Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии

Exercise 2. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

Model: The partners are getting along quite well

1. Are the partners getting along quite well?

2. Why are the partners getting along quite well?

3. The partners are getting along well, aren't they?
4. Are the partners getting along well or badly?

1. Jane is doing the books in our firm.

2. We are putting the same amount of money into business.

3. My brother is investing his money in the private cafe.

4. They are distributing the losses unequally.

5. We are combining resources very well.




A business corporation is an institution established for the purpose of making profit. It is operated by individuals. Their shares of ownership are represented by stock certificates. A person who owns a stock certificate is called a stock-holder.

There are several advantages of the corporate form of ownership. The first is the ability to attract financial resources. The next advantage is the corporation attracts a large amount of capital it can invest it in plants, equipment and research. And the third advantage is that a corporation can ofter higher salaries and thus attract talented managers and specialists.

The privately owned business corporation is one type of corporation. There are some other types too. Educational, religious, charitable institutions can also incorporate. Usually such corporation does not issue stock and is nonprofit. If there is a profit it is reinvested in the institution rather than distributed to private stockholders.

In some western countries, cities, states, federal government and special agencies can establish governmental corporations. A few examples of these governmental corporations are state universities, state hospitals and city owned utilities. Governmental corporations are non-profit as a rule and usually they do not issue stock certificates.


Active Vocabulary

corporation корпорация

to establish учреждать

stock sertificate акция

stockholder (shareholder) акционер



7. I want to buy some... in IBM and General Motors. 8. An educational... usually reinvests a11 its money.

to attract financial resources привлекать финансовые ресурсы
to offer high salaries предлагать высокие зарплаты
to attract a large amount of capital привлекать большой капитал
educational, religious, образовательные, религиозные,

charitable institutions благотворительные учреждения

to issue stock выпускать акции

nonprofit неприбыльный

to reinvest вкладывать еще раз

Comprehension Questions

1. Who can own a corporation?

2. Is a corporation necessarily larger than a sole, proprietorship?

3. What are the advantages of the corporate form of ownership?

4. What can you say about the disadvantages of the corporate form of ownership?

5. Do the corporations issue stock to stockholder?

6. What kind of corporations usually don't issue the stock?

7. What world-known corporations do you know?

8. What types of business usually take the corporate form of ownership?

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

1. What kind of... is better: buying stock I 1 charitable

or buying real estate? I

2. To attract greater financial... the I

company issues the stock. I 2 stock

3. A university can be... corporation. I 3 resources

4. The partners didn't put the same... I

into business. I 4 institution

5. The group of people from different I

countries are going to... a corporation. I 5 investment

6. The Red Cross is an international... I
organization. I 6 nonprofit

I 7 amount

I of capital


I 8 to establish


Secretary Good afternoon.

Steve Good afternoon. I'd like to see Mr. Jackson. We

have an arrangement with him. My name is

Mr. Watson.

Secretary Just a minute, please. I'll let him know you are


Steve Thanks.'

Secretary Mr Jackson is waiting for you. Do you know where

his office is?

Steve Oh sure, thank you.

Jackson Hello, Steve, it's so nice to see you. Sit down,


Steve Thanks, Nick. How are you getting on?

Jackson Quite all right, thanks. And what about you?

Steve Everything is all right too. In fact I want to talk to

you about my business.

Jackson Oh, I'll be glad to do something for you.

Steve Well, Nick. I need some legal advice. John and I are

thinking of incorporating.

Jackson You are going to expand, aren't you? It seems that

your partnership has been doing very well.

Steve Oh, yes. We have a success. Now some businessmen

are interested in investing with us. So could you

explain me what sort of legal procedure I have

to follow to form a corporation?

Jackson At first you have to apply for a corporate charter.

Steve Well?

Jackson Let me get this straight. You want to issue and sell

stock in exchange for investment capital, don't you?

Steve Exactly.

Jackson After you obtain the charter the stockholders, as

owners, hold a meeting to organize the corporation.

Steve Does that mean we elect our Board of Directors,

adopt bylaws and choose the company' s officers?


Jackson That's what I mean. Though the officers of the company supervise daily management, the stockholders always have final authority. They vote at annual meetings.

Steve Yes, I see it. By the way, does a corporation have limited liability?

Jackson It does. It also has the right to own property, to buy and sell and right to sue and be sued.

Steve I see. The corporation acts like a person. It has the right of an individual.

Jackson You are right

Steve O.K. Why don't we get together for a game of golf one day next week?

Active Vocabulary

bylaws юридические положения

для предприятий

I need some legal advice мне нужен юридический совет

to incorporate соединяться, объединяться

to invest вкладывать деньги

to expand расширяться (о производстве)

to follow a legal procedure следовать юридической процедуре

to apply for a corporate charter подавать заявление на корпоративный патент

to issue and sell stock in выпускать и продавать акции

exchange for investment взамен на вложенный

capital капитал

stockholder, shareholder акционер, держатель акций

to hold a meeting проводить собрание

to elect a board of directors проводить собрание директоров

to choose the company's выбирать административных

officers исполнителей компании

to have a final authority иметь решающее слово

to supervise daily осуществлять ежедневное

management руководство

to vote голосовать

annual meeting ежегодное собрание



to have limited liability иметь неограниченную юридическую ответственность

to own property владеть собственностью

to sue возбуждать судебное дело

to be sued подвергаться судебному разбирательству

Vocabulary Exercises
Exercise 1. Transform the sentences according to the model.

M о d e l: We are the company officers.
We supervise daily management.
We, as the company officers, supervise daily management.

1. My friends are the stockholders of IBM corporation. They

hold annual meetings.

2. These businessmen are the organizers of this corporation.

They issue and sell stock in exchange for investment capital.

3. A corporation is the owner of the property. It has limited liability.

4. Dick is a manager. He wants to form a corporation.

5. A corporate charter is a certificate of incorporation. A charter is granted by a state officer.

6. The stockholders are the owner of the corporation. They have final authority in management of the company.

7. The owners of the corporation are the stockholders. The owners of the corporation must vote.

Exercise 2. Transform the sentences according to the model

M о d e l: We organized our corporation а уear ago (to invest much money).

We have been investing much money since we organized our company.

1. They became company officers (to supervise daily management).

2. My friend bought the stock of the company five years ago (to make money).

3. They received the corporate charter a month ago (to plan a meeting).

4. We advertised the application last week (wait for reply).

5. He became a member of the Board of Directors (work hard).

6. We elected a new Board of Directors last month (plan change).

Exercise3. Answer the questions.

1. In what corporation would you invest money?

2. What legal procedure do you have to follow if you want to form a corporation?

3. Who has final authority and supervises the daily
management of a corporation?

4. How often do the stockholders choose the company officers?

5. The stockholders have unlimited liability, don't they?

6. In what way can a corporation act?

7. What do you think about the possibilities of forming corporations in this country?

8. In what spheres of industry is a corporate form of proprietorship the most beneficial in this country?

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1. Корпорация может выпускать и продавать акции.

2. Корпорация может предлагать более высокую заработную плату.

3. Корпорация имеет больше возможностей для вовлечения финансовых ресурсов, чем партнерство.

4. Каждый год акционеры проводят собрание.

5. Образовательные, благотворительные, религиозные

учреждения могут быть корпорациями. Подобные учреждения, как правило, не приносят прибыль.

6. Эта корпорация прибыльна, она будет расширяться.

7. Сначала вы должны подать заявление на корпоративный патент.

8. Акционеры имеют решающее слово в управлении корпорацией.

9. Административные исполнители компании осуществляют постоянное руководство.

10. Владельцы акций проводят ежегодное собрание и выбирают совет директоров.

11.Корпорация имеет право возбуждать уголовное дело.

Exercise 5. Make up the dialogue.

1. Ask a lawyer how to form a corporation.

2. Discuss with your friend advantages and disadvantages of a corporate form of proprietorship.

3. Advertise a corporate form of proprietorship.

Grammar Exercises
Exercise 1. Make the sentences negative.

M o d e 1: They have held a meeting.

They haven't held a meeting.

  1. The stockholders have elected the Board of Directors.
  2. This corporation has issued the stock.
  3. The Board of Directors has chosen the company officers.
  4. This company has greatly expanded.
  5. We have already applied for a corporate charter.

Exercise 2. Put up 4 questions of 4 types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

M о d e 1: The stockholders have held the annual meeting.

1. Have the stockholders held the annual meeting?

2. What have the stockholders done?

3. The stockholders have held the annual meeting, haven't they?

4. Have the stockholders held a meeting or a conference?

1. The partners have applied for a corporate charter.

2. The stockholders have voted at the annual meeting.

3. The company has issued the additional stock.

4. They have invested all their money in this company.




Anna is having lunch with her sister Barbara, Anna has just accepted a position as an Administrative Assistant. Her boss is an executive with a firm that manufactures heavy machinery used in construction.

Barbara You've got a new job, Anna. My congratulations.

Anna Thanks, Barbara.

Barbara Tell me a few words about your boss. What does he do?

Anna Well, he is one of the vice presidents of the company, so he's rather important. He is an executive.

Barbara Do you know the difference between an executive a manager and an administrator?

Anna I am afraid Т can hardly tell you the difference. I

think these words are interchangable and they

really aren't different in many companies. Barbara What about your company?

Anna In our company the top officers are called administrators. The next highest group - the vice

presidents, the heads of major departments and

branch plant managers - are executives like my boss. Barbara Is that all?

Anna The group below consists of managers, they are

general managers and foremen.

Barbara So I see that an organization has a number of

positions and some people have more authority

than others.

Anna You are right.

Barbara But it would be interesting to know more about the

functions of an executive like your boss.

Anna I'd say he makes a lot of important decisions. He

sets objectives, coordinates work, delegates

authority, makes hiring, firing, evaluating

and just general leading.

Barbara It seems to be important.

Anna It is important. It's evident that making careful

decisions is the basis of good management.

Barbara But do, you work under much pressure?

Anna Barbara, you know I am quite used to working under

pressure from my last job. I am also accustomed to

lots of paper work and red tape.

Barbara Good for you.

Anna And what's more important I feel that I can learn a

lot because my boss is very competent.

Barbara Good, I think we'd be in a hurry not to get late for

the work.

Active Vocabulary

an executive руководитель,

manager управляющий

an administrator управляющий,

vice president вице-президент

head of department руководитель отдела,

foreman мастер, руководитель,

position должность

to setobjectives ставить цели

to delegate authority распределять обязанности

to work under pressure работать по принуждению

red-tape зд. бюрократическая, канцелярская работа

to be competent быть компетентным

Vocabulary Exercises.

Exercise 1. Transformthe sentences according to the model


Model: I'm accustomed to setting objectives. I'm used to setting objectives.

1. We are accustomed to having unlimited liability.

2. He is accustomed to delegating authority.

3. They are accustomed to firing and hiring people.

4. She is accustomed to working as a head of the department.

5. You are accustomed to working under pressure.

6. The executive is accustomed to making decisions.


Exercise 2. • Change the modal verb according lo the model

Model: We ought to set objectives this month.
We should set objectives this month.

1. They ought to talk about the functions of an executive.

2. A manager ought to make careful decisions.

3. An executive ought lo be very competent.

4. A vice president ought to decide on hiring, firing,
vacation, hours.

5. The board of directors ought to plan objectives and changes.

6. They ought to have a meeting with a head of the department.

Exercise 3. Your executive is a very tough man. What should his staff do to please him?

For ideas:

to be creative- быть с творческим отношением к делу

to be well-organized - быть хорошо организованным

to keep fit - держать себя в форме

to be punctual - быть пунктуальным

to be enthusiastic - быть энтузиастом

to obey the rules - подчиняться правилам



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