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For the testing and observations, there is a great number of procedures available, so the choice has to be made carefully.
Both with testing and observing the results need to be compared. The comparison has different criteria according to the task and diagnosis strategy. The result of a signature analysis is compared with a given bit pattern, from which the decision "defective" or "in order" can be made. The result of time-length observation is typically subject to a constraint comparison that is obtained from tables. The comparison values can be stored before the operation, transmitted with the help of operators, or by self-learning during the test or in an operation phase built into the system itself.
Self-learning procedures are especially valuable for those variables and their combinations of which the constraint values are not known a priori. Test and observation routines serve for checking both individual components and systems. The routines can be used either by external diagnosis systems or by additional programs contained in the control system. There is a growing tendency to store such aids in the control system as permanently loaded service routines.
When following a system from its development phase to its use in production, various diagnosis applications can be differentiated.
During the phases of development and initial operation, the diagnosis routines do not have to be components of the system. Programmable logic controllers, for example, can be extended by using so-called external test systems.
During the production phase, however, permanent automatic monitoring and diagnosis are required. The corresponding routines therefore run on-line, parallel to the process course. If the diagnosis system is part of the control, and such is the usual case, one speaks of "integrated diagnosis".
10. Ответьте на вопросы.
1) How is the result of a signature analysis compared?
2) How is the result of time-length observation compared?
3) How are the comparison values treated?
4) What do the test and observation routines serve for?
5) Why diagnosis routines do not have to be included into the system during the phase of development and initial operation?
6) When do the diagnosis routines run on-line?
7) What is an integrated diagnosis?
Найдите в тексте синонимы следующих слов и выражений. Переведите их .
autonomous, automatic, to concentrate, to include, by means of, the program, the part of something
Найдите в тексте слова того же корня, что и следующие. Переведите их.
needless, the subject, the extension, the requirement, to develop, the loading, to constrain
Переведите текст письменно со словарем.
To use the operator manual assistance is contrary to the aim of an automatic supervision and error recovery system, but experience shows that an experienced operator can decide the best alternative to take when the error cause is difficult to locate and there is time constraint. One must not forget that there are many parameters to consider. For example, if such an error occurs when the last product in batch being assembled is urgently required, then the operator may decide to jump directly to the next product and assemble the last one manually to save time. This of course is very difficult to take, because this decision does not take into account the fact that the cause of error may be due to the hardware and so the same error will affect the next product. It is a question of how complex one should make the supervision and recovery system without increasing the occurrence of errors caused by the complexity of such system.
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