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Indefinite and Distributive Adjectives and Pronouns




 

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

 

some no any

somebody(one) nobody (none) anybody(one)

something nothing anything

somewhere nowhere anywhere

 

Any and its compounds can be used in negative sentences, if the predicate is negative or with hardly, barely, scarcely.

I don’t want to buy anything here.

I have hardly any time.

Any and its compounds can be used in affirmative sentences in the meaning of ‘practically every’.

You may take any book you like.

Some is used in questions, when the answer ‘yes’ is expected.

May I take some coffee?

Everyone/ everybody/ everything + singular verb

Everyone wants to go there. Everything is ready.

Exercise 1.Fill in the blanks with some, any, no, every and their compounds

 

1. Does . . . know where he lives? 2. . . . wants to speak to you on the phone. 3. He is a real . . ., a man without wealth or . . . interests. 4. You may borrow . . . money from me. 5. I have hardly . . . books which may be of interest to you. 6. . . . dictionary will give you the meaning of these words. 7. Have you ever heard . . . of his lectures? 8. Would . . . like a drink? 9. Do you want . . . from the chemist? 10. I don’t want to go . . . this summer. 11. I am sure that . . . there lives a person who will fall in love with you.

 

Exercise 2.Translate into Russian. Explain the use of indefinite adjectives

and pronouns.

 

1. Dr. Greystone is not interested in anything outside his field. He is an atomic physicist and he does not want to be anything else. 2. Professor Mellowson is walking in Kentington Gardens. There are many people here. Some are lying on the grass and others are walking. But Professor does not notice anything or anybody. 3. What book shall I bring you? - Any you like. 4. We looked for the man, but there was nobody around. 5. He comes here every day. You can find him in any time between 2 and 4. 6. I think he has been everywhere. There is nothing to surprise him. 7. The symposium will be devoted to some problems of relationship between science and art. 8. Miss White has no taste at all. Her room is simply awful. 9. I’m very thirsty. Is there any juice in the house? - No, there isn’t any, I’m afraid, but there is some mineral water. 10. I’m very hungry, but I don’t want to go anywhere to eat out tonight. - Then there is some bread and butter in the fridge.

 

Exercise 3. Choose the appropriate indefinite pronoun or adverb out of those given in parenthesis. Explain your choice. Translate the sentences into Russian.

 

1.What book shall I bring. – (Some, any) you like. 2. If you have (something, anything) against me, speak out. 3. Why are (some, no) people so boring? 4. I don’t think I’ll go (anywhere, nowhere) this summer. 5. I never put (no, any) sugar in my tea. 6. Where there (no, some) objections? 7. (Sombody, nobody) tells me (nothing, anything). Could you tell me (something, everything)? 8. What books do you need? – (Any, no) you can give to me. 9. He took out (some, no) strange instrument from his bag. 10. I think he knows (everything, something). He is a real Mr. know-all. 11. We have heard (any, some) news that might interest you.

Text 2

Pre - reading task

1. What do you already know about the Crusades?

2. Find the key words in each paragraph and make up a summary of the text.

3. Find the answers to the following questions:

a) Why did the English warriors go to Jerusalem?

b) What does the legend say?

c) What can you say about the level of metallurgical development in the

East at the time of the Crusades?

 

 

The Crusades

In 1066 the Norman conquest of Britain brought England into closer relationship with France and other European countries. When the Crusades started, English warriors joined their continental brethren in trying to gain control of Jerusalem.

The fall of Rome did not affect life in eastern countries in quite the same way that it had done in Europe. The crusaders, coming from rough, comfortless homes - even those of them who lived in castles - were astonished by the luxury and elegance of the eastern countries. They longed to imitate the splendid architecture they saw, and they found that the eastern metal-workers were superior to their own. The Muslims did not have any additional new metals, but possessed greater technical skill in the arts of forging, casting and working the known ones.

There is a legend which tells of a meeting in the desert between Richard the Lion Heart and Saladin, the Muslim leader. Comparing weapons, Richard smashed through an iron bar with his mighty two-handed sword. In reply, Saladin flicked a silk scarf into the air and sliced it in half with his razor-sharp scimitar. Though not a true story, this legend makes a very apt comment on the metallurgical superiority of the Muslims’ swordsmiths. To retain such a sharp edge, Saladin’s blade must have been made of far superior metal.

The Muslims had a special method of making sword-blades which they had learned from India, hundreds of years before the Crusades. Blades made by this technique were known as Damascene. As well as being very strong, they had beautiful surfaces which shimmered like watered silk.

 

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1.Here are the answers to some questions about the text.

Work out the questions.

 

1. The fall of Rome did not affect life in eastern countries.

2. The Norman conquest of Britain took place in 1066.

3. The main aim of English warriors was to gain control of Jerusalem.

4. The Muslims were skilled in the arts of forging and casting.

5. The legend comments on the metallurgical superiority of the Muslims’ swordmakers.

Exercise 2. Read the text carefully and agree or disagree with the

statements given below.

 

1. When the Crusades started, English warriors didn’t want to join them

2. The Crusaders were astonished by the luxury and elegance of the eastern countries.

3. The Muslims knew some additional new metals.

4. Richard smashed through an iron bar with his mighty two-handed sword.

5. Saladin’s blade was made of a superior material.

6. The Muslims invented their special method of making sword blades.

 

Exercise 3.Look through the text and find words or phrases which mean

the same as:

win; crave; hear of; be more experienced; way; produce;

be surprised; throw; land; glitter; crude; proficiency.

Exercise 4.Translate the following idioms into Russian. Use them

in the sentences of your own.

 

1. To cross swords with someone. = To start fighting, arguing.

2. Rough and ready. = not finished in detail; rough but ready for use now

3. A rough guess. = an approximate calculation

4. To take the rough with the smooth. = to endure smth without complaint

5. To make headway. = to make progress

6. To make up for lost time. = to work harder after loosing time

7.To make much ado about nothing. = to make much noise about smth unimportant.

8.He’ll throw a fit. = he’ll react very angrily

9.To make bricks without straw = to try to do smth impossible

 

Exercise 5.Arrange the jumbled sentences into the organized text.

 

1. The Crusaders led by Richard the Lion Heart wore the heavy armour.

2. The knights in Richard’s army wore chain mail.

3. On top of the hood of chain mail the crusader wore an iron helm.

4. It helped them in hand-to-hand fighting against the lighty armed Saracens.

5. Their legs were protected by long stockings made of the same kind of iron links.

6. In all this armour the crusaders fought under the burning sun of Syria.

7. But it was uncomfortable to wear in the heat of the Palestine desert.

 

 

Oral Practice

 

Giving and Rejecting Advice. Visiting a Doctor.

 

Patterns

Giving advice Rejecting advice
1. Why don’t you do it? I’m afraid I can’t do that, I have no time.
2. What about doing it? I don’t think it’s a good idea.No, that’s impossible.
  Accepting advice What a good idea! That’s a good idea! Thanks, I’ll do it. Yes, all right.

 

Here are some symptoms that people complain of when they go to see a doctor:

I’ve got a temperature I’m running a high temperature

I’ve got a sore throat I don’t feel(am not feeling) very well

I’m constipated I keep feeling dizzy

I feel sick I’ve got a diarrhoea

My arm hurts I’ve got a pain in my (leg, arm, chest ..)

I’ve got a stomach (back, tooth, ear, head) ache

(there are only 5 aches, the rest are pains!)

 

This is what the doctor might tell you to do:

Keep warm Go straight to bed

Stay in bed for a couple of days Take one/two tablets after your meals

Don’t eat any rich food Take this prescription to the chemist

Take the medicine before you go to bed

 

Exercise 1.Learn the dialogue by heart and make up a dialogue of

your own using the patterns.

 

Receptionist: Good morning. What can I do for you?

Paula: Good morning. I’d like an appointment with the dentist, please.

Receptionist: Yes, certainly. What’s the matter? Is it urgent?

Paula: I’m afraid it is. I’ve got a terrible toothache. I’ve been having

it for two days. It’s very nasty. And I had my regular check up

only three weeks ago.

Receptionist: Well, Dr.Brown can see you today at 10.30. Is that OK?

Paula: Yes, that’s fine.

Receptionist: What’s your name and address?

 

Exercise 2.Pair work

 

1. You are a doctor. Your partner is a patient who is ill. Find out the information you need to complete the form and tell your partner what to do using the patterns.

 

Medical Record Card

name of patient __________________________________

date of visit __________________________________

symptoms __________________________________

recommended treatment __________________________

________________________________________________

 

6. Pretend that you are ill. Decide what symptoms you have and how long you have had them. Your partner is a doctor. Answer his questions and make sure you understand what you have to do.

 

3. You meet your friend who doesn’t look well. Ask him/her what the matter is and give advice using the patterns.

 

4. Talk to your partner about his/her health and tell him/her about yours.

 

Exercise 3.In pairs guess the meanings of these common idioms and

discuss the situations when you can use them.

 

1. He wouldn’t hurt a fly.

2. People should not break the laws: ill-gotten, ill-spent.

3. When he returned from the hospital he was ‘skin and bones’.

4. The moment he saw her after all those twenty years he understood that the heart once truly loved never forgets.

 

 

Chapter 2

The Age of Steel

 

Unit 1

Text 1





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