Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Им. проф. М. А. БОНЧ-БРУЕВИЧА»
Им. проф. М. А. БОНЧ-БРУЕВИЧА»
Е.Ф. Сыроватская, Е.Н. Белова, А.Б. Комиссаров
Английский язык в сфере связи
кандидат филологических наук,
заведующая кафедрой английского языка
кандидат филологических наук,
доцент кафедры И иРязыков СПбГУТМ.В.Яценко
Рекомендовано к печати
редакционно-издательским советом СПбГУТ
©Сыроватская Е. Ф., Белова Е. Н., Комиссаров А. Б., 2015
©Федеральное государственное образовательное
бюджетное учреждение высшего профессионального
образования «Санкт-Петербургский государственный
им. проф. М. А. Бонч-Бруевича», 2015
UNIT 1.CONVERGENCE IN TELECOMS AND IT ....................................................... 4
UNIT 2.MOBILITY ............................................................................................................. 14
UNIT 3.NETWORKING ..................................................................................................... 25
UNIT 4.MEDIA.................................................................................................................... 35
Appendix 2.Acronyms and abbreviations.Словарьсокращений............... 63
Appendix 3.Terms, most common words and expressions used
Ex. 1. A modern smart phone is a combination of many different devices. What devices does it replace?
Ex. 2.Here are definitions of the term “convergence”. Read and translate them.
1. Technological convergenceis the tendency for different technological systems to evolve toward performing similar tasks.
2. Digital convergencerefers to previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications) and video that now share resources and interact with each other.
3. Convergence is defined more specifically as the coming together of telecommunications, computing and broadcasting into a single digital bit-stream.
Ex. 3.Here are the words and word combinations you have to learn.
Apply, arise, artificial intelligence, connection, converge, convergence, convergent, deliver, distinct, emerge, emergence, explore, fixed and mobile operators, historical roots, inspire, joined product, market, multi-level, multiple, permit, rise, service,single, singularity, surround, trace back
Ex. 4. Read the text and find more definitions of convergence.
Exercises to develop speaking skills
Ex. 21. Read and learn these phrases necessary to start to retell a text.
Ex. 22. Using the phrases above, tell about the text “Convergence technologies and services” (5-6 sentences).
Ex. 23. Read and learn the dialogue.
Device manufacturer (D) and interviewer (I)
I. What are you doing these days?
D. To be honest, I don't know what to do these days.
I. What did you do in the past?
D. We used to make cameras and went digital.
I. What happened?
D. Then everybody wanted cameras on cellphones.
I. What did you decide to do then?
D. We started making those devices.
I. Were they popular among our population?
D. At first. But people are always wanting to upgrade and get the latest models or new gadgets.
I. Are you going to adapt to your customers' needs?
D. We have to, if we want to remain in business. But it is not easy. I went to a technology fair last week and they were demonstrating this jacket and hat that was your phone.
D. Yeah, there are so many disruptive technologies, I don't know what is going to happen.
I. Can you make a guess?
D. Maybe we'll have to get into clothing.
Ex. 24.Using the dialogue above, make up your own dialogue between a TV broadcaster and an interviewer. Use the following text to help you.
A lot of broadcasters like us are having a hard time. The problem is that there are lots more channels these days and people also get them through different media. I can download the latest films from the phone company. My children don't even watch TV. They watch video online and their friends send them clips on their mobiles. But we have to survive on our advertising revenue and at the moment that's falling. Things are really not easy, and I'm sure there are some broadcasters that will go out of business.
Ex. 25. Read and learn another dialogue.
Fixed Telecommunications Networking Provider (F)
I. What do you do?
F. We own the fixed telecoms network.
I. How are you doing these days?
F. We've seen a big fall in revenues from voice calls.
I. Oh dear, why is that?
F. Because everything is IP now.
I. Yeah, right. You must be having hard times now.
F. In fact we are now in a great position.
F. Because we are putting intelligence into our network.
I. Could you explain what it means for your company, please?
F. Yeah, sure, it can become an enormous computer, capable of delivering applications.
I. It sounds interesting. Are you sure this new invention will meet your customers' needs? Are you sure they will have all the necessary equipment for that?
F. Absolutely. All our customers need is a broadband pipe into our network cloud and we act as an IT utility. and most people have already got that with an ordinary phone line.
I. You seem to have thought of everything for it to have a success.
F. Of course, it easily makes up for the money from traditional voice calls.
I. Really? What will you do then with the new capabilities?
F. We can provide TV, software, Internet access, email, teleconferencing, all sorts of things.
I. Good luck to you! Thank you for coming.
F. It's a pleasure.
Ex. 26.Using the dialogue above make up your own dialogue between a TV broadcaster (interviewer) and a search engine provider. Use the following words and phrases.
run – управлять, руководить, запускать
searchengine – поисковаясистема
marketshare – удельныйвеснарынкеданноготовара (продукциикомпании)
softwarelicense – лицензии на ПО
employees – работники
applications – приложения
doallthedatastorage – выполнять хранение всех данных
doarchiving – выполнять архивирование
dobackups – осуществлять резервное копирования
runadatacentre – управлять центром обработки данных
expensivelaptop – дорогой ноутбук
desktop – настольный компьютер
RAM – оперативная память
Internetaccessdevices – устройства с доступом в Интернет
accessapplications – получать доступ к приложениям
fromanywhere – слюбогоместа
Video on demand (VOD)
Video on demand(VOD) oraudio and video on demand(AVOD) are systems which allow users to select and watch/listen tovideooraudiocontent when they choose to, rather than having to watch at a specific broadcast time.IPTVtechnology is often used to bring video on demand to televisionsandpersonal computers.
Fixed–mobile convergence(FMC) is a change in telecommunications that removes differences between fixed and mobile networks. Fixed Mobile Convergence is a transition point in the telecommunications industry that will finally remove the distinctions between fixed and mobile networks, providing a superior experience to customers by creating seamless services using a combination of fixed broadband and local access wireless technologies to meet their needs in homes, offices, other buildings and on the go.
IP Multimedia Subsystem
TheIP Multimedia SubsystemorIP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem(IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering IP multimediaservices.
Session Initiation Protocol
Session Initiation Protocol(SIP) is a standardized set of formats for communicating messages used to initiate, control, and terminate interactive user sessions with multimedia services such asInternet telephone calls,videoconferencing,chat,file transfer, andonline games.
Internet Protocol television(IPTV) is a system through whichtelevisionservices are delivered using theInternet protocol suiteover a packet-switched networksuch as aLANortheInternet, instead of being delivered through traditionalterrestrial,satellitesignal, andcabletelevision formats.
Voice over IP
Voice over IP(VoIP) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery ofvoicecommunicationsandmultimediasessions over Internet Protocol(IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Key words and phrases
Digital video broadcasting
Voice over IP
Session Initiation Protocol
IP Multimedia Subsystem
Video on demand (VOD)
Ex. 1. Read the text.
What is a mobile device?
A mobile device is basically anyhandheld computer. It is designed to be extremely portable, often fitting in the palm of your hand or in your pocket. Some mobile devices are more powerful, and they allow you to do many of the same things you can do with a desktop or laptop computer.
Ex. 2. Look at the list of devices. Which of them are mobile and which are not? Explain your choice using ex.1.
Desktop computer, TV-set, smartphone, camera Canon, e-reader, router, tablet computer, laptop computer, monitor.
Ex. 3. What can you do on the move?
On the move I can do many things. For example, I can … on the move using …
(Make phone calls, send and receive e-mails, listen to music, read books, check public transportation schedule, search Web, take photos, buy something, watch videos.)
Ex. 4. Here are the words and word combinations you have to learn.
Allotment, backlit, boot up, cell service, consume, convenience, data plan, durable, e-paperdisplay, e-reader, eye strain, feature, fit, free update, handheld computer, LCD, mobile OS, monthly fee, mouse pointer, palm, portable, purchase, refresh rate, smartphone, solid-state drive, tablet computer, touchpad, touch-sensitive, versatile, virtual keyboard, washed out.
Ex. 5. Read the text.
Likelaptops,tabletcomputersare designed to be portable. However, they provide a different computing experience. The most obvious difference is that tablet computers don't have keyboards or touchpads. Instead, the entire screen is touch-sensitive, allowing you to type on avirtualkeyboardand use your finger as a mouse pointer.
Tablet computers are mostly designed forconsuming media, and they are optimized for tasks likeweb browsing, watching videos,reading e-books, andplaying games. For many people, a "regular" computer like adesktoporlaptopis still needed in order to use some programs. However, the convenience of a tablet computer means it may be ideal as a second computer. Below are some of the main features you can expect with a tablet computer:
Mobile OS:Different types of tablets use different operating systems. Examples includeAndroidandiOS. You'll usually be able to downloadfreeupdatesto your OS as they become available.
Solid-state drives:Tablet computers usually usesolid-state drives, which allow the computer tobootupandopenprogramsmore quickly. They are also moredurablethan hard disk drives.
Wi-Fi and 3G/4G:Because they are optimized for Internet use, tablet computers have built-inWi-Fi. For a monthly fee, you can also purchase a3G or 4G data plan, allowing you to access the Internet from almost anywhere.
Bluetooth:In order to save space, tablet computers have very fewports. If you want to use an external keyboardor other peripherals, they will often use a wirelessBluetoothconnection.
E-book readers(also callede-readers) are similar to tablet computers, except they are mainly designed for readinge-books(digital, downloadable books). Examples include theAmazonKindleandBarnes& Noble Nook.
E-book readers have either ane-paperdisplay or anLCD:
E-paper:Shortforelectronic paper, this type of display can usually only display inblack and white. It is designed to look a lot like an actual page in a book. Unlike an LCD, it isnot backlit, so the text stays readable even outdoors in full sun. Many people consider e-paper to be more pleasant to read because it causes lesseye strain. However, it generally can't be used forvideosor other applications because the refresh rate is too low.
LCD:This is the same type of screen found ontabletcomputersandlaptops. It's more versatile than e-paper, but it's often more difficult to view in bright sunlight, as the image becomeswashed out. Since an LCD screen can display colors, this type of e-reader is better for viewingmagazinesor books with photos. Many LCD e-readers (such as theNook Color) are basicallytablet computers, as they can perform many different tasks in addition to displaying e-books.
You don't need an e-reader to read an e-book. E-books can usually be read ontablet computers, smartphones,laptops, anddesktops.
Asmartphoneis a powerfulmobilephonethat is designed to run a variety of applications in addition to providing phone service. Smartphones are basically smalltablet computers, and they can be used forwebbrowsing,watchingvideos,reading e-books,playing games, and more.
Smartphones usetouchscreensandoperatingsystemssimilar to those used by tablet computers. Many of them use avirtual keyboard, but others have aphysical keyboard, which allows the entire screen to be used for display purposes.
Internet accessis an important feature of smartphones. Generally, you will need to purchase a3G or 4G data planin addition to normalcell service. Smartphones can also connect to Wi-Fiwhen it is available; this allows you to use the Internet without using up your monthly data allotment.
Apersonal digital assistant (PDA)is a mobile device that is used for managing phone numbers, addresses, calendars, and other information. Beforesmartphonesexisted, a PDA was usually aseparate device. Today, smartphones combine the functionality of aPDAandamobile phone.
Ex. 6.True, false or no information.
1. All e-book readers can have only anLCD display.
2. Smartphones and smalltablet computers are basically different devices.
3. Tablet computers differ from laptops because they normally don't have keyboards or touchpads.
4. A GPS navigator is nowadays a part of any smartphone.
5. If you have a computer, you can read an e-book.
6. With solid-state drives, tablet computers work quicker and longer.
7. LCDs are used in a wide range of applications includingcomputer monitors, televisions, instrument panels,aircraft cockpit displays, and signage.
8. Tablet computers are optimized for producing texts.
Ex. 7. Answer the questions.
1. What portable electronic devices are mentioned in the text?
2. Which of them are described?
3. How do tablet computers differ from laptops?
4. What tasks are tablet computers optimized for?
5. What features do tablet computers possess?
6. What feature is necessary to use external devices with a tablet computer?
7. What examples of e-books do you know?
8. Which display would you prefer: an e-paper one or an LCD? Why?
9. What devices are combined in a smartphone?
Ex. 8. Continue the sentence.
1. Many LCD e-readers…
a)combine the functionality of aPDAandamobile phone;
b)can perform many different tasks in addition to displaying e-books;
c)often use a wirelessBluetoothconnection.
a)was usually aseparate device;
b)is still needed in order to use some programs;
c)is designed to look a lot like an actual page in a book.
3. The entire screen of a tablet computer allows you…
a)to read books even outdoors in full sun;
b)to use your finger as a mouse pointer;
c)to purchase a3G or 4G data planin addition to normalcell service.
4. An LCD screen reader …
a) is better for viewingmagazines;
c)is used for managing phone numbers, addresses, calendars, and other information.
5. Tablet computers have…
a)an external keyboardor other peripherals;
Ex. 9.Speak about how atabletcomputeris different from alaptop. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of a tablet computer?
Ex. 10.If you're thinking about buying ane-reader, think about what kinds of things you like to read. Do you mostly readbooksormagazines? What kind of screen do you think would be better?
Ex. 11. Smartphones can havevirtualkeyboardsorphysical keyboards. What are some advantages and disadvantages to each one?
Ex. 12.Match the words (1–7) with the definitions (A–G). Translate.
1. Bluetooth. 2. Voice activation. 3. Lithium-ion battery. 4. 3G network. 5. Text message. 6. Call waiting. 7. Voicemail.
A.A power source in cell phones.B. A short, written message sent to or from a cell phone. C.A cell phone feature that alerts of incoming calls during another call. D.A feature that calls a number by speaking instead of by dialing.E.A feature that lets you leave or listen to an electronic message. F. A wireless network that connects a phone with other devices. G. A wireless network that sends and receives data.
Ex. 13.Make up a sentence using the words and phrases.
1. For consuming, tablet computers, mostly, are, media, designed. 2. Is, in order, some programs, to use, needed, a laptop, still. 3. Of computers, different, different, use, types, operating systems. 4. I, to download, will, free updates, be able, to my OS. 5. Have, very few ports, to save, tablet computers, in order, space.
Посылать электронную почту, проверять расписание, сенсорный экран, потреблять энергию, преимущество планшета, множество приложений, такие программы все еще нужны, обновить информацию, экономить пространство, вместо набора номеров, чтобы улучшить качество, важная особенность прибора, проводная связь, оставить сообщение.
1. Мой компьютер очень мощный. 2. Эта особенность позволяет мне скачивать различные программы. 3. Нам требуются как настольные, так и переносные компьютеры. 4. Переносные компьютеры не имеют клавиатуры. 5. Преимущество планшета – в его размерах. 6. У нас есть возможность скачать бесплатные обновления. 7. Как правило, планшетники имеют встроенныйWi-Fi. 8. Мобильные устройства могут выполнять различные задачи.
Ex. 16. Give synonyms.
To allow, cell phone, extremely, feature, to fit, to purchase, entire, rate, type, usually, quickly, portable devises, convenient, to update.
Ex. 17. Choose the correct preposition. Translate into Russian.
1. The goal (of/on) scientific research is publication. 2. Scientists become known or remain unknown (by/into) their publications. 3. Good organization is the key (to/from) good writing. 4. Pay particular attention (on/to) those aspects (to/of) editorial style which tend to vary widely (on/from) journal (to/in)journal, such as the style (during/of) literature citation. 5. An improperly titled paper may be virtually lost and never reach the audience (for/with) which it was intended. 6. (with/in) scientific writing generally, and especially (about/in) titles, a good rule is: use the specific word, the familiar word, the short word.
Ex. 18.Underline complex object. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Tell the secretary what you would like her to do. 2. Seeing the professor enter the room the students rose to greet her. 3. We can expect computer and internet to occupy a central place in distant education. 4. We knew him to be very clever, so we are not surprised that he won in the competition of programmers. 5. The manufacturers would like the time fixed for delivery to run from the 20thJanuary. 6. I want this IT-engineer to help me in repairing my computer.
Ex. 19.Form comparative or superlative degree depending on sense of the sentence.
Translate into Russian.
1. Transistor computers consumed far (little) power, produced far (little) heat, and were much (small) compared to the first generation. 2. The twenty – second of December is (short) day in the year. 3. Winter is (cold) season. 4. Moscow is (large) than St. Petersburg. 5. London is (large) city in England. 6. Friendship is (strong) that steel. 7. Minicomputers were much (small), and (cheap) than first and second generations of computers. 8. Health is (good) than (wealth).
Ex. 20.Write out suffixes for: a) the doer of action; b) the action. Translate.
Leader, indicate, worker, speaker, influence, simplify, owner, classify, profiteer, certify.
Location-based services (LBS)are a general class of computer program-level services that uselocationdata to control features. As such LBS isaninformationserviceand has a number of uses insocialnetworkingtoday as an entertainment service, which is accessible withmobiledevicesthroughthemobilenetworkand which uses information on the geographical position of the mobile device. This has become more and more important with the expansion of the smartphone and tablet markets as well.
LBS include services to identify a locationof a person or object, such as discovering the nearest banking cash machine (a.k.a.ATM) or the whereabouts of a friend or employee. LBS include parcel tracking andvehicletrackingservices. LBS can includemobile commerce when taking the form of coupons or advertising directed at customers based on their current location. They include personalized weather services and even location-based games. They are an example oftelecommunication convergence.
LBS include applications that depend on the user location to provide a service/information that is relevant to the user at that location. LBS normally use mobile devices with positioning ability to provide the service or information to the user. LBS can be used for personal or professional purposes.
Several categories of methods can be used to find the location of the subscriber.The simple and standard solution is GPS-based LBS. GPS is based on the concept oftrilateration, a basic geometric principle that allows finding one location if one knows its distance from other, already known locations.
GSM localizationis the second option. Finding the location of a mobile device in relation to its cell site is another way to find out the location of an object or a person. It relies on various means ofmultilaterationof the signal from cell sites serving a mobile phone. The geographical position of the device is found out through various techniques like time difference of arrival (TDOA) or Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD).
Many otherLocal Positioning Systemsare available, especially for indoor use. GPS and GSM do not work very well indoors, so other techniques are used, including Co-Pilot Beacon for CDMA Networks, Bluetooth, UWB,RFIDand Wi-Fi.
Some examples of location-based services are:
· Recommending social events in a city;
· Requesting the nearest business or service, such as an ATM, restaurant or a retail store;
· Turn by turn navigation to any address;
· Assistive Healthcare Systems;
· Locating people on a map displayed on the mobile phone
· Receiving alerts, such as notification of a sale on gas or warning of a traffic jam;
· Location-based mobile advertising;
· Asset recovery combined with active RF to find, for example, stolen assets in containers where GPS would not work;
· Сontextualizing learning and research;
· Games where your location is part of the game play, for example your movements during your day make your avatar move in the game or your position unlocks content;
· Real-time Q&A revolving around restaurants, services, and other venues.
Ex. 27. Give a short summary of the text above.
Ex. 28. What kind of LBS areuseful for…
Ex. 1. Read the text about the concept of Global Network Infrastructure.
Aglobalnetworkisanycommunicationnetworkwhich spans the entireEarth,and global span was achieved in 1899. Thetelephonynetworkwas the second to achieve global status, in the 1950s. More recently, interconnectedIPnetworks(principally the Internet, with estimated 2.5 billion users worldwide in 2014), and theGSMmobilecommunicationnetwork (with over 6 billion worldwide users in 2014) form the largest global networks of all.
Setting up global networks requires immense, costly and lengthy efforts lasting for decades. Elaborate interconnections,switchingandroutingdevices, laying out physical carriers of information, such as land andsubmarinecablesandearthstationsmust be set in operation. In addition, internationalcommunication protocols, legislation and agreements are involved.
Ex. 2.Answer the questions.
1. How many global networks exist nowadays?
2. Which of the established networks is nearly out of use, and why?
3. Which of the global networks is the most used one?
4. What steps are necessary to set up a global network?
5. Why does it take decades to set up a global network?
Ex. 3.What specialists are involved in establishing a global network? Tell in brief about their tasks. Use the following forms.
To set up a global network … are needed. Their task is …
…are involved in establishing a global network. They are responsible for…
Ex. 4.Here are the words and word combinations you have to learn.
Adhere, address space, circuit-switchedtelephone network, core network, implement, implementation, intermediate node, landcables, link, message switching, microwave transmissionlink, node, packet switching, private branch exchange(PBX),public switched telephone network(PSTN), publictelephone operators(PTO), terminal node, span, submarine cables, switch,switchingandroutingdevices,telephone exchange, transmissionlink, virtual network operator(VNO).
Ex. 5.Read and translate the text.
Many organizations haveCall Centers, sometimes called Contact Centers, that are responsible for sales or customer service. These customer-facing departments are often critical profitability drivers for an organization, and can range from fairly simple hunt groups to globally distributed teams with very tightCRM integration. Team One Solutions has a depth of experience in this important area, and can engineer and implement the right solution for your organization.
The last ten years has brought an explosion of bothmobileworkersandtelecommutingworkers. While these trends have reduced real estate needs, lowered communications costs, and can contribute to employee satisfaction, it can be challenging to combine the right mix of technology, training, and support to maximize the value from these opportunities. Team One Solutions provides the experience needed to help guide your organization.
Finally, many organizations find it necessary to provideWi-Fi capabilities throughout their facilities, either for their employees who need access to corporate resources, or for guests who need access to the internet, but who must be blocked from accessing company files. Team One Solutions can engineer and implement a robust wireless solution that meets your organization’s needs.
Once all these factors are taken into consideration, Team One Solutions will recommend a VoIP phone system solution from among its many trusted partners, includingAvaya,Cisco,NEC, andZultys.
Ex. 25.Give a short summary of the text above.
Ex. 26. Imagine that you are working for the firm Team One Solutions. Prepare a presentation for your possible customers about VoIP phone system solutions.
Ex. 1.”Media”(the plural ofmedium) is a very broad term covering different areas and having different meanings. Match the terms below with their explanations.
Ex. 2. Give definitions of different media forms using the following patterns.
“Hypermedia” is a term used to describe…
Media with hyperlinks are called…
Ex. 3.Here are the words and word combinations you have to learn.
To focus on, to incorporate, to alter, to favor, to expand, advent.
Ex. 4.Read and translate the text.
From the History of Media
In the last century, arevolutionintelecommunicationshas greatly altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication. Thefirst transatlantic two-way radio broadcastoccurred in 1906 and led to common communication viaanalogueand digital media:
· analog telecommunications include some radio systems, historical telephony systems, and historical TV broadcast;
· digitaltelecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication, telegraphy and computer networks.
Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (many-to-many communication viae-mail orInternet forums). On the other hand, many traditionalbroadcastmedia and mass media favor one-to-many communication (television, radio, cinema, or social nets).
Broadcastingisthedistributionofaudioand/orvideocontent to a dispersedaudiencevia any electronicmass communications medium, but typically one using theelectromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in aone-to-manymodel.Broadcasting began withAM radio broadcastingwhich sprang up spontaneously around 1920. Before this, all forms of electronic communication,radio, telephone, andtelegraph, were "one-to-one", with the message intended for a single recipient.
Historically, there have been several methods used for broadcastingelectronicmediaaudio and/or video to the general public.
Telephonebroadcasting (1881–1932) was the earliest form of electronic broadcasting, data services offered by stock telegraph companiesfrom 1867 not counting. Telephone broadcasting began with the advent of "Theatre Phone" systems, which were telephone-based distribution systems allowing subscribers to listen to live operaandtheatreperformances over telephone linesin 1881. Telephone broadcasting also grew to includetelephonenewspaperservices for news and entertainmentprogrammingwhich were introduced in the 1890s, primarily located in largeEuropeancities. These telephone-basedsubscriptionserviceswere the first examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting and offered a wide variety of programming.
Radio broadcastingwas experimentally used from 1906, commercially from 1920.Audiosignals are sent through the air asradiowavesfrom a transmitter, picked up by anantennaand sent to areceiver.Radiostationscan be linked inradionetworksto broadcast commonradio programs, either inbroadcastsyndication,simulcastorsub channels.
Televisionbroadcasting (telecast) was experimentally delivered from 1925,commerciallyfrom the 1930s, an extension of radio includingvideo signals.
Cable radio, also called "cable FM", (from 1928) andcable television(from 1932) both usedcoaxial cable, originally serving principally as transmission media for programming produced at either radio ortelevision stations, but later expanding into a broad universe of cable-originatedchannels.
Direct-broadcast satellite(DBS) exists from circa 1974, andsatelliteradiofrom circa 1990. They are meant for direct-to-home broadcast programming (as opposed to studio network uplinks and downlinks), provide a mix of traditional radio or television broadcast programming, or both, with dedicated satellite radio programming. Satellite television is very popular nowadays.
Webcastingof video/television (from circa 1993) and audio/radio (from circa 1994) streams offers a mix of traditional radio and television station broadcast programming with dedicatedinternet radio.
Ex. 5.True, false or no information.
1. Digitaltelecommunications include some radio systems, historical telephony systems, and historical TV broadcast.
2. Cable radio andcabletelevisionbothusedcoaxial cable.
3. Broadcasting began withFM radio broadcasting.
4. Satellite radio existsfrom 1990.
5. Electronic media used to store, transmit, and receive digitized information are called digital media.
6. Marconi and Popov both contributed to radio broadcasting.
7. TV and radio are examples of one-to-many communication.
Ex. 6.Answer the questions.
1. What is the difference between analog and digital communication?
2. How is communication viae-mail orInternet forums called in the text?
3. What kind of communication is usual for traditional media?
4. What is the earliest form of electronic broadcasting?
5. In what way could subscribers listen to live operaandtheatreperformancesin 1881?
6. What is the process of radio broadcasting?
7. What were cable radio and television originally used for?
8. What devices are used for direct-to-home broadcast programming?
Ex. 7. Make up a sentence using the words and phrases.Translate.
1. Are, a transmitter, waves, from, sent, radio. 2.Be, common, linked, to broadcast, programs, can, radio, radio station, in networks. 2. 3. Broadcasting, type, was, of, the first, telephone, electronic broadcasting. 4. There, for broadcasting, some, that, media, have, methods, are, traditionally, been, used, electronic. 5. By, are, received, signals, television, anantenna.
Распределять видеоконтент, быть самой первой формой радиовещания, передавать с помощью передатчика, принимать с помощью приемника, предлагать большое разнообразие программ, наслаждаться развлекательными программами, использовать электронные средства массовой информации, предпочитать телевизионное вещание, удалить ненужную информацию, выделять полезную информацию, связывать в радиосети, включить видеосигналы, существовать с 1990-хгодов, заменить кабельным телевидением, установить оптоволоконную связь, починить телефонную линию, увеличить число каналов, предоставлять смесь традиционных радиовещательных программ.
1. Существуют различные мнения о термине „Media”. 2. Изобретение радио в значительной степени изменило нашу жизнь. 3. ИменноА. С. Поповизобрелрадиопередатчик. 4. Первойформойэлектронноговещаниябылателефония. 5. Появлениетелевиденияповлиялонанашстильжизни. 6. Аналоговоевещаниезаменяетсяцифровым. 6. Подписчики могут слушать вживую оперу и театральные постановки. 7.Развлекательные программы начали передаваться с девяностых годов XIXстолетия. 8. Качествосредствмассовойинформациипостоянноулучшается. 9. Некоторые люди не могут представить себе жизнь без спутникового телевидения.10. Интернетособеннопопуляренсредимолодежи. 11. К сожалению, студенты не уделяют особого внимания таким средствам массовой информации, как газеты и радиовещание.
Ex. 10.Give synonyms.
To incorporate, to deliver, to describe, to begin, to alter, to remove, to occur.
Ex. 11. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of Participle.
1. (to impress) by programmer`s work, the client extended her contract for a year. 2. (to be unemployed), Dave had time to consider what job he really wanted. 3. (to sink) deeper and deeper into details the student could not accomplish his course work. 4. (topaint) in dark colors, the room needed some bright lights.5. (to be) a System Security Administrator for 14 years, Barbara knew how to keep the firm`s computer system safe.
Ex. 12.Underline the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction.Translate into Russian.
1. Her proposal having been accepted, she took her seat. 2. Nobody having anything more to say, the meeting was closed. 3. The crisis having passed, they could think about the future. 4. It being a scientific matter, we had to call in specialists. 5. The work at the project having been finished, the documents were sent tom the client. 6. The preparations being completed, the process of the new program implementation was initiated. 7. The contract quantity was 5,000 tons, the sellers having an option to deliver 2 per cent more or less.
Ex. 13.Make up your own sentences with these words.
Prepare – preparation – preparing –having been prepared – while preparing.
Explain – explanation – explained – explaining – being explained.
Reduce – reduction – reducing – being reduced – reduced.
Ex. 14.Open the brackets, putting the words in correct form. Translate.
1. This article (to be) about different types of media. 2. This paper (to deal with)new media for long distance communication. 3. The main idea of this paper is (to tell) us about the history of media. 4. The author (to give) us different definitions of different media forms. 5. The paper (to point out) that historically, there have been several methods used for broadcastingelectronicmediaaudio and/or video to the general public. 6. (There be) some parts in this text. 7. I (to believe) the most interesting part is the second one. 8. First of all I would like (to underline), thefiber optic connection is of great interest today. 9. Much attention (to give) to the Radio and Television broadcasting. 10. In the text there are statements that I (to disagree with). 11. I can (to give) arguments for or against the statement: «Satellite television is very popular nowadays». 12. The paper (to claim) that Radio broadcastingwas experimentally used from 1906. 13. The paper also (to cover) such points as Telephone broadcasting and cable Radio.14. The advantage of this kind of media will (to be discussed) later. 15. In conclusion I want to say that this article (to be of interest) for students. 16. I will try (to use) this knowledge in my future job. 17. Summing up, I would like (to emphasize) that these devices are (to use) in our university. 18. To all this must (to add) that this knowledge is very useful for me. 19. As for me,I can say this article (to be) very interesting. 20. In my opinion/to my mind/from my point of view I (to get) a lot of information from this paper.
1. Эта статья рассматривает вопросы телевещания. 2. Публикация состоит из нескольких разделов. 3. Первая часть – введение. 4. Автор рассказывает нам об истории вопроса. 5. Cмоей точки зрения, основные разделы публикации – второй и третий.6. Во второй части исследователь объясняет нам, как функционирует радиовещание. 7.Он упоминает основные характеристики некоторых телевизионных передатчиков. 8. В третьем параграфе ученый описывает преимущества и недостатки телевещания. 9. Автор рассказывает нам о преимуществах телевещания по сравнению с радиовещанием. 10. Он полагает, что телевещание играет огромную роль в нашей жизни.11. Я разделяю это мнение. 12. Телевидение используется во многих областях человеческой жизни. 13. Исследователь дает нам примеры использования телевещания. 14. Я хотел бы добавить, что телевещание используется и в нашем университете. 15. Я хотел бы подчеркнуть, что в настоящее время мы наблюдаем тенденцию слияния телевидения и Интернета. 16. Следует добавить, что телевидение и Интернет помогают нам в учебе. 17. Вот почему я стараюсь использовать Интернет для подготовки домашних заданий. 18. В следующих абзацах исследователь уделяет особое внимание качеству и стоимости телевизионного оборудования. 19. Он указывает на то, что это оборудование становится все дешевле. 20. Кроме того, качество оборудования улучшается, и оно становится очень надежным. 21. В заключение я хочу сказать, что эта статья содержит много новой информации. 22. В целом я хочу сказать, что эта статья достаточно скучная. 23. Я получил много полезной информации. 24. Что касается меня, я постараюсь использовать эти знания в моей будущей работе.25. Спасибо за ваше внимание.
Ex. 16.Makeupadialogue.Usethelanguageforcomparing/contrasting (повторение).
Student A: Explain to your partner different types of media.
Student B: Ask some questions about different types of media.
Ex. 17. Make up a dialogue. Use -ingclausestolinkacauseandeffect.(Вспомнитетему «Обстоятельственныепридаточныепредложения».)
For example: DVD drives read DVD disks by using blue laser light.
Student A. Explain to your partner with the help of these notes what DVD disks are, how DVD disks store such large quantities of information and how that information is read.
DVD = Digital Versatile Disk:
− can hold complete movie;
− like CD in size and thickness;
− but CD drives use red laser light, DVD drives use blue;
− blue laser has shorter wavelength therefore data can be denser.
DVDs can be double-sided:
− each side can have two layers;
− top layer 4.7GB, bottom layer 3.8GB, total capacity = 17GB;
− data transfer rate twice rate of CD-ROM.
Student B. Ask questions to Student B about DVD disks, how they store such large quantities of information and how that information is read. Ask questions about the difference between CD and DVD drives.
Ex. 18. Make up a dialogue. Use -ingclausestolinkacauseandeffect.(Вспомнитетему «Обстоятельственныепридаточныепредложения».)
For example: DVD drives read DVD disks by using blue laser light.
Student A. Explain to your partner with the help of these notes what MPEG Video is and how it works.
MPEG = method of compressing/decompressing video signals to reduce size by up to 95%:
− video sequences stored in series of frames;
− intraframe (I-frame) every 1/3rd second has most important picture information;
− between I-frames are predicted frames (P-frames) and bidirectional frames (B-frames);
− P- and B-frames store changes only;
− P- and B-frames preserve video quality between I-frames;
− Human eye can’t detect information discarded.
Student B. Ask questions to Student A about MPEG Video and its work.
Ex. 19. Read and translate the following dialogue between a consumer and a company representative. Then answer the questions.
– Oh, good morning. I’ve got a problem with my MP3 player, could you help?
– Certainly, we’re experiencing a recall on some models. Which one do you have?
– I have the N.5250.
– OK, tell me about the problem you’re having.
– Well, at first, the sound quality started getting worse. Then, it completely froze. I tried restarting it but that didn’t work.
– Sounds like a problem caused by AAC* files. Don’t worry; we have a driver to fix that.
– Great! How do I get it?
– Just download it from our website and upload it to your player.
– Thanks a lot, you’ve been very helpful.
Ex. 20.Answer the question.
1) What are the speakers mostly talking about?
a) why AAC files are causing problems;
b) where a consumer can buy a driver;
c) how to solve a consumer’s problem;
d) which model a consumer owns.
2) How did the customer try to fix the MP3 player?
a) install a new driver;
b) restart the player;
c) upload a new playlist;
d) remove the AAC files.
*AAC is a file format that a higher quality than MP3s.
Ex. 21.Make up a dialogue between a consumer and a company representative. Make use of the dialogue above.
The language to use:
I’ve got a problem with my…
Which model do you have?
Tell me about the problem you’re having.
Student A. You are a company representative. Talk to Student B about a recall, model and problems.
Student B. You are calling to get help with your MP3 player. Ask Student A’s questions.
Ex. 22. Imagine you are at the Media Conference. Answer the questions about the History of Media. Make up a dialogue between a journalist and IT Specialist.
1) When did new media for long distance communication appear?
2) What is the difference between analogue and digital communications?
3) What is the difference between modern communication media and traditional mass media?
4) What method of broadcasting media was the first to appear?
5) What is broadcasting?
6) How did all forms of electronic communication look likebefore 1920?
7) When did telephone broadcasting begin?
8) What were "Theatre Phone" systems?
9) What is DBS?
10) What does webcastingof video/television and audio/radio streams offer to consumers?
11) What is DBS used for?
12) How does radio broadcasting work?
13) What is cable FM?
14) What cable is involved in cable TV?
15) When and where did telephone newspaper services and entertainment programming?
16) Give examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting.
Ex. 23. Compare different types of media.
Use the language for comparing and contrasting.
Ex. 24. Retell the text “History of Media”. Use the following plan and language above.
1) The title of the text (article):
the text is headlined...
the headline of the text I have read is...
2) The author of the text (article), where and when it was published:
the author of the article is...
the article is written by...
it's published in...
it's printed in...
it's taken from...
3) The main idea of the text (article):
the main idea of the text is...
the text is about...
the text is devoted to...
the text deals with...
the text touches upon...
the purpose of the text is to give the reader some information on...
the aim of the text is to provide the reader with some material (data) on…
4) The contents of the text (article) – some facts, names, figures:
a) the text starts with...
the author starts by telling the reader that...
b) thetext describes...
the author writes (states, stresses,emphasizes, underlines, thinks, points out) that...
c) according to the text...
further the author reports (says)...
further on the text says about...
d) in conclusion...
the author comes to the conclusion that...
5) Your opiniononthe text (article):
I found the text (article)
– of no value/ of great value
– too hard to understand because...
Ex. 1.Read and translate the text.
Although cloud computing is an emerging field of computer science, the idea has been around for a few years. It’s called cloud computing because the data and applications exist on a “cloud” of Web servers.
Instead of installing a suite of software for each computer, you’d only have to load one application. That application would allow workers to log into a Web based service which hosts all the programs the user would need for his or her job. Remote machines owned by another company would run everything from e-mail to word processing to complex data analysis programs. It’s called cloud computing, and it could change the entire computer industry.
In a cloud computing system, there’s significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. Hardware and software demands on the user’s side decrease. The only thing the user’s computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing system’s interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud’s network takes care of the rest.
When talking about a cloud computing system, it’s helpful to divide it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the “cloud” section of the system.
The front end includes the client’s computer/computer network and the application required to access the cloud computing system. On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the “cloud” of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games.
A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other.
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