty years. 3. They have probably finished painting the house. 4.1 feel sure she is at home. 5. Probably they have already passed the frontier. 6. She is sure he is playing cards with his friends. 7. She is not very young, as she seems to be. I think she is nearly forty. 8.1 think you have visited this place before. 9. He has to do a very urgent task. I feel sure he is working now. 10. He is so absent-minded. I am sure he left the letter unanswered. 11. You know he is a good tennis player. He is no doubt has won this match. 12.1 shan't bother you any longer; no doubt you feel tired of my talking after a tiring day. 13. It is clear that they are expecting somebody. 14. She was obviously upset by something; I never saw her so nervous. 15. The youth is probably reading something funny. He is smiling all the time.


Exereise 239,

Choose the right variant.

1. He wants us to obey him. We____exactly what he says.

a) have to do

b) must to do

c) are to do

2. Mrs. Sparred ____very beautiful when she was young. She has a fine face.

a) was to be

b) must have been

c) must be

3. You____so late. You should leave after dinner.

a) are not to stay

b) must not have stayed

c) must not stay

4. Something____. He____at seven,

a) must happen, must come

b) must have happened, had to come

c) must have happened, was to have come

5. Yesterday's rain spoiled my shoes completely and I___new ones.

a) had to buy

b) must have bought

c) was to buy

6. Which of them____the documents?

a) must have brought

b) have to bring

c) was to bring

7. The only thing he knew for certain was that he ____them.

a) must not meet

b) hasn't to meet

c) is not to meet

8. You can't come in. You___a catching disease like that.

a) must not have

b) don't have to have

c) aren't to have

9. There__._ a garden once.

a) was to be

b) must have been

c) must be

10. We___in. The weather is changing,

a) must go

b) must have gone

c) are to go

Exercise 240,

Translate into English using the verb must and its equivalents.

l Он, должно быть, слышал об этом. 2. Этот дом, должно быть, построен в начале столетия. 3. Вы не должны прекращать работу, пока вы ее не закончите. 4„ У них, вероятно, сейчас урок. 5. Не огорчайся, он, должно быть, сделал это случайно. 6. Он, вероятно, сейчас спит. 7, Я ищу этот дом вот уже полчаса и нигде не могу его найти. Должно быть, она дала мне неправильный адрес. 8. Мне не пришлось делать этот чертеж. 9. Он, вероятно, не успел закончить работу к пятнице и был вынужден потратить на нее все вы­ходные, т„к. ее нужно было закончить к понедельни­ку. 10 Она, должно быть, не полила сад. Земля очень сухая. 11с Выбора не было, и им пришлось согласить­ся. 12. Она, должно быть, ждет нас дома. 13. Она дол­жна ждать нас дома. 14 Ей, наверное, не сказали, что мы уже вернулись, 15, Ей пришлось извиниться, хотя это и было неприятно.



Exercise 241.

Open the brackets and give the correct form of the verb after need.

l. The vegetable garden needs (water). 2. The TV needs to be (fix). 3. They need (come) here at three o'clock. 4. The cottage needs to be (repair). 5. She needs (prepare) harder for her exams. 6. The lawn needs (cut). 7. You need (book) a ticket beforehand. 8. Granny needs to be (look after). 9. The walls need to be (paper). 10.1 need (get) this book somewhere.

Exercise 242.

Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Pay attention to the use of the particle to.

worry leave
carry come
talk help
tell go
phone ask

Example: All is agreed and understood between us, so you needn't___about it any more. —

All is agreed and understood between us, so you needn't worry about it any more,

You don't need___there. — You don't need to go there.

1. You needn't___here by yourself. You may send someone else. 2. She doesn't need___bags by herself: there are porters at the station. 3. You don't need___ about her; she is quite able to take care of herself. 4.1 don't need___you how important it is. 5.1 needn't ___him. He will tell me everything himself. 6. You needn't___me again, I never forget my promise.?. She doesn't need___to the library; I have got this book. 8. They needn't___for the airport so early; I will give

them a lift. 9.1 can do it by myself. You needn't___ me. 10. You don't need___to her. I have already told her everything.


Exercise 243.

Choose the right variant.

1. He says I (mustn't/needn't) do it. He has already done it. 2. You (needn't/mustn't) carry your driving license with you. 3.1 can show my student's card, and I (mustn't/needn't) pay to get in. 4. I've hurt my knee and the doctor says I (mustn't/needn't) play football for two weeks. 5. Copies (needn't/mustn't) be done without permission. 6. He is a very discreet person, you (needn't/ mustn't) be afraid of telling him anything. 7. He (needn't/mustn't) be said twice. 8. You (needn't/mustn't) answer the question if you don't want to. 9. It's a non­smoking carriage. You (needn't/mustn't) smoke here. 10. She (needn't/mustn't) go to bed so late. Has she forgotten the doctor's instructions?


Exercise 244,

Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with either didn't need (to) 01 needn't have (done).

1. You___ (go) into so many details. The report was too long. 2, She got up late because she was alone and she____(cook) breakfast for the whole family. 3. We ___(hurry): she wasn't ready yet. 4. He___(return) to the office so he took a taxi and went home. 5.1___ (take) a bus because Martin gave me a lift. 6. We___ (come) so early. Now we must wait. 7. She___(go) shopping so she went straight home. 8. You___(make) this remark, I am sure he felt hurt. 9. She was on holiday and she___(wake up) early. 10. He___(spend) so much money. Does he remember that he's got children?


Exercise 245.

Translate into English using the verb need.

1. Зря ты сказал Майку об этом. 2, Егэ не надо оо этом спрашивать. 3. Мне нужна ваша помощь. 4. Зря ты учил текст наизусть (by heart); учитель его не спрашивал. 5. Вечером температура упала, и он ре­шил, что ему не нужно идти к врачу. 6. Разве ты не видишь, что ему надо подстричься? 7. Зря он отка­зался от приглашения. 8. Вы купили машину толь­ко год назад. Неужели ее надо красить? 9. Мне нуж­но наладить (fix) компьютер. 10. Джону не надо было ехать в Лондон, и он решил провести выходные в Брайтоне.


Exercise 246.

Match the parts of the sentences.

1) My room is in a mess a) He should always turn them on in the dark

and my friends are otherwise he may have an accident.

coming to visit me tonight.

2) You haven't paid your b) You ought to go on a. diet.

monthly rent yet Friday is

the last day you can do it.

3) Tom drives the car c) You should ring her up and apologise.

without headlights.

4) Anna's library book is d) She ought to give up smoking.

due today.

5) I've put on weight e) He should go to the dentist's.


6) I am afraid, I was rude f) You ought to put it in order.

to Kate yesterday.

7) I've got urgent work g) You should record the film. Have you

and my computer does not work, got a VCR?

8) He has a bad toothache, h) You ought to go to the

bank till Friday and pay it

9) I have a test tomorrow i) You should phone Nick He's got clever on fingers

but there is a film. TV I've wanted

to see so much.

10) She has a bad cough but j) She ought to return her books today

she goes on smoking. if she doesn't want to pay a fine.



Exercise 247.

Read the situations and write sentences with should (shouldn't) haoe or ought to (ought not to) have,

Example: He had a test this morning. — He didn't do it well. He should have studied more last night.

1. She didn't take a taxi. She was late for the wedding. 2.1 didn't eat at home. Now I'm hungry. 3. She bought a TV set last month. Now she regrets doing that. Her children watch it day arid night. 4. He signed a contract without reading it thoroughly. Now he has discovered that he has no right to make any amendments there. 5. Mary sold her house. That was a mistake because now she spends a lot of money to rent an apartment. 6.1 enjoyed the party last night a lot. Why didn't you come? 7, The driver in front of me stopped suddenly and I smashed into the back of his car. It was not my fault. 8. The boy went out without the doctor's permission Now he is much worse. 9. When we arrived at the hotel there were no free rooms. We hadn't reserved one. 10. It was not a good idea for Tom and Mary to get married. Now they quarrel all days long.


Exercise 248.

Choose the right variant.

1. She looks bad. She should (be/have been) more careful about her health. 2. You shouldn't (miss/have missed) the chance. It was a brilliant opportunity for you. 3.1 think the policeman was right. She shouldn't (exceed/have exceeded) the speed. 4.1 ought to (bring/ have taken) the opera glasses. Now I see nothing. 5. It seems to me that he is a hot-temper person and often flies into a rage because of mere trifles. He should (control/ have controlled) his temper. 6. They should (clear/have cleared) up the problem long time ago. 7.1 ought not (to stay/have stayed) there long. The party was a failure. 8. You should (shave/have shaved) this beard of yours!

9. She should (be/have been) more attentive. Didn't she see a car on the right? 10. It's a secret. You ought not to (reveal/have revealed) it to anybody.


Exercise 249.

Choose the right variant.



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