Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии

Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

1. Who is the price leader in your business?

2. How can you become a price leader? What should you do for this?

3. How should one start a promotional campaign?

4. Why is it dangerous to produce price sensitive goods?

5. Why is it important to.have competitors in business?

6. What should you do to leave your competitors behind?

7. What knowledge must you have to be good at marketing?


Exercise3. Translate into English.

1. Маркетинг включает в себя действия, связанные с движением товара от производителя к потребителю.

2. Маркетинг включает в себя транспортировку, хранение рекламу, калькуляцию цен, продажу.

3. Изучение рынка помогает предсказывать общие направления спроса.

4. Реклама оказывает сильное влияние на покупателя.

5. Мы не можем устанавливать самую низкую цену на товар.

6. Мы должны разработать план производства новых продуктов.

7. Сбыт этого товара очень реагирует на изменение цены.

Grammar Exercises

Exercise1. Transform the sentences of real condition into the sentences of unreal condition.

M о d e l: If we promote this right, we will (we'll) get more sales.

a) If we promoted this right, we would get more sales.

b) If we had promoted this right, we would have got more sales.

1. If we are careful we will leave behind our competitors.

2. If we phone R.D., we will get the necessary information.

3. If we change the ingredients, we will be ready for the price rise.

4. If the price of jam goes up, the increase will be passed on the consumer.

5. If they work hard, they won't lose any customers.

6. If we schedule the product development in time we will be ready for the change of the demand.

7. If we don't lose the chance, the competitors’ products will stayon the super-market shelves.

Exercise2. Make transformations according to the model.

Model: Consumers wish prices would go down.

Consumers hope that prices will go down.

I wish I could work harder.

I hope I can work harder.

1. The head of the department wishes that competition would lessen.



2. The Market Research Department wishes the test results would be ready soon.

3. The Manager wishes that sales would improve.

4. We wish all the departments could fulfil their tasks.

5. Sally wishes that the Packaging Department could hurry up.




Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5.000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6.000 items. As a wholesaler handles large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.

Active Vocabulary
wholesaling- оптовая торговля

Dialogue John is explaining his new job to his wife, Susan. He is a sales trainee for a company. John It's a great job, you know. The salesmen are paid salaries instead of being on commission. Susan Why do you find it great? You саn earn less money. John Well, it's a regular weekly salary. And besides we get reimbursed for everything lunches and dinners, even the football tickets, the car, gasoline, tolls. Susan That's really great. John And I'm going to get a raise in three months. Susan And what are you going to see John Foam rubber. Susan What is it used for? John It is used to make couches and beds, generally ideal with furniture manufacturers. Susan So you will travel much, won't you? John No. Delivery is a part of our wholesaling operation. Foam is sold and delivered by the truckloads. It is rather bulky and it is expensive to have it shipped a big distance. We are going to deal with buyers who are in this region. Susan That's fine. I don't want you to travel too much. By the way I want to know more about sales procedure. John At first I go to see a buyer. We discuss what he n needs After that I send him a written quote. If our prices suit him, he'll call us and send an order. Susan Do you take orders over the phone?    

Comprehension Questions 1. What is the aim of the wholesaling? 2. How can you describe a direct channel of distribution? 3. What is an indirect channel of distribution? 4. What channel of distribution is preferable? 5. Is there any difference between a merchant wholesaler and an agent middleman? What is this difference? 6. How does a wholesaler simplify the process of distribution? 7. What would a retailer have to do without wholesalers? Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence. 1. They use both direct and indirect... I of distribution. I 1 wholesalers

to provide channels –


indirect channels –


complicated channels –

retailer –

chain movement –

wholesale unit –


total sales –

middleman –

merchant wholesaler –

wholesaling middleman-

to take title to the goods-


agent middleman –



to negotiate purchases

or sales-

to earn salary –

to receive commissions –



to handle –

assortment -

обеспечивать системой


непрямая, опосредованная

система (сбыта)

сложная система (сбыта)

розничный торговец

движение к объединению

(зд.) контора по оптовой


совокупная продажа

посредник, комиссионер

оптовый скупщик

оптовый посредник (скупщик)

приобретать товар как


посредник между


и покупателем

вести переговоры по поводу

купли или продажи

зарабатывать жалование

получать комиссионные

(процент от продажи)

бакалейная торговля

1) управлять,

2) торговать (амер.)


2. Agent middlemen do not... to the I

goods they deal in. I 2 take title

3. Usually wholesaling... stands I

between the producer and the retailer. I 3 retailer

4. A supermarket may... thousands of I

commissions items. I 4 stock

5. Usually a wholesaler handles a large… I

of items of numerous manufacturers. I 5 channels

6. Agent middlemen don't earn salaries, I

they.... I 6 assortment

7. A wholesaler doesn't deal with the I

customers,... does. I 7 to receive

8.... simplify the problems of manufacturers. I 8 middleman


John Yes. The buyers are always in a hurry and a letter would take too much time to come. If it's a verbal agreement we call it gentlemen's agreement.

Susan And what happens after the verbal agreement?

John We receive a written purchase order. It is called p.o. -and it has a number that we use for all future correspondence on that order. The office then retypes the order form and the p.o. and order form are stapled together and filed.

Susan It sounds organized. Whom do you usually deal with in a.company?

John Well, I’ll deal with purchasing agents. But I could deal with any administrator from the president on down, in some cases.

Susan Good. Soon you'll get your raise.

Jonn Yes. Selling is usually a stepping stone to higher positions in management.

Susan Don't worry, dear. If it doesn't work out, we still have my job.

Active Vocabulary

sales trainee- стажер по торговле

to be on commission- получать комиссионные с продажи

to reimburse- возмещать, восполнять

to get a raise- получить повышение

tull- пошлина, плата за услуги

quote- назначение цены

delivery- доставка

gentlemen’s agreement- джентльменское соглашение

verbal agreement- устное соглашение

purchase order (p.o.)- заказ на покупку

to deliver- доставлять

to staple- (зд.) проверять

to file- подшивать, хранить

stepping stone- средство для достижения цели


Vocabulary Practice



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