Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 

Silverware and Plate Industry

While reading the text we shall return to Sheffield - the biggest centre of British metallurgy.

The story of silverware and the story of the highly-prized Old Sheffield plate are inextricably linked. Two hundred and fifty years ago cutlery manufacture was the only important industry in Sheffield and knife handles were the only objects made in silver.

As a result of mid-eighteenth century pioneering work by Thomas Boulsover, a Sheffield cutler, and Joseph Hancock who developed a method of plating a copper ingot with silver by fusion, a new industry came into being.

The plated ingot was rolled as if it were one metal, and by the 1760’s several firms were engaged in the manufacture of Old Sheffield Plate tableware. Early examples are now coveted collectors items.

Sheffield manufacturers found a ready market: a growing middle class who turned to the cheaper, beautiful articles which resembled silver and were almost as durable.

Machinery invented for the mass production of Sheffield Plate turned out to be suitable for the economical production of silver tableware and from this a sterling silver industry sprang up.

In 1773 an Act of Parliament granted the town its own Assay Office: the Sheffield mark - a crown. After 1904 the Office was also authorised to assay gold on which its mark is the York rose. The present Assay Office is in Portobello Street.

The silverware trade is now the largest industry carried on in Sheffield with non-ferrous netals; the emphasis is on specialist, high grade workmanship and two well-known pieces regularly made here are the Grand National trophy and Lonsdale Belts awarded to the winners of British boxing title fights.



Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below

silverware /’silv'we'/; inextricably /in’ekstrik'bli/; coveted /’k/\vitid/; assay /'‘sei/; authorized /’o: q'raizd/; trophy / ‘troufi/; award / '‘wo:d/


Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1.Find the English equivalents for the words and word-

combinations given below and use them in the sentences

of your own.

столовое серебро (изделия из серебра); ножовщик; ножевые товары; медная болванка; напоминать серебро; пробирная палата; уполномоченный; награждать; оборудование (станки); основное внимание уделяется.



Exercise 2.Match the English words and word-combinations given

below with their Russian equivalents. Use them in the

sentences of your own.


1. plate 1. плакировать путем сплавления

2. inextricably linked 2. появилась новая промышленность

3. pioneering work 3. сложным образом связаны друг с другом

4. to plate by fusion 4. мастерство высокого класса

5. a new industry came into 5. Белая роза (эмблема династии Йорков -

being королевской династии 15в)

6. high grade workmanship 6. изыскательская работа

7. York rose 7. столовое серебро

8. Grand National trophy 8. высшая награда боксеров - профессионалов

9. Lonsdale Belt - богато украшенный пояс, вручается чемпиону

Великобритании, завоевавшему это звание три

раза подряд

9. приз победителю ежегодных крупнейших

крупнейших скачек с препятствиями

Exercise 3.Answer the following questions.


1. When did the story of Old Sheffield silverware and plate begin? 2. What method was developed in the middle of the 18th century? 3. Why did the plate industry develop so rapidly? 4. Does Sheffield have its own Assay Office? 5. Which two well-known National trophies are made in Sheffield?


Exercise 4.From the choices given choose a word or phrase which could be

substituted for the underlined word or phrase without changing

its meaning.


1. These two stories are closely linked

a) connected b) mixed c) integrated

2. A new industry came into being in the middle of the 18th century.

a) developed b) sprang up c) continued

3. A growing middle class wanted to buy cheaper, beautiful tableware.

a) extending b) developing c) increasing

4. The Assay office was authorized to assay both silver and gold.

a) was allowed b) was given the right c) was ready

5. In Sheffield two well-known trophies are made.

a)respectable b) popular c) famous


Exercise 5. More about word –building: Adjectives.

1. Adjectives can be formed from nouns, using the suffixes: -ous, -al, -ic

danger - dangerous period - periodical economy - economic

2. Adjectives can be formed from verbs using the suffix -ing

exite - exiting

3. Form adjectives from the following verbs and nouns:

poison, interest, trade, finance, educate, courage, geography, glory, partonize

4. Define the meaning of the following words:

metal, metallurgy, metallist, metalize, metallic, metallography, metallurgy.


Exercise 6.Translate at sight

1. When James Watt invented the steam engine in the latter part of the eighteenth century, the whole industrial scene changed.. Steam power made possible the ‘Industrial Revolution’ in Britain. Vast quantities of metal were needed for the railways pioneered by the Stevensons, and the huge iron ships and bridges of Brunel. In Sheffield, the centre of the iron and steel industry, the output of metals multiplied fifty times in thirty-five years.

During this expansion, improved tools were invented for use in the factories and many steam-powered tools were invented and developed.


2. In 1886, H.C.Sorby brought to perfection his long and painstaking work with the microscope and finally launched the new science of metallography. Many metallurgists have since worked in Sheffield and passed on ideas and experiments which have played an important part in the stirring record of the production of steels.


Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Reported Speech


There are three types of Reported Speech.


1. Reported Statements.


If the predicate of principal clause is in the past tense, the predicate of a reported clause “moves one tense back”.

present ® past

past ® past perfect


She said:” I am going there.” ® She said she was going there.

I said:” He was there.” ® I said he had been there.

They said:” We haven’t finished it yet.” ®They said they hadn’t finished it yet.

Note: The “one tense back” rule is not used:

a)“I hate his job,” I told him ® I told him I hate his job. (I still hate his job)

b) when some axiom is reported:

The pupil knew that the earth is round.

c) when the exact time of an event is stated:

She said she was born in 1979.


2. Reported Questions

a) “the one tense back” rule is used in reported questions in the same way it is used in reported statements.

“Why are you going there?” she asked ®She asked why I was going there.

I asked:”Where have you been?” ® I asked where he had been.

b) The word order of a reported questions is direct, the auxiliaries do, does, did are not used. To report a general question if or whether is used.

Did you go to that park?” she asked ® She asked if/whether I had gone to that park.


In reported statements and questions it is necessary to change personal, possessive pronouns and adverbial modifiers of time and place.


this ® that here ® there

last time ® the previous time yesterday ® the day before

now ® then tomorrow ® the next day

ago ® before


He said: ”We shall go there tomorrow.” ® He said they would go there the

next day.


3. Reported Commands

Reported commands follow the pattern:

subject + predicate + indirect object + infinitive

She told them to help me.

They asked me to show them around the city.

Note:the negative command:

They asked me not to invite her to the party

Note:Some other verbs used for reporting:

advise, ask, add, explain, remind, agree, point out, refuse, promise



Exercise 1.Report the following statements, commands and questions.


1. ‘What are you doing here?’ she asked. 2. ‘When did you pass the exam?’ he asked. 3. ‘I’ve left some books on your table,’ said Paul. 4. ‘I am dead sure I have seen a flying saucer,’ said the man. 5. Mother told me,’Please, work harder, otherwise you’ll fail.’ 6. Another passenger came in and said, ‘Is this seat taken?’ 7. ‘Let’s take your tape recorder to the party.’ she offered. 8. ‘Yesterday at 2 o’clock I was working on the paper.’ she stated. 9. ‘I booked a double room on the second floor.’ said Mr.Jones. 10. She complained,’They’ve changed much since I saw them in 1990.’ 11. ‘Must you do it all tonight? Couldn’t you leave some for tomorrow?’ mother asked. 12. The conductor announced,’Passengers must not lean out of the window.’ 13. The student answered,’The atom is the smallest portion of matter.’ 14. ‘Did you sleep well last night?’ Bill asked. 15. She asked,’Do you know that dynamics and kinematics are branches of mechanics?’ 16. The lecturer said,’The steels of Sheffield are the raw materials of the great tool industries of the city.’

Exercise 2.Use one of the introductory verbs given below to report

each of the following sentences. Each of the verbs should

be used only once.


ask beg advise urge warn encourage forbid invite suggest recommend


1. ‘Please, sit down and make yourself at home,’ - our hostess said. 2. ‘Don’t touch the dog.’ my friend said. 3. ‘You really must consult your lawyer. It could be very serious.’ my brother said. 4. ‘You should go there, they can help you.’ she said. 5. ‘If you are eating in MacDonalds, try their apple pie. It’s delicious.’ they told us. 6. ‘No one is to use a dictionary during the test.’ the teacher said. 7. ‘Please, don’t forget to let me know that you’ve arrived safely.’ my aunt said. ‘I’ll be worried if you don’t phone me.’ 8. ‘May we come in?’ said the twins. 9. ‘Try the corner shop. It is usually open on Sunday.’ the man said. 10. “Go on, enter for the exam.’ he said, ‘You’ve nothing to lose and it will be a good experience for you.’


Exercise 3.Select the correct form from the choices given in parentheses.


1.We realized that might (doesn’t, didn’t) always make right. 2. Miss Perkins said that she (doesn’t, didn’t) want to discuss the matter. 3. We heard on the radio tonight that the summit (will take place, would take place) in Washington DC. 4. Of course we knew that crime (is, was) forbidden. 5.Sue came in and wanted to know if all the guests (arrived, had arrived) yet. 6. Mrs. Gordon said that she (wants, wanted) more time to think it over. 7. She asked if I (can, could) describe the system to her. 8. Joe said that his friends (decided, had decided) to stay in town for two more days

Text 2

The US Government

Pre- reading Task

1. What do you know about the political system of the US?

2. Give a definition of a federal system.

3. In what way are the indirect elections held?

4. What is the term of servitude in the Senate and House of Representatives?

5. Who can be elected a President of the USA?


The Government is a federal system. Individual states hold sovereignty over their territory and have rights that are not reserved by the federal government. Each state has its own legislature and a directly elected governor. The federal president is indirectly elected. Voters in each state determine by a majority who they would choose as president; they then send delegates to vote according to that choice. The delegates’ votes determine who the president is. The directly elected federal legislature has two houses: the House of Representatives, whose members serve two-year terms; and the Senate, whose members serve six-year terms. There is a separate judicial branch.

The Senate consists of 2 members from each state, elected for 6 years, one-third retiring or re-elected every year, so two senators from the same state never finish their terms at the same time.

The House of Representatives consists of over 400 members elected every second year. They all finish their terms of office at the same time.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country. The President appoints its members for life, but his choice must be approved by the Senate.

The executive power is in the hands of a President and his Cabinet. He must be a natural-born citizen, resident in the country for 14 years, and at least 35 years old. He is elected for 4 years, every leap year on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

While most Americans are very proud of their country, they may openly criticize the government (or even the president). Freedom of speech is carefully protected by the people and the constitution. Americans value humor and like to laugh at themselves and the country’s weaknesses. Indeed, a good sense of humor is valued. Americans openly share their opinions on a variety of subjects. They ask questions and challenge other people’s opinions. Public criticism is not considered improper, unless it is very personal.


Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1.Agree or disagree with the following statements.


1. Individual states of the US do not have sovereignty.

2. The federal president is indirectly elected.

3. The Senate is elected for 4 years.

4. There are no re-elections to the Senate every year.

5. Members of the House of Representatives are elected every second year.

6. The Supreme Court is the highest juridical power in the USA.

7. The legislative power is in the hands of a President and his Cabinet.

8. Personal public criticism is considered improper in America


Exercise 2.Look through the text and find the word or word-combination which means:


1. a form of government in which sovereign power is divided between a central authority and a number of constituent political units;

2. to express an opinion about a candidate for office;

3. a member of a Senate;

4. one who makes his home in a particular place;

5. they who put into effect the country’s laws;

6. to appreciate smth;

7. open criticism;

8. to demand for an explanation.


Exercise 3.Enlarge on the following quotations.


1. Self-criticism is a mark of social maturity. (Gore Vidal)

2. Being a politician is a poor profession. Being a public servant is a noble one. (Herbert Goover)

3. No government can continue good but under the control of people. (Thomas Jefferson)


Exercise 4.Arrange the jumbled text given below.


1. Atlanta, the capital and the largest city of Georgia is the leading commercial, industrial and distribution centre of the south-eastern United States. Products include automobiles, airplanes, chemicals, furniture, steel, paper, fertilizers and processed foods.

2. Dallas is the second largest city in Texas. Today the city’s economy rests primarily on banking, insurance, electronics, the aerospace industry, cotton, oil , state and federal employment.

3. There are some centres in the USA where almost all sorts of products are made and all industries are developed.

4. South of Houston is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Manned Spaceflight Centre, a big complex for astronaut training, equipment, testing, and flight-control centre for Project Apollo.

5. Fishing, lumbering and in recent years, the manufacturing of giant jet planes have made Seattle the north-west’s most important economic centre. World War II made the city a centre of aircraft manufacturing and shipbuilding. Other important industries today are food processing, chemical products, metal goods, machinery, and aerospace production. Seattle is the nucleus of an important military-industrial complex, with the Boeing Company being the largest employer in the area. The Boeing heavy bomber airplane became a symbol of Seattle.

6. Houston is the largest city in the South, heart of the nation’s largest petro-chemical complex, which turns natural gas into fertilizer, rubber, vinyl. The city ranks first in the nation as a refinery centre, first in the manufacture and distribution of petroleum equipment.



Oral Practice


Agreeing and Disagreeing. Expressing Doubt.


Questions Replies


1.Do you think there is too much 1. - Yes, I agree.

traffic in Moscow? - Yes, I do.

2. Don’t you think shops should 2. - Yes, I completely agree with you.

be open on Sunday? - I don’t know.

3. Wouldn’t you agree that people 3. - I don’t completely agree with you,

don’t care much about the I’m afraid.

environment? - Right you are. I’m of the same opinion.

4. What’s your opinion of super- 4. - I don’t really know.

markets? - I haven’t really thought about it.

- I suppose they are a good idea.

5. Do you think he must be 5. - I disagree.

punished? - Oh, yes, you are quite right.

6. Do you think women shouldn’t 6. - I don’t think it matters.

be allowed to drive? - Oh, no that’s ridiculous.

7. What do you think of pop music? 7. - In my opinion it is awful

8. How do you feel about . . .? 8. - On the one hand it is . . .,

but on the other hand . . .

9. What are your views on . . .? 9. - I think that . . .



Exercise 1.Learn the dialogues by heart and make your own

dialogues using the patterns.



Peter - Well, Susan, what do you think of modern art?

Susan - I like it. It is so colourful, a good example of our colourful times.

And how about you?

Peter - Yes, I completely agree with you, though some people hate it.

Susan - I don’t think it matters. Opinions differ, you know.



Kate - Do you think old people should live with their children?

Ben - Well, it depends. Sometimes it can make life difficult and how do

you feel about it?

Kate - On the one hand it is a good idea. It makes life cheaper and more

convenient for older people, but on the other hand sometimes

people are not as free as they would like to be.

Ben - Yes, I quite agree with you.


Exercise 2.Agree or disagree with these opinions. Then interview

your partner. What does he/she think about it?


1. People should retire at 55.

2. Children should start school when they are 5.

3. Parents shouldn’t punish their children.

4. Parents should know everything about their children.

5. Young people should have their own home at 18.

6. Old people should live with their sons and daughters.

7. Parents should give their children everything they want.

8. Education in Russia is on a high level.

9. The English are very temperamental people.

10. The Russian countryside is very beautiful.

11. Russian television is very good.


Exercise 3. Listen to the joke “A Holiday in Great Britain”.

Answer the questions.


Chapter 4


Unit 1

Text 1

Bronze and Brass

About 6,000 years ago people discovered that copper could be made harder if mixed with tin. This alloy is called bronze. It was so widely used for many years that this period of time became known as the Bronze Age.

If you had been a soldier in Ancient Greece you would have had to stop in battle to straighten your bronze sword. But bronze was a great improvement on copper, which bends even more easily. Most pure metals are weak and soft. But two soft metals mixed together make a harder metal called an alloy. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. It was the first alloy.

Tin was the fifth metal discovered by man. It is a soft whitish substance. Various proportions of the two metals produced different qualities in the bronze. Most early metal-workers used about eight parts of copper to one of tin. Because weapons made of bronze were harder and stronger than those of copper, tin became very important. However, there was little tin to be found in western Asia - still the centre of the metal-working world. Mostly it was found in Europe, and the merchants of Troy, who brought their goods to Europe, began loading their boats with tin on their return journeys. In England, tin was discovered and mined in Cornwall and was a main export for a long time.

When zinc was discovered it was used to produce an important alloy in combination with copper. This alloy was brass, a hard-wearing, yellow metal which was valued more than bronze. The exact date of discovery is uncertain but it was probably about 200 BC. Brass is often mentioned in the Old Testament, most of which was written before zinc was discovered and therefore when there could not have been any brass. The bibical metal must have been either bronze or copper, and the word ‘brass’ is the result of a translator’s error at some time. So, bronze and brass were the first alloys - man-made metals.



Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below.

straighten /’streit'n/; Asia /’eiò'/; Europe /’ju'r'p/; load /loud/; brass /bra:s/; export /’ekspo:t/; biblical /’biblik 'l/.



Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1.Find the English equivalents for the words and word- combinations given below.


большинство чистых металлов; сплав; мягкий металл беловатого цвета; оружие, сделанное из бронзы; Бронзовый век; износостойкость; упоминать; ошибка; добывать олово.


Exercise 2.Match the English words and word-combinations given below

with their Russian equivalents.


1. mixed with tin 1. либо бронза, либо медь

2. return journey 2. до нашей эры

3. a main export 3. в сочетании с

4. BC (before Christ) 4. в сочетании с оловом

5. the Old Testament 5. обратное путешествие

6. in combination with 6. Ветхий Завет

7. either bronze or copper 7. основной предмет экспорта


Exercise 3.Answer the following questions

1. Why was bronze a great improvement on copper? 2. What does bronze consist of? 3. Where were the major tin deposits located? 4. What alloy was produced of zinc in combinations with copper? 5. Why was brass valued more than bronze?


Exercise 4.Look through the text and find the words which mean

the same as:


find out; arms; so; in combination with; way back; mistake;

advance; principle.


Exercise 5. More about word-building: Adverbs.

Rule: to change an adjective into an adverb add -ly:

close - closely; easy - easily; heroic - heroically

Certain other words have the same form whether they are adjectives or adverbs:

a fast train - it came fast

a short time - he stopped short

an early bird - he rose early

a hard worker - he works hard

a close decision – he came close


Change the following adjectives into adverbs:

firm; usual; punctual; hard; manual; graphic; early; economic; normal; heavy; synthetic; extravagant; careful; wonderful; fast.


Exercise 6.Translate at sight.


1. Shaping of Metals. The last stage in smelting usually involves the casting of the metal into a mould. This mould may be shaped to the form desired in the finished article, the process being known as founding or casting. On the other hand the metal may be cast into a mould of simple form such as an ingot for subsequent shaping by such mechanical working methods as forging, rolling, extrusion, etc.

2. Requirements for blast furnace performance have increased dramatically over the last 15 years. Productivity and daily output must be high: downtime must be minimal. Operating and maintenance cost must be as low as possible. Campaign life of a blast furnace can last as long as 15 years nowadays, without any major repair.


Task 3.

Focus on Grammar


Infinitive Active Passive

Simple to give to be given

Perfect to have given to have been given

Continuous to be giving __

Perfect Continuous to have been giving __


In a sentence Infinitive can be:

1) the subject To know him is to love him.

2) a part of a predicate I can play tennis.

3) an attribute There is nobody to help me.

4) an object Where did you learn to speak English?

5) an adverbial modifier You are clever enough to understand it.


The Continuous Infinitive is often used after the verbs: appear; happen; pretend; seem. It is also possible after: agree; arrange; decide; determine; hope; manage; plan and auxiliary verbs.

He seems to be following us.


The Perfect Infinitive is possible after: appear; hope; pretend; seem and auxiliary verbs.

He should have helped her.


Infinitive is used without ‘to’’ after:

- auxiliary verbs We shall help you.

- modal verbs May I come in?

- the verbs expressing senses I heard her sing once.

- ‘let’ (предоставлять), Let me do it myself.

- ‘make’ (заставлять) He made us get up early.

- ‘help’ He will help you do it.

- ‘nothing but’, ‘can’t help but’ I could not help but say it.

- ‘why’ and ‘why not’ Why not go to the country?

Exercise 1.Use the infinitives with or without ‘to’.


1. I think you must . . . do this exercise without a dictionary. 2. What makes you . . . think so. 3. She came up to the door . . . open it. 4. I’m awfully glad . . . have met you. 5. Why not . . . go and see him one of these days? 6. Have you ever heard her . . . sing? 7. It is the only thing . . . do. 8. Why should you . . . go there? 9. They don’t allow me . . . smoke here. 10. These are the letters . . . be typed tomorrow. 11. Are you sure he will help us . . . do it? 12. Do not make me . . . do it, I’m awfully short of time. 13. You were right when you told me not . . . leave the party. I am so glad . . . have met her. 14. You don’t have . . . worry, I’ll . . . do it for you.


Exercise 2.Open the brackets using the correct form of the Infinitive.


1. I’m really pleased (to see) you here. 2. Here are the instructions (to carry out). 3. I’d like (to lie) in the sun right now. 4. I asked (to inform) as soon as there was any news. 5. She didn’t know what (to do). 6. When he looked at the elderly lady he remembered (to see) her the day before. 7. He is not (to trust). 8. I am sorry (to keep) you waiting. 9. I am so sorry (to miss) that evening. 10. The girl seems (to sleep).



Exercise 3.Use one of the infinitives in brackets, give two variants

where possible and explain the difference.


1. They want (to discuss/ to have discussed) this project. 2. They were (to come/ to have come) by this time already. 3. We must hurry not (to be late/ to have been late) for the party. 4. The man seemed (to study/ to be studying) me attentively. 5. The only sound (to hear/ to be heard) was the ticking of the old clock downstairs. 6. They are glad (to invite/ to have invited) you for the conference. 7. He is lucky (to be visiting/ to have visited) so many countries. 8. Children like (to tell/ to be told) fairy tales. 9. Is there anything else (to tell/ to be told) him about ? 10. I’m glad (to be given/ to have been given) this book.


Exercise 4.Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention to the form of the Infinitive.


  1. The cause of the increasing use of metals is to be found in their characteristic properties. 2. A computer software programme has been developed to conduct an effective analysis. 3. In the present study this type of alloys have been shown to have better properties. 4. The first metals to be used by primitive men were those that are found free in nature. 5. In considering the chemical properties of metals, the first point to be noted is that they vary widely in degree of chemical activity. 6. Part of the initial motivation to study this problem was to determine how many atoms are required for a tiny lump of material to attain the properties of the bulk solid. 7. To produce desired shapes, such as bars or sheets, the rolling is usually done in two or more rolling operations. 8. Ductility and malleability are qualitative forms describing the relative ability of metals to stand plastic deformation. 9. To refine the structure of the metal is one of the primary reasons for hot mechanical working of steel. 10. The two main reasons for forging steels are to reduce the block of metal to approximately the dimensions of the finished article.

Text 2

Results of Immigration

Pre- reading Task

1. Read the text given below and find the answers to the following questions:


a) What lies in America’s diversity?

b) Where did the ‘old’ immigrants tend to settle?

c) Where did the so-called ‘new’ immigrants settle?

d) Did the immigrants assimilate or did they preserve their culture?

e) Immigrants have accelerated the economic growth of the US, haven’t they? How?

f) Is unemployment a direct result of immigration?


The “roots of American diversity” lie in immigration. America is diversity. Thus both the richness of the heritage and the problems the Americans face today - and the keys to the solution of tomorrow - lie in this diversity.

There are also changing factors in the patterns of immigration. When both the colonial European and “old” wave immigrants came, there was a push to leave the seaboard and go to the west. The so-called “new” immigrants coming in the late nineteenth and early part of the twentieth century, tended to stay in the cities. It is true, however, that the “nordics” that came during that period, settled in the Mid-West. Today’s wave of immigrants go to all states, but they tend to congregate on just six: New York, California, Florida, New Jersey, Illinois and Texas. That has rather profound implications for the political process.

Earlier groups suffered through some loss of their cultural heritage. To some it was no loss. But the vastness of the country, an economic system that encouraged the learning of English for the marketplace, and a political system that encouraged naturalization and voting in English - made for assimilation. The problem in this area today is that while the economic push is there, the political system is allowing voting in other (Spanish) languages. It could be a trend that will have culture-altering effects on the nation.

America’s emergence as a major power, coincided with the major waves of immigration. This is not to say that it could not have developed without, for example, the “new” immigrants. But it would have been without the rapidity. The immigrants brought skills, or a strong body, at a time that the industrialization did not require excessive training. The great expansion of the period 1865 to 1910 would not have been possible without them. In fact, the Americans often take a very limited view of their role. For not only were they laborers, but also the consumers: they were a market. Most immigrants came at the prime age in life to join the work force. So the society as a whole did not have the costs of “rearing them to a working age.”

It has been demonstrated in the current wave of illegal aliens that immigrants do not take jobs other Americans want. Their presence here is an absolute must for society. They do not take jobs away from “older” Americans during depressions.

Contrary to a widely held view not all immigrants begin at the bottom and work their way to the top. Some start at the top as noted by the President’s Commission on Immigration and Naturalization when it drew up the following list:

“No roster of leading Americans in business, science, arts and the professions could be complete without the names of many immigrants. In our history the following aliens may be mentioned, among many, who became outstanding industrialists: Andrew Carnegie (Scot) in the steel industry; John Jacob Astor(German) in the fur industry; the DuPonts(French) of the munitions and chemical industry; Charles L.Fleischmann(Hungarian) of the yeast business; David Sarnoff(Russian) of the radio industry; and William S.Knudsen(Danish) of the automobile industry.

Immigrant scientists and inventors . . . whose genius has benefited the United States are Albert Einstein (German) in physics; Michael Pupin(Serbian) in electricity; Enrico Fermi(Italian) in atomic research; John Ericsson(Swedish) who invented the ironclad ship and the screw propeller; Guiseppe Bellanca(Italian) and Igor Sikorsky(Russian) who made outstanding contributions to airplane development; John A.Udden(Swedish) who was responsible for opening the Texas oil fields; Lucas P.Kyrides(Greek), industrial chemistry; David Thomas(Welsh) who invented the hot blast furnace; Alexanger Graham Bell(Scot) who invented the telephone; Conrad Huber(Russian) who invented the flashlight; and Otto Mergenthaler(German) who invented the linotype machine ..

The list is endless for Americans are all immigrants.”


Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1.There are some general statements about American immigration.

For each statement give as many details as you can (examples,

reasons, results, descriptions). Include only details directly

related to each statement.


1. There are changing factors in the pattern of immigration.

2. Earlier groups have suffered through some loss of their cultural heritage.

3. Immigrants have contributed much to the US economic development.


Exercise 2.Do you agree with the author of this article?

Give reasons for your point of view.


Exercise 3.Choose the word or phrase which best completes each


1. It had . . . implications for political development.

a) deep b) profound c) serious d) vague

2. I took a course in English with a(n) . . . to work as an interpretor.

a) intention b) purpose c) aim d) obstacle

3. The problems we . . . today are the direct result of your former mistakes.

a) come across b) meet c) face d) cope with

4. The society has no . . . of “rearing immigrants to a working age.”

a) expenditures b) costs c) spendings d) finance

5. My former colleagues . . . me to take this course by promising a good job afterwards.

a) encourage b) advise c) consult d) impose

6. The government has spent $ 1 million on an advertising . . . to encourage energy conservation.

a) promotion b) operation c) enterprise d) campaign

7. It is . . . to work abroad without an official permission.

a) against regulations b) unloyal c) immoral d) illegal

8. It’s only a small flat but it . . . my needs perfectly.

a) supplies b) fills c) meets d) settles


Oral Practice

Curriculum Vitae. A Job Interview

A Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a kind of autobiography an applicant for a job should present. Usually the date of the last job is given before educational background.

Curriculum Vitae

Name: Patricia Flynch

Date of birth: 5 April 1968

Nationality: British

Address: 11 High Street, Ramsgate EH3 2LM, Kent, England

tel 01282-448-5612

1991 - 1994 Sheffield Silver-works, engineer

1986 - 1990 B. Eng (Honours), Imperial College of Science, Technology

and Medicine

1990 - 1991 London Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Diploma in

Public Relations

1994 to present National Trust Fund. In charge of relations with European


Windows and Excel user

Fluent French and fair German

Driver’s Licence

Personal details: married, with one child

Exercise 1.Write your own CV, the CVs of your friends or parents.


Exercise 2.Here is a sample of a business interview. Learn it by heart

and make an interview of your own.


Interviewer: Who do you work for now, Ms Flynch?

Ms Flynch: The National Trust Fund.

Interviewer: How long have you worked for them?

Ms Flynch: I’ve worked for them for 3 years.

Interviewer: And what did you do before joining the National Trust?

Ms Flynch: I worked as an engineer for Sheffield silver-works.

Interviewer: Have you got any experience in organizing conferences?

Ms Flynch: Yes, I have actually. Why?

Interviewer: Your future job will require a lot of organizing meetings and



Exercise 4.Interview possible applicants for the following positions.

Make CVs which would suit the requirements.



Editor Sales Manager

up to 45 male, 25 - 40

degree in Linguistics University degree

PC trained PC trained

knowledge of Italian/English fluent English

over 5 years experience 3 years experience in sales

salary $ 500 + bonus salary $ 1000 + %


Unit 2

Text 1

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