Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Exercise 1. Answer the questions (general understanding).
1. How can people use the Internet?
2. What is WWW?
3. How do people access information in WWW?
4. How do people connect to the Internet?
5. What sorts of things are available on the WWW?
Exercise 2. Insert proper words or phrases.
1. People communicate through ... , ... .
2. Thousands of... are connected to the Internet and ... information.
3. The........... is a part of the Internet.
4. You ... information through one ... called ....
5. Each browser provides a graphical ....
6. You move from site to site by using a ... to ... on a portion of text.
7. The ... doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.
8. One can use the Internet for ... purposes.
Exercise 3. Correct the sentences.
1. People use the Internet to do shopping.
2. People communicate through the browser.
3. The Internet is a part of the World Wide Web.
4. The people connect to the Internet through another computer.
5. A user must know where the needed files or documents in the Internet are.
6. The Internet is used for business transactions only.
Exercise 4. Translate into English.
1. Люди используют Интернет чтобы извлекать информацию и общаться.
2. Мы находим информацию через специальную программу поиска.
3. Кто-то может использовать Интернет для отдыха и развлечений.
4. С помощью всемирной сети мы можем посетить разные города и страны, выучить иностранный язык и встретить новых друзей.
5. Люди подключаются к Интернету и всемирной сети через местных провайдеров.
6. Пользователю не нужно знать, где находится информация, ему поможет программа поиска.
7. Десятки тысяч сетей соединены в Интернет, где люди обмениваются информацией.
Computer operations and operating systems.
Text 1. What is hardware?
Hardware is the devices composing a computer system. Computer hardware can be divided into 4 categories:
1. Input hardware
2. Processing hardware
3. Storage hardware
4. Output hardware
Input hardware collects data and converts them into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks like a typewriter. The mouse is a hand-held device connected to the computer by a small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the desktop, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the needed location, the user usually presses the button on the mouse once or twice to give a command to a computer.
Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner. Microphone and videocamera can be also used to input data into the computer.
Processing hardware directs the execution of software instructions in the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the central processing unit and main memory.
The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing.
Memory is the component of the computer in which information is stored. There two types of computer memory: random access memory (RAM) and read only memory (ROM).
Random access memory is the memory, used for creating, loading and running programs.
Read only memory is computer memory used to hold programmed instructions to the system.
The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform.
The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data and retrieve when needed for processing. Storage hardware stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are hard disk, floppy disk and CD - ROM.
Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and a large amount of data.
Floppy disk (diskette) - a thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing temporary computer data and programs. There are two formats of floppy disks; 5.25' and 3.5’.
3.5' disks are formatted 1.4 megabytes and are widely used.
CD - ROM (compact disk read only memory) is a compact disk on which a large amount of digitized data can be stored. CD - ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD- ROM drives can provide nowadays.
The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is in either hardcopy or softcopy forms. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (words or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.
Monitor is a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc. Printer is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.
Modem is an example of communication hardware - an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.
Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what you are going to do on your computer.
Exercise 1. Answer the questions.
1. What is hardware?
2. What groups of hardware do you know?
3. What is input hardware?
4. What are the examples of input hardware?
5. What is the mouse designed for?
6. What is processing hardware?
7. What are the basic types of memory used in a personal computer?
8. What is a storage hardware?
9. What is the CD-ROM used for?
10. What kind of hardware can contain more information: CD-ROM, ROM or RAM?
11. What is a modem used for?
12. Can a PC user communicate with other people without a modem?
Exercise 2. True or false? Give your arguments.
1. The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and to convert them into a form suitable for computer processing.
2. Scanner is used to input graphics only.
3. CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on the paper.
4. A user can't change the contents of ROM.
5. A printer is a processing hardware because it shows the information.
6. Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other communication lines.
7. The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data.
8. Floppy disk is used for storing a large amounts of data.
9. A monitor is an output device that produces a paper data or graphics.
10. A keyboard is a computer software for to input information.
Exercise 3. Give the definitions, using the text.
7. Hard disk
Exercise 4. Insert proper words or phrases.
1. Software tells the ... how to perform a task.
2. The most common input device is ...
3. The ... is a hand-held device connected with the computer by a small cable.
4. The ... is the brain of the computer.
5. The purpose of... hardware is to store computer instructions and data.
6. ... is a rigid disk coated with magnetic materials.
7. Floppy disk is for storing ... and ....
Text 2. Computer operations.
Much of the processing computers can be divided into two general types of operation. Arithmetic operations are computations with numbers such as addition, subtraction, and other mathematical procedures. Early computers performed mostly arithmetic operations, which gave the false impression that only engineers and scientists could benefit from computers. Of equal importance is the computers’ ability to compare two values to determine if one is larger than, smaller than, or equal to the other. This is called a logical operation. The comparison may take place between numbers, letters, sounds, or even drawings. The processing of the computer is based on the computer’s ability to perform logical and arithmetic operations.
Instructions must be given to the computer to tell it how to process the data it receives and the format needed for output and storage. The ability to follow the program sets computers apart from most tools. However, new tools ranging from typewriters to microwave ovens have embedded computers, or built-in- computers. An embedded computer can accept data to use several options in its program, but the program itself cannot be changed. This makes these devices flexible and convenient but not the embedded computer itself.
Types of Data
With the advent of new computer applications and hardware, the definition of data expanded to include many types.
Numeric data consists of numbers and decimal points, as well as the plus (+) and minus (-) signs. Both arithmetic operations and logical operations are performed on numeric data. This means that numbers can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to each other.
Text, or textual data, can contain any combinations of letters, numbers special characters. Sometimes textual data is known as alphanumeric data.
Various forms of data that we can hear and see make up audio-visual data. The computer can produce sounds, music and even human voice. It can also accept audio information as an input. Data can also take form of drawings and video sequences.
Physical datais captured from the environment. For example, light, temperature and pressure are all types of physical data. In many large buildings, computer systems process several kinds of physical data to regulate operations. Computers can set off security alarms, control temperature and humidity, or turn lights on and off,, all in response to physical data. These applications increase people’s safety and save the time and money.
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