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Flexible automatic assembly systems are open systems. This means that the assembly process suffers disturbances not only from internal sources, but also from external ones. There are two types of errors.
1. External errors are all the errors that occur outside the assembly process.
2. Internal errors are all the errors linked to the assembly process itself.
These two categories of errors are interrelated: external errors cause internal errors and vice versa. External errors often occur stochastically and are not as common as internal ones. They usually cause fatal errors that can only be recovered manually. Errors recovery research has concentrated mainly on internal errors, except programming errors.
Certain disturbances can generate temporary external errors without showing their source. For example, lighting disturbances can give problems to vision systems, but vary so quickly that the user might not detect such a cause. These stochastic changes of product assembly must be planned into the automatic assembly system controller so that no large amount of re-scheduling and programming are required.
The most common classification of errors is as follows: fatal errors and non-fatal errors. This means that the recovery system must “know” what type of error is going to cause a system shutdown and what can be corrected on-line. This is the highest hierarchical subdivision of errors. The assembly system must be designed to be flexible at all levels of hardware and software in such a way that errors are not created by too strict operational constraints.
In practice the error recovery system will always have to consult a database to check whether the error is known (old) or whether it is a new one (new). Fatal errors require a system shutdown.
9. Ответьте на вопросы.
1) What is the open system?
2) Where do external and internal errors occur?
3) How are external and internal errors interrelated?
4) Where must the stochastic changes of product assembly be planned?
5) What is the most common classification of errors?
6) What must the recovery system know?
7) How does the recovery system recognize the type of errors?
Подберите слова противоположные по значению из данного ряда.
external, inside, static, internal, dynamic, outside, reliable, impossible, unreliable, possible
Подберите слова близкие по значению из данного ряда.
generate (v), check (v), produce (v), amount (n), correct (v), vary (v), quantity (n), change (v)
Замените пропуски нужным глаголом ( to check , to link , to generate , to detect ), поставьте его в пассивной форме.
1) Internal errors…………to the assembly process itself.
2) Temporary external errors…………by certain disturbances.
3) The cause of the errors of vision system…………by the automatic assembly system controller.
4) The type of the error…………by the error recovery system by means of the database.
Переведите текст письменно со словарем.
Consumers are now demanding products that are reasonably priced and reliable. As a result, manufacturers have to develop manufacturing systems that are flexible and can accommodate a variety of products promising high performance. Performance demands precision and complexity to different degrees and increased attention to monitoring devices during production.
The expense of automating manufacturing operations is high enough and demands to monitor the process. Thus there is also a great demand for monitoring systems to ensure the safe and efficient performance of these systems during operation.
Выпишите из словаря транскрипцию и перевод следующих слов. Запомните их произношение и значения.
task (n), handle (v), consist (v), dedicate (v), area (n), delivery (n), flow (n, v), in favour of, 'access (n), update (v), find (found, found) (v)
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