Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Gerund переводится на русский язык существительным, деепричастием, инфинитивом или целым предложением.
Exercise 1.Use the correct form of the Gerund.
1. I don’t fancy (to go) out this evening. 2. Are you going to give up (to smoke)? 3. He denied (to be) there before. 4. I can’t imagine Pat (to ride) a bike. 5. She kept on (to interrupt) me while I was speaking. 6. I don’t enjoy (to write) letters. 7. I never thought of (to invite) to their party. 8. He denied ever (to see) those people before. 9. By (to pass) Acts, Parliament can even alter the Constitution. 10. Why do you keep on (to look) at me in this way? 11. Could you please stop (to make) so much noise? 12. When everybody sat down, Harris began (to sing). 13. The boy was afraid of (to leave) alone. 14. I insist on (to listen to) attentively.
Exercise 2.Translate the following dialogues and use the patterns
in the dialogues of your own.
Pat - Do you mind my sitting in your favourite chair?
Liz - Not at all.
Pat - It’s so comfortable that I can never resist the temptation of sitting
in it. Those modern things are terribly uncomfortable.
Liz - But they look very nice.
Pat - Oh, yes. I always enjoy looking at them, but I try to avoid sitting
Liz - I know, many people object to their being rather hard.
Paul - Do you think Henry will come to the party tonight?
Bill - I doubt it. He isn’t very sociable. He doesn’t like meeting strangers
and he hates dancing. He prefers reading. In fact, he prefers books
Paul - But his wife loves dancing and simply adores meeting people.
Bill - That’s true. That’s why Henry doesn’t like her going out alone.
Exercise 3.Use Gerund or Infinitive in the following sentences.
1. I don’t mind (to play) cards with you. 2. I would love (to come) to see you tomorrow. 3. I like (to play) tennis. 4. I’d like (to play) tennis today. 5. I very much enjoy (to listen) to folk songs. 6. Please, remember (to post) this letter. 7. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember (to leave) it on the table. 8. Tom helped his mother (to get) the dinner ready. 9. You are free (to go) anywhere you like. 10. I don’t mind (to wait). It’s better (to be) too early than too late. 11. Before (to deal) with the changes in the smelting procedure, it will be proper (to consider) the way of application of powdered coal as a fuel. 12. The history of culture tells us about the ancients (to make) some chance discoveries. 13. Phosphorous and sulphur are elements (to eliminate) from the molten metal. 14. I did not know of his (to complete) the experiment successfully.
Exercise 4.Translate into Russian, paying attention to gerunds.
1. He didn’t enjoy living in London. 2. They are thinking about taking part in this conference. 3. Checking detail is not one of my strong points. 4. I’m afraid she is not used to working so hard. 5. He doesn’t regret leaving his well-paid job. 6. She stopped playing the piano, stood up and went out of the room. 7. He had always been interested in playing with engines and motors. 8. I like working with my hands. 9. Translating foreign languages is difficult. 10. They prefer living in the country to living in the town. 11. This coat is rather dirty. It needs cleaning. 12. She left without saying good-bye to anybody. 13. She is not looking forward to doing the exam. 14. We went to a restaurant instead of eating out. 15. Various methods and machines can be used for producing this material. 16. On heating to a higher temperature the carbon diffuses into the still solid iron, thereby increasing its carbon content.
Exercise 5.In Text 2 find the gerunds and explain their use.
Pre- reading Task
Agree or disagree with the following statements after scanning
the text given below:
1. The Pilgrims left England because they were not allowed to separate from the Established Church.
2. Their first winter in America was very successful for the Pilgrims.
3. A day of Thanksgiving was connected with harvest time.
4. The English had a similar festival “Harvest Home” to celebrate the last load of grain brought home.
5. Thanksgiving Day became the national festival in the 18th century.
6. The main colours of Thanksgiving Day are yellow and orange.
7. Fish is a traditional dish of this festival.
The US Customs and Traditions
Thanksgiving was first celebrated in 1621 by English settlers of the Plymouth colony, and the spirit and customs with which they endowed the day have remained unchanged.
The settlers, who have since come to be called the Pilgrims had left their native England because they had been denied the right to separate from the Established Church to worship in their own way. They fled first to Holland, and in 1620 they sailed to America on the “Mayflower”, and after a tempestous two-month voyage they landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, in icy November.
During their first winter, over half of the settlers died of starvation or epidemics, but the courageous survivors, through faith and some fortunate circumstances, were able to found a permanent colony. While scouting the area for fresh water, they had unearthed a cache of Indian seed corn, and when April came they began their planting, struggling with the rocky soil as they had struggled with the bitter climate. When, finally, the fields produced a yield rich beyond expectations, Governor William Bradford proclaimed ‘a day of Thanksgiving unto the Lord so we might after a more special manner, rejoice after we had gathered the fruits of our labors.”
The idea of giving thanks was not new nor was it peculiar to the Pilgrims. Throughout mythology and recorded history there have been harvest festivals. The ancient Hebrews, the Greeks and the Romas all celebrated the earth’s bounty. The English had their “Harvest Home”, a festival to celebrate the last load of grain brought home, with its church service of thanksgiving followed by a public feast and sports events. All these were part of the colonists’ heritage. Yet Thanksgiving as first celebrated by the Pilgrims and repeated by Americans ever since has unique qualities born of life in the New World.
After 1623 Thanksgiving Days were celebrated irregularly and on a regional basis. A national Thanksgiving Day came only after the thirteen colonies had been united and George Washington, the Republic’s first president, had assumed office.
Since Lincoln’s time it has been the custom for the President of the United States to proclaim annually the fourth Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day, and for the Governors of the states to issue proclamations for their respective states. The date has remained as fixed in 1863, nor has the pattern of the Thanksgiving celebration changed through the years.
Table decorations follow a traditional pattern. Flowers also bring the Fall scene indoors. There are bouquets of chrysanthemums of golden yellow combined with dried branches. The centerpiece is the traditional roast turkey.
Exercise 1.Choose the word or phrase that best completes each
1. The first Americans . . . were of British stock.
a) inhabitants b) settlers c) population
2. He was . . . a mile from the hotel when he ran out of petrol.
a) within b) inside c) only
3. When the fields produced rich harvest Governor Bradford . . . a day of Thanksgiving to the Lord.
a) announced b) proclaimed c) started
4. They . . . the fire brigade twice yesterday.
a) summoned b) called for c) called out
5. Goverment is said . . . currency notes from circulation.
a) call in b) withdraw c) get rid of
6. Christmas is . . . all over the world.
a) marked b) celebrated c) noted
7. . . . Lincoln’s time the 4th Thursday of Novebmer was proclaimed as Thanksgiving Day.
a) from b) since c) throughout
8. Easter is one of the most important . . . in the Christian world.
a) festivals b) feasts c) celebrations
Exercise 2. Look through the text and find words or phrases
which meas the same as
a usual, habitual course of action; escape; more than half of; to locate permanently; to make known publicly; very special; every year; written history.
Exercise 3. Talk about some more American festivals.
Exercise 4.Listen to the lecture on American life-style and determine
whether each of the following statements is true or false
according to the information in the lecture.
1. The American family hasn’t changed much in the last few decades.
2. The traditional American family consists of a mother, father and one or two children.
3. Grandparents do not care for their grandchildren.
4. The roles of parents have not changed.
5. Today nearly half of married American women work.
6. Men do not take part in raising children.
7. Edlerly parents prefer to live separately from their children.
Information Letter. Going on a Business Trip
Dear Mr Petrov
I would like to inform you that a delegation from our company of two people will arrive in Moscow in the end of October.
I would be grateful if you could arrange their visit to some of the development laboratories to see the equipment in operation.
I thank you in advance for your cooperation.
Note! No abbreviations can be used in business letter.
Chris - Do you like the idea of taking a month’s trip to Moscow?
Susan - What? You are kidding!
Chris - No. First of all I must say it will be a business trip.
The company wants us to visit some of our operations.
Susan - You mean we’ll have meetings about the new computer we are
Chris - Yes, one of the development laboratories is in Moscow.
The company has got an office there.
Susan - Is it a joint venture?
Chris - Yes, it is.
Susan - It’ll be very exciting.
Exercise 1.Write an information letter about your arrival in London.
You are coming to get acquianted with a new line of
metallurgical equipment. Discuss the business trip with
Exercise 2.Telephone you English colleagues and make all necessary
appointments. Use the patterns from the previous units.
not to be in the office for a moment; to leave a message for smb; to phone back; to connect with; to make an appointment; could you put me through to smb; I’m sorry; I am fully booked for that day; could you come over to the office tomorrow; can I confirm the appointment; would it be too much to ask you to arrange a trip to?; I’m sorry he is in a conference now; etc.
Aluminium is the most common metal on Earth. It occurs naturally in many different kinds of rocks. But most of the aluminium we use is extracted from an ore called bauxite, which is formed over long periods by the weathering of rocks containing aluminium silicates (aluminium, silicon and oxygen).
Aluminium is extracted from bauxite by the Bayer process and electrolysis. In the Bayer process, bauxite is mixed with caustic soda and heated. This produces sugar-like crystals of pure aluminium oxide. These are dissolved in molten sodium aluminium fluoride, called cryolite. Electrolysis is then used to split up the aluminium and oxygen.
In 1886 two chemists independently discovered how to extract aluminium using electricity. Their discovery reduced the price of aluminium to a fraction of the price of silver in four years. The two chemists were Charles Martin Hall (1863 - 1914), a student at Oberlin College in the USA, and P.L.T. Heroult (1863 - 1914), a young chemist working in France. By coincidence, they were not only the same age when they made their discovery, but also died within eight months of each other.
Before this, the metal was much more expensive than silver and gold. The Emperor of France, Napoleon III, for example, used aluminium plates to impress the most important guests. Today we use aluminium foil to wrap food because it is so cheap.
Aluminium is also durable, light and a good conductor of electricity. It is used to protect metals against corroding because when the surface of aluminium reacts with oxygen in the air, a thick coating of aluminium oxide forms that seals a metal from the air. It is also used to make parts for planes, cars, and lorries, to make electric cables.
Practise after the speaker and learn how to pronounce the words given below:
bauxite /bo:ksait/; silicate /’silikeit/; caustic /ko:stik/; fluoride /flu'rid/; cryolite /’krai'lait/; coincidence /kou’insid'ns/; surface /’s':fis/; lorry /lori/.
Exercise 1.Find the English equivalents for the words and word-combinations
given below and use them in the sentences of your own.
самый распространенный металл; бокситы; добывать из; фтористое соединение; криолит; разлагать; хороший проводник электричества; предохранять металлы от ржавчины; поверхность; покрытие; понизить цену до.
Exercise 2.Match the English words and word combinations given
below with their Russian equivalents. Use them in the
sentences of your own.
1. it occurs naturally 1. в течение долгого времени
2. over long periods 2. они - ровесники
3. sugar-like 3. алюминиевая фольга
4. by coincidence 4. чистая окись алюминия
5. they are the same age 5. защищать металл от доступа воздуха
6. to seal a metal from 6. по случайному стечению обстоятельств
the air (случайно)
7. aluminium foil 7. встречается в природе
8. pure aluminium oxide 8. похожий на сахар
Exercise 3.Answer the following questions
1. Where does aluminium occur naturally? 2. Was aluminium always a cheap metal? 3. What reduced the price of aluminium? 4. What are the properties of aluminium? 5. Is aluminium widely used and where?
Exercise 4.Paraphrase the following sentences using the words from
the list given below.
1. Aluminium is drawn out from bauxite by the Bayer process.
2. We use aluminium to shield metals from corroding.
3. Aluminium is found mainly in bauxite.
4. Aluminium used to be a very dear metal before two chemists opened how to extract it using electricity.
5. Aluminium oxide encloses a metal securely from the air.
occur discover extract expensive protect seal
Exercise 5.Listen to the lecture and answer the questions.
1. Did the use of aluminium improve the quality of a large road bridge in Pennsylvania?
2. Why has aluminium been slow in progress?
3. What is necessary to reduce the price of aluminium?
4. What are the best qualities of aluminium?
Exercise 6.Translate at sight. What else do you know about aluminium?
1. Aluminium alloys can possess the strength of steel, though only a third the weight. 2. Cows give more milk when there are cool, heat-reflecting aluminium roofs on their dairy barns. 3. Aluminium offers a bright hope for energy conservation. 4. In direct contact with a heat source, aluminium is an excellent conductor. 5. World’s lightweight champion in the long-distance transport of electricity, aluminium, has virtually replaced heavier copper in high-voltage power lines. 6. Nearly indestructible, aluminium can be remelted over and over. 7. Aluminium is alloyed with small amounts of other metals. 8. Copper adds strength; magnesium imparts additional marine-corrosion resistance.
Focus on Grammar
Object + InfinitiveObject + Participle
I asked Tom to help me. I saw her crossing the street.
He would like me to come. I want it explained.
They made me do it.
Complex Object is used after certain verbs:
1) denoting order, request (ask, tell, order, force, etc.)
The teacher told us to do this exercise.
Преподаватель сказал нам сделать это упражнение.
They forced us to agree with them.
Они вынудили нас согласиться с ними.
2) denoting mental perception, thinking (think, consider, believe, expect, mean, know, etc.)
I consider him to be a good student.
Я считаю, что он – хороший студент
3) wish, want, like, dislike, hate, have (= allow), get (=make)
I want you to visit us tomorrow.
Я хочу, чтобы вы навестили нас завтра.
After these 3 groups of verbs Infinitive of the Complex Object construction is used with “to”.
4) after the verbs denoting sensual perception (feel, see, hear, watch, notice)
I heard her singing in the next room.
Я слышала, как она поет в соседней комнате.
I heard her sing once.
Однажды я слышала, как она поет.
Present Participle is used to stress a simultaneous action.
5) after let (предоставлять); make (заставлять).
Let me do it. Позвольте мне сделать это.
I’ll make you do it Я заставлювас сделать это.
After these 2 groups of verbs Infinitive of the Complex Object construction is used without “to”.
6) after find, imagine, fancy Participle I is used in the Complex Object construction.
They found me reading a newspaper. Они застали меня за чтением газеты.
Fancy her doing it. Представь, что она делает это.
7) after believe, consider, feel, find, get, have, keep, leave, like, make, see, think, want, watch, should/would like Past Participle can be used in the Complex Object construction.
I want it done. Я хочу, чтобы это было сделано.
Get the papers typed.Скажи, чтобы отпечатали эти бумаги.
В технической литературе Complex Object часто встречается с глаголами to permit и to enable. Эта конструкция обычно переводится косвенным дополнением в дательном падеже (Infinitive Active):
The new equipment enables the operator to finish parts with more accuracy. – Новое оборудование дает возможность рабочему обрабатывать детали с большей точностью.
Если за глаголами в составе Complex Object следует Infinitive Passive, то его надо переводить активной формой непосредственно после сказуемого, а существительное сделать его дополнением.
The new device enables the lathe to be used for a greater range of work.. Новое приспособление дает возможность использовать станок для выполнения большего числа операций.
Exercise 1.Translate into Russian.
1. He heard someone call his name. 2. I expect this translation to have been finished by June. 3. He ordered dinner to be served at eight. 3.Your enthusiasm makes me feel young again. 5. His knowledge of English helped him find a good job. 6. I want you to follow my advice. 7. We didn’t expect them to have come earlier than we did. 8. When will you have your PC fixed? 9. We consider him to be an expert in physical chemistry. 10. Who made you think so? 11. Can you fancy him wearing this suit? 12. I except her to arrive in London on Saturday. 13. She let me persuage them to join us. 14. You may leave the plates unwahsed. We’ll do them later. 15. Fancy meeting them here. 16. I won’t have anything said against her. 17. We got the matters arranged very quickly.
Exercise 2.Paraphrase the following using a Complex Object with
an Infinitive, Participle I or Participle II.
1. He heard that someone called his name. 2. Mother used to watch how I was playing tennis. 3. I want that everything has been arranged by the time I come. 4. He hated it when people were impolite to him. 5. He thought he was fit for the job. 6. When we called for him, we found that he had already left. 7. He expected that his efforts would be paid back. 8. They heard how the woman said something. 9. People who knew her felt that she was a woman of strong will. 10. What I want is that you both should be happy.
Exercise 3.Use the correct forms of the infinitives in parenthesis.
1. We can assume the following principle (to be) rather true. 2. We know the third machine in the line (to be) a duplicate of the first one. 3. They supposed the new equipment (to double) the output since it was introduced. 4. The director found the workers (to discuss) the advantages of the new method of cold metal treatment. 5. I want this experiment (to continue). I believe it (to be) a success. 6. Application of the results of this experiment will enable us (to simplify) the casting process. 7. The author believes it (to state) in the earlier works of his colleagues that controlled-atmoshere furnaces may be employed to prevent the formation of scale. 8. They heard them (to argue) about the shortcomings of the invention. 9. I shall have this translation (to do). I have no time to do it myself.
Pre- reading Task
1. What do you already know about American English?
2. How many variants of the English language do you know?
3. Now look through the text and say what facts are new to you.
American English is very different from other forms of English spoken around the world. If you learned English as a second language, you probably learned a British variety in a classroom setting. One of the first things you will notice in the United States is the American usage of English does not always conform to strict rules. Even among well educated Americans, spoken English is very flexible and popular idioms are common - another example of American informality.
To understand American English, listen carefully, relax, and be aware that idioms are often used. For example, an American might greet you with Howya doin?as a way of saying ‘hello’. Other common phrases include Shape up (behave yourself), Suit yourself (do as you please), and Knock it off (stop what you are doing). If you do not understand an American’s phrase ask for an explanation.
Throughout the country, only a few minor dialectal variations exist. Except for some differences in pronunciation, Americans speak a uniform language. This is due largely to American mobility, the national mass media (especially television), and the nation’s education system. In areas such as New England, the ‘r’ may be dropped from the end of a word; in the South, English is spoken at a slower pace that leads to different vowel pronunciations. In general, Americans draw out their sounds, rather than speaking in concise, clipped syllables. Some ethnic groups also have their own variety of English, especially in large urban areas. Spanish is common in many Hispanic communities, and Native Americans speak a variety of Amerindian languages. Many first- and second-generation immigrants continue to speak their native tongues.
A special challenge for newcomers is to understand American idioms. Some for years have learned many English words, but they are still baffled in trying to understand when Americans combine words into expressions.
American English is constantly being enriched by new words, new meanings given to old words. The problem presented by idioms is that these expressions usually include words that are understandable by themselves, but when combined with other words often have entirely different meaning. Also, Americans use the same idiom to mean diametrically opposite things. For example, “That’s just great.” means both “wonderful” and “that’s awful”.
Exercise 1.Choose the one best answer to each question from the text.
1. Is American English a language or a variety of the English language?
a) a variety b) a dialect c) a language
2. Does American English observe strict rules?
a) no rules at all b) strict rules c) not always
3. What is often used in American English?
a) proverbs b) idioms c) neologisms
4. Where can you find the main differences between American and British English?
a) in vocabulary b) in grammar c) in pronunciation
5. Are there many dialectal variations in American English?
a) many b) two major c) a few minor
Exercise 3.Below there are some examples of American idioms and their English meanings. Translate them into colloquial Russian.
1. Catch on? Do you understand?
2. We are working for peanuts. We are working for very low wages.
3. Dry up Be quiet!
4. What’s the catch? What’s the bad news?
5. Put on your best bib and tucker. Put on your best clothes.
6. Will he catch on? Will he discover the truth? 7. It’s a snow job. They are trying to fool us.
8. He is square. He is very formal.
9. It’s a lemon! I’s faulty! It’s worthless!
10. Way to go! Wonderful!
Exercise 4. Below there are two texts which mean the same but one
is written in conversational American English and the
other - in a more formal, relatively idiom - free English.
Make a little idiom dictionary.
1. Sam is a real cool cat. He never blows his stack; he hardly ever flies off the handle. What’s more, he knows how to get away with things. . . . Well, of course, he is getting on, too. His hair is pepper and salt, but he knows how to make up for lost time by taking it easy. He gets up early, works out and turns in early. He takes care of the hot dog stand like a breeze until he gets time off. Sam’s got it made; this is it for him.
Exercise 5.Here are some more Americanisms. Write their
equivalents in British English.
1. He ain’t gonna help. 6. I gotta go.
2 . Monday thru Friday. 7. Did you have a good vacation?
3. Boy, he was real mad! 8. Wonna cookie?
4. I arrived in the fall. 9. Waiter! The check, please.
5. I’m going downtown. 10. What did you do on the weekend?
Enquiry Letters. Making Plans
An enquiry letter states the aim of the letter and conditions on which the author would like to achieve the aim. (for example, the name of equipment; its quality and quantity; the model; the terms of delivery; the price)
Primrose & Co
Dear Mr Hemingway,
We are much interested in the new line of gold extraction advertised by you in the recent issue of “The Metallurgy”. The advertisement however, does not give sufficient information about the specifications, price, and terms of delivery.
Therefore we should appreciate further details as soon as possible.
We hope to establish long-term business relations with your company and look forward to hearing from you soon.
Ben - Hi, Susan. Haven’t seen you for ages. How are things?
Susan - Great. We are busy with a new line of gold extraction.
Ben - Sounds interesting. Are you going to apply for a patent soon?
Susan - Yes, we are. We are preparing the necessary papers now.
Ben - And how about the market research?
Susan - Oh, there is a good market not only here but abroad, as well.
Ben - Then I advise you to start a good promotional campaign.
Susan - Without doubt. Sorry, I must dash now.
Ben - Bye then, it was nice to meet you again.
Exercise 1.Write an enquiry letter about a new model of PC. Use the
phrases given above and some additional phrases like:
We require; we are regular buyers of; we are in the market for;
we learned from . . . that you are exporters of;
could you send us your quotation for . . .;
please, inform us what is the price of your new model/ what are your terms of delivery.
Exercise 2.Make a dialogue. You and your friend are making plans to
set up a new business. Use the phrases from the dialogue given
above and some additional patterns.
to go into business with smb; to get along well; to run a risk in one’s business; to be liable; to invest money; to contribute skills/name/reputation; to distribute profits and losses; to share profits and losses equally; the production targets; to keep abreast of.
Exercise 3.Listen to the short lecture and choose the best answers
from the four given.
1. What US agency controls the Patent Office?
a) The State Department b) The Treasury Department
c) The Department of Commerce d) The Department of Agriculture
2. For how long is a patent in the US granted?
a) for seven years b) for seventy years c) for seventy seven years
d) for seventeen years
3. Who is responsible for administering the patent laws?
a) Patent examiners who are trained in technical fields
b) The President of the US
c) The Director of the US Patent Office
d) Government officials from the applicant’s home state
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