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Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные глагольные формы.

1) The basic part of CAD software is a data bank representing the set of facilities for centralized accumulating and using the data.

2) The time required for a read and write operation is independent of the physical location within the storage array of the cell being accessed.

3) A database implies (подразумевать) central control of data of consistency (наполняемость) and accuracy, with users having authorized access to them.

4) In the next century computerization is expected to find more applications than nowadays.

5) In a typical process, the designer having to describe (выразить) the design from a graphical draft into data cards, errors are often made.


Прочитайте и переведите текст .


Decentralization of planning and control in a cellular flexible manufacturing system (2)


In our model, the complete manufacturing system is viewed as composed of three autonomous components. These are:

Management/Business subsystem. This subsystem is responsible for carrying out entire business operations of the factory and for making out essential high level global decisions to trigger the activity in other subsystems.

Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) subsystem. In this subsystem design activity is performed and the finished design is made accessible to other subsystems by creation a shared CAD database.

Planning and Control subsystem. All shop floor operations lie within the domain of this subsystem. Besides operational control, entire factory level strategic and tactical planning are also the responsibility of these subsystems.

The three subsystems above are linked to an interconnection subsystem; in contrast to some existing proposals for CAD/CAM integration, in our architecture; there is no integrated data or knowledge base in the system. The local data and knowledge bases are organized using object oriented approach.

Most of the previous researches follow either centralized or hierarchical approach for the design of planning and control subsystems. In the hierarchical approach a computer at a higher level of control sends commands to and receives information from computers at lower levels of control. This creates a master/slave relationship among different levels of control. Consequently, it is not possible adequately to deal with the issues of fault tolerance, extensibility and dynamic control.

In the fully distributed architecture suggested by us, there are no multiple levels of control. Logical cell controllers are equal decision makers and perform all planning in a cooperative manner. For each cell there is a closely coupled cell controller. The information of a cell is readily accessible to the cell controller. The cell controllers are interconnected via local area network with broadcast capability.


8. Ответьте на вопросы.

1) What is the function of the Management/Business subsystem?

2) What is the function of CAD subsystem?

3) What is the function of Planning and Control subsystem?

4) What are the three subsystems linked to?

5) How are local data and knowledge bases organized?

6) What is a master/slave relationship among different levels of control?

7) What disadvantages does this principle have?

8) What is the principle of the functioning of the fully distributed architecture?


9. Переведите предложения, учитывая значения латинских выражений:

via – путем, через;

a posteriori – на основании опыта, потом;

a priori – заранее ;

Vice versa – наоборот .


1) In a closed-loop system the influence of all disturbances on the measured quantity may be corrected, but a posteriori.

2) External errors cause internal errors and vice versa.

3) A monitoring unit can receive the data of one of the several functions via adequate interface.

4) We know a priori the advantage of this system.


10. Подберите термины (break-down; signal processing; intelligent monitoring system) к следующим определениям .

1) A failure in operation which causes a stoppage of the process.

2) Self-improving monitoring system with some ability to learn on the basis of monitoring experience.

3) Set of operations performed on the signal in order to derive the desired information.


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