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Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not. A sense of humour - to console him for what he is.




SOURCES

 

Adams V. Introduction into English Wordformation. Lnd., 1983 .

Akhmanova O.S. Lexicology: Theory and Method. M. 1972

Arnold I.V. The English Word . M. 1986.

Burchfield R.W. The English Language. Lnd. ,1985

Canon G. Historical Changes and English Wordformation: New Vocabulary items. N.Y., 1986.

Ginzburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979.

Jespersen ,Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford, 1982.

Halliday M.A.K. Language as Social Semiotics. Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning. Lnd., 1979.

Howard Ph. New words for Old. Lnd., 1980.

Labov W. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, 1966.

Maurer D.W. , High F.C. New Words - Where do they come from and where do they go. American Speech., 1982.

Patridge E. Slang To-day and Yesterday. Lnd., 1979.

Potter S. Modern Linguistics. Lnd., 1957.

Quirk R. Style and Communication in the English Language. Lnd., 1980.

Schlauch, Margaret. The English Language in Modern Times. Warszava, 1965.

Sheard, John. The Words we Use. N.Y..,1954.

 

Амосова Н.Н. Этимологические основы словарного состава современного английского языка. М. 1956.

Амосова Н. Н. Основы английской фразеологии Л. 1963.

Aпресян Ю.Д.Лексическая семантика. Синонимические средства языка. М.1974.

Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка.М. 1959.

Беляева Т.М., Потапова И.А. Английский язык за пределами Англии. Л. 1971.

Беляева Т.М. Словообразовательная валентность глагольных основ в английском языке. М., 1979.

Виноградов В.В. Об основных типах фразеологических единиц в русском языке. Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография. Избранные труды. М. 1977.

Волков С.C., Cенько Е.В. Неологизмы и внутренние стимулы языкового развития. Новые слова и словари новых слов. Л., 1963.

Жлуктенко Ю.А. и др. Английские неологизмы. Киев.,1983.

Заботкина В.И. Новая лексика современного английского языка. М., 1989.

Иванов А.Н. Английская неология. Сб. науч. тр. МГПИИЯ 1984.Вып. 227.

Ивлева Г.Г. Tенденции развития слова и словарного состава. М. 1986.

Кубрякова Е.С. Роль словообразования в формировании языковой картины мира. М. 1988.

Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. М. 1972.

Мешков О.Д. Словообразование современного английского языка. М. 1976.

Cилис Я.Я. Лингвистическое и социальное в неологии британского варианта современного английского обращения. Неологизмы в лексике, грамматике и фонетике. Рига , 1985.

Тимошенко Т.Р. Телескопия в словообразовательной системе современного английского языка. Киев.1976.

Швейцер А.Д. Cовременная социолингвистика. Теория.Проблемы. Методы.М.1977.

Швейцер А.Д. Социальная дифференциация языка в США. М. 1983.

 

Dictionaries.

 

Bloomsbury Dictionary of New Words. M. 1996.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford 1964.

Hornby The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Lnd. 1974.

The Longman Register of New Words. M. 1990.

Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. M. 1986.

Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English. Longman. 1981.

21st century Dictionary of Slang. N.Y. 1994.

Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English. N.Y. 1978.

Апресян Ю.Д. Новый большой англо-русский словарь. M. 1993.

Апресян Ю.Д. Англо-русский синонимический словарь. M. 1979.

Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь. М. 1967.

Трофимова З.C. Dictionary of New Words and New Meanings. Изд. «Павлин» ,1993.

 

 

Lecture 1

The Subject of Lexicology.

Word Definition

Types of Word.

KEEP ON SMILING!

1. Diner: Do you serve crabs here?

Waiter: We serve anyone - sit down.

2. What's black and white and red. Red (read) all over? - A newspaper.

What's a baby pig called?

- A piglet.

- So what's a baby toy called?

- A toilet.

When is a car not a car?

- When it turns into a garage.

Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not. A sense of humour - to console him for what he is.

LEXICOLOGY - 2009

 

 

LECTURE 1

 

OUTLINE

The subject of lexicology.

Different branches of lexicology.

Lexicology and its connections with other branches of linguistics.

A word as a lexical unit.

The word stock and the theory of oppositions.

Types of lexical units.

The theoretical and practical value of lexicology.

Lexicology is a branch of linguistics studying a word as a unit of the word stock, having

· the sound, form and

· meaning,

· dealing with the vocabulary and

· the properties of words as the main units of language. (Arnold,1986)

 

Lexicology is of Greek origin: le xikos (lexis) “of a word”, “logos” science, speech (learning).

The term lexeme was introduced byBenjamin Lee Whorf (1938).

Vocabulary – the system formed by the sum total of all the words and word equivalents the lg. possesses.

A word is the basic unit of a given lg. resulting from the association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment.(I.V. Arnold)

Thus a word is a semantic, grammatical and phonological unit. Ex.: boy ‘a male child up to the age of 17-18’, boys, boy’s, boys’.

 
 


Lexicology:

General (lg universals)

Special (of the particular lg)

3. Descriptive (vocabulary as a system): boy, boyhood, boyish, boyishly, old boy, my dear boy, boy-friend.

Comparative, Contrastive (English and Russian lexis)

Historical or diachronic (etymology): Extralinguistic forces influencing the development of words.



 

In historical lexicology: diachronic approach;

In descriptive lexicology: synchronic approach;

syn – simultaneous;

chronos – time;

Hip – hop – hope- heap- - hoop;(substitution test)

Tip – top; tip – pit;

Import,n ::to import,v.;

Blackbird:: black bird

Our queer old dean – our dear old queen.

(Spoonerisms (W.A. Spooner) – jocular transposition of the initial sounds of two or more words)

Lexicology and grammar:

Head of the committee – to head a committee (interdependence oflexical and grammatical meaning)

Lexicology and etymology

Brothers (family relationship;

Brethren (arch.) (members of the club or society);

Genius – geniuses (of exceptional intellect) – genii (evil or good spirit).

Arm – arms :‘To take arms against the sea of troubles’ – lexicalization: authorities, colours, customs, looks, manners, pictures, works.

Futurity: shall – will come, going to, future, tomorrow, by and by, time to come, hereafter;

The theory of oppositions

(N.S. Trubetzkoy):

PHONOLOGY

X R
Morphemes

MORPHOLOGY

Words, phrases, sentences
I D

C Semantic

Structure

GRAMMAR
Stylistic word value

L Morphological

Structure

STYLISTICS
Language system:
O

Word

G Formation

THE HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE
Word stock

Y Semantic

Relations

LEXICOGRAPHY
 
 

 


Listeners’ relations

Shallow- shallowness.

But: long – length;

Wide- width;

Deep- depth;

Big- size.

Functional approach:

An Outline

The definition of the word

Semantic triangle

Word Definition

 

Th. Hobbes(1588-1679) - (materialistic approach)

Words are not mere sounds but names of matter.

I. P. Pavlov(second signal system):

A universal signal that can substitute any other signal from the environment in evoking a response in a human organism.

Machine translation:

The word is defined

· Syntactically;

· Semantically;

· Phonologically and

· By combining various approaches.

Syntactically: Bloomfield, H.Sweet, S. Potter:

“A minimum free form” ( forms which occur as sentences).

H. Sweet:

“the minimum sentence”.

Syntactic and semantic aspects:

E. Sapir: ‘A word is one of the smallest completely satisfying bits of isolated ‘meaning’ into which the sentence resolves itself. It cannot be cut into without a disturbance of meaning’…(the essence of indivisibility: a(living or dead) lion and alive).Each other and one another are word-units(not word-groups).

J. Lyons: two criteria: ‘positional mobility and uninterruptability’:

(the- boy-s-walk-ed-slow-ly-up-the-hill)

‘One of the characteristics of the word is that it tends to be internally stable (in terms of the order of the component morphemes) but positionally mobile, (permutable with other words in the same sentence)

Semantic treatment:

Stephen Ullmann’s

«A connected discourse will fall into a certain number of meaningful segments which are ultimately composed of meaningful units. These meaningful units are called words»

Semantic, phonological and grammatical criteria:

A. Meillet

The association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment (objections: child but a pretty child – no difference).

Phonological approach:

Л.С. Бархударов:

- Последовательность морфем (в простейшем случае – одна морфема) внутри которой не может быть вставлена другая такая же последовательность морфем

The semantic-phonological approach:

Gardiner:

An articulate sound – symbol in its aspect of denoting smth which is spoken about

E.M. Mednicova

The basic unit of language.It directly corresponds to the object of thought (referent) which is a generalized reverberation of a certain “slice”, “piece” of objective reality – and by immediately referring to it names the thing meant

Ladislave Zgusta: Words are treated

As Interpersonal units of Language, as signs of the system of a language above all to construct sentences

Sidney M.:

A sequence of graphemes which can occur between space, or the representation of such a sequence on morphemic level

Antrushina

Afanasieva

Morosova

A speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds, possessing a meaning, successible to grammatical employment and characterized by formal and semantic unity

Collins Cobuild

Is a single unit of language that can be represented in writing or speech

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (OALD)

– A sound/combination of sounds which expresses a meaning and forms an independent unit of grammar or vocabulary of a language

American Heritage Dictionary (1985):”a sound or a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing or printing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme or of a combination of morphemes”.

Collins English Dictionary (1986):

“One of the units of speech or string that native speakers of a language usually regard as the smallest isolated meaningful element of the language, although linguists would analyze these further into morphemes”.

Chambers English Dictionary (1988):

“A unit of spoken language: a written sign representing such an utterance”.

 

I.V. Arnold:

‘A word is the smallest significant unit of a given lg. capable of functioning alone and characterized by

· positional mobility within a sentence

· morphological uninterruptability

· semantic integrity.

 

These definitions create the basis of opposition btw.

· The word and the phrase,

· The word and the phoneme,

· The word and the morpheme.

 

The common feature: they are all units of the lg.

The weak point of the definitions: no indication of the relationship btw. Lg. and thought.

 

The word is a fundamental unit of lg.

It is a dialectal unity of form and content.

 

Content (meaning) reflects human notions, concepts are fixed in the meaning of words, reflecting the reality by the content of words.

 

F. de Saussure

A word is a linguistic sign ‘signifiant’ (signifier).

It refers to ‘signifie’ (that which is signified)

 

           
 
Sign
 
Signifie
     
Thing
 
 


Gotlieb Frege(1848-1925)

C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards’ triangles:

Semantic triangle,

Triangle of signification,

Frege’s semiotic triangle,

O. and R.’s basic triangle

Referential approach:


Word meaning –

The Word.

ESSENTIAL WORD CHARACTERISTICS:

 
 


STRUCTURAL SEMANTIC

  Phonetic Structure Morphological Structure Grammatical Structure Syntactic Structure Nominal Onomastic character Significant Indivisible Isolated
       
           

 

Types of Word

Eight kinds of words

 

The orthographic word

The phonological word

The morphological word

The lexical word

The grammatical word

The onomastic word

The lexicographical word

The statistical word

 

Three main types of motivation (inner word form):

Phonetical: a certain similarity btw. the sounds and the sense:

(bang, buzz, giggle, gurgle, hiss, purr),Cuckoo.

Sound imitative words:

Babble, chatter, gabble, prattle; purr, moo, crow, bark, bleat.

Morphological motivation or word-building meaning:

ex ‘former’:

(ex-president, ex-wife);but expect, export(borrowed wds – no motivation)

re-‘again, back’(rebuild, reclaim, resell) but recover “get better”

Word-building meaning: V +-er =N:

Writer,receiver,bomber,rocker,knocker but number and smoker(a fuzzy set) .

Semantic motivation:

coexistence of direct and figurative meanings of the same words:

(mouth of a river, cave, furnace), (jacket of a book, electric fire.

Morphological and semantic motivation in compound words (eyewash, headache, watchdog).

First-nighter, honeymooner, two- seater, three-decker (a sandwich) are different in their motivation: lick-spittle “a flattering or a servile person”. Teenager” - a person in his or her teens” (historically traced).

Non-motivated words:

No connection btw. meaning and its form at the present stage of lg. development:

earn > (ge) earnian “to harvest”;

not > nought > OE nowiht <no-wiht “nothing”.

Faded motivation:lost in the history and not felt at present.

Folk etymology or mistaken motivation (a nightmare, may-day ”SOS”).

Sound symbolism:

fl – quick movement:

flap, flip, flop, flitter, flimmer, flicker, flutter, flash, flush, flare;

( but flat, floor, flower)

gl(light, fire) – glare, glitter, glow, glimmer;

sl(mud)-sleet, slime, slush but sleep, slender.

 

TEST

 

1. Name as many approaches to the word definition as possible.

2. Enumerate types of a word.

3. Give examples of different motivations of words.

 



 

Lecture 3

Lexical Meaning and Semantic structure of English Words

 

Outline

1. Semantics and Semasiology

2. The lexical meaning versus notion

3. Denotative and connotative meaning

4. The semantic structure of polysemantic words

5. Contextual analysis

6. Componential analysis

 

SEMANTICS

¨The meaning of words and phrases

¨Study of Linguistic meaning

¨Study of relationship between the sign and the referent

Changes in meaning and form

SEMASIOLOGY

· Branch of Linguistics – studies Linguistic meaning

· Branch of Linguistics – studies Lexical meaning of words and phrases and semantic change

СЕМАСИОЛОГИЯ

СЕМАНТИКА

· Все содержание языка

· Один из разделов семиотики

I. Structural approach

The common denominator of all the meanings of words belonging to a lexico-grammatical class of words (LGC).

Generic terms are words - representatives of lexico-grammatical meaning, substituting any word of the class:

Matter (material nouns),

Group (collective nouns),

Person (personal nouns).

The denotative meaning is a linguistic expression for a concept or a name for an individual object (the conceptual content of a word).

The denotative meaning is

· significative, if the referent (denotatum) is a concept (grief, sorrow, happiness) or

· demonstrative if the referent is an individual object (a table, a chair).

The pragmatic component of denotation is connotational meaning based on the complex associations of verbal or situational contexts:

1. the speaker’s attitude – slay::kill,

2. approval or disapproval – clique::group, hireling;

3. the speaker’s emotions – mummy::mother,

4. degree of their intensity – adore::love).

Semantic components (semes) of the denotative meaning:

MAN + HUMAN + ADULT + MALE

WOMAN+ HUMAN +ADULT - MALE

BOY +HUMAN – ADULT + MALE

GIRL + HUMAN - ADULT - MALE

POLYCEMY reflects the possibility of using the same name in secondary nomination for objects possessing common features (proximity) which are sometimes only implied in the original meaning (implicational):

Birth-

The act or time to be born,

An origin or being,

Descent, family.

Implicational (epidigmatic) meaning is the possibility of a word to create new derived meanings or words:

Bomb ”great success” “great failure”(Am. slang);

Drive “What can he be driving at?”(fig.)

 
 
 


The meaning conveys

· some reflection of objective reality,

· the speaker’s state of mind,

· his attitude to what he is speaking about.

Brat::baby;

Kid::child.

III. Thelexical meaning of many words depends upon the sphere of their usage and the typical contexts whereas a notion belongs to abstract logic and has no ties with any stylistic sphere and does not contain any emotive components.

Fancy that! Fancy my making a mistake like that!

IV. The complexity of the notion is determined by the relationships of the extra-linguistic reality reflected in human consciousness. The complexity of each word meaning is due to the fact that it combines lexical meaning with lexico-grammatical meaning, and with emotional colouring, stylistic peculiarities and connotations. Bright, clear, good, quick, steady, thin are qualitative adjectives having degrees of comparison.

Рука- hand, arm, etc.

The lexical meaning of the word is the realization or naming of the notion, emotion or object by means of a definite lg. system subject to the influence of grammar and vocabulary peculiarities of that lg.

The denotative meaning is essentially cognitive:

Evaluative connotation

expresses approval or disapproval:

Implicational meaning

Is the implied information

· associated with the word it refers to and

· what the speakers know about the referent.

· It is a potential often realized in the derivatives (wolf-wolfish).

 
 
 


TYPES OF CONNOTATIONS

 

ARNOL D I. Evaluative.
celebrated well known for... notorious
II. Emotional/Effective
anger – indignation - rage
III. Expressive/Intensifying
ire- rage
IV. Stylistic (bookish, formal...)
   
Emotional Excitement induced by intense displeasure Indignation   righteous generous intensify of anger
Anger merely the emotional reaction
Ire greater intensity (literary)
Rage adds the implication of lost self-control a sense of frustration, temporary derangement of the mind
Choler anger (bookish)

PRAGMATIC CONNOTATIONS

A N T R U S H I N A Of Cause = causative flush (from modesty, shame) redden (from anger)
Manner Trot - pace
Duration Stare, glimpse
Att. Circumstances peep (through a hole) peer (through the fog)
Att. Features Handsome: fine proportions tall statue Beautiful: classical features & perfect figure Pretty: small delicate features
express judgement of a person/ thing which is contem-plated perceived with sensuous aethetic pleasure BEAUTIFUL   LOVELY     HANDSOME PRETTY   BONNY   GOOD-LOOKING the riskest in significance very strong implication excites the keenest pleasure of senses, mind and soul keen emotional delight rather than intellectual or spiritual but little emotions! a judgement of approval smth pleasant to look upon perfect in form, taste, proportion pleases by its delicacy, grace, charm rather than elegance, style, perfection + diminutiveness / exquisiteness pleasing qualities: sweetness, simplicity, healthiness, plumpness   handsome, but pretty less expressive than handsome (Br. scot.)
    To take rest by a suspension of conscious-ness (mystery-ous state, sleep) SLEEP KIP NAP DOZE SNOOZE SHUT-EYE The periodical repose To lie down to sleep intentionally short (slang) Intentionally a short, light sleep esp. in the day-time Falling asleep for a brief period unintentionally naturally casual, slangy are not aware of (coll)  
           

 

Angle

Concrete Abstract

Honey

Special General

Earth

The planet the world

Main/primary Secondary

Jug- vessel jug - prison

Central Peripheric

Prison

Building any place

Narrow Extended

School

To go to school

 

 

Conversational Words:

mad upset lots of
tell off funny dear
fed up great give up

Faded Words

nice nasty rich like
good strange poor got
bad interesting get  
  productive strong
    prosperous lush
    copious bright
  colour resonant creamy
  sound tasty affluent
RICH… taste abundant ample
  food luxuriant warm
  life fruitful vivid
  person delicious lavish
    opulent deep
    plentiful juicy
    wealthy  

WORD ORIGIN

I n f o r m a l Obsolete Words F o r m a l Current Words
scyppend desceaft healdend rædend æðeling dēmend creator creation chief ruler prince judge
Old English Words Borrowings
Pluck Sweat Guts Clothes Climb Begin Book Pride Lung Courage Fr. Perspire Fr. Determination L. Attire Fr. Ascend L. Commence Fr. Volume Fr. Hubris Dr. Pulmonary L.

STYLISTIC TYPES OF WORDS

Antrushina:Ginsburg

Stylistically
Colloqual

Common colloquial
marked
Neutral
Slang

Substandard colloqual
Dialect

Vulgar-s
Learned

Poetic

Prof-sms
Slang
Terminological

Jargon -s
Archaic

       
 
   
Dialect
 


I.R. Galperin

 

 

Neutral Literary Non-Literary Familiar Colloqual
  - General - Low
  - Poetic - Jargon
- - Scientific - Learned - Archaic - Neologisms - Slang - Vulgarisms - Dialectal words

 

 

Witness1 “evidence, testimony” – a direct, abstract, primary meaning;

Witness2 “a person with knowledge of an event” – a metonymical, concrete, secondary;

Witness3 “a person who gives evidence in court” – metonymical, concrete, secondary;

Test

SOURCES

 

Adams V. Introduction into English Wordformation. Lnd., 1983 .

Akhmanova O.S. Lexicology: Theory and Method. M. 1972

Arnold I.V. The English Word . M. 1986.

Burchfield R.W. The English Language. Lnd. ,1985

Canon G. Historical Changes and English Wordformation: New Vocabulary items. N.Y., 1986.

Ginzburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979.

Jespersen ,Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford, 1982.

Halliday M.A.K. Language as Social Semiotics. Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning. Lnd., 1979.

Howard Ph. New words for Old. Lnd., 1980.

Labov W. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, 1966.

Maurer D.W. , High F.C. New Words - Where do they come from and where do they go. American Speech., 1982.

Patridge E. Slang To-day and Yesterday. Lnd., 1979.

Potter S. Modern Linguistics. Lnd., 1957.

Quirk R. Style and Communication in the English Language. Lnd., 1980.

Schlauch, Margaret. The English Language in Modern Times. Warszava, 1965.

Sheard, John. The Words we Use. N.Y..,1954.

 

Амосова Н.Н. Этимологические основы словарного состава современного английского языка. М. 1956.

Амосова Н. Н. Основы английской фразеологии Л. 1963.

Aпресян Ю.Д.Лексическая семантика. Синонимические средства языка. М.1974.

Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка.М. 1959.

Беляева Т.М., Потапова И.А. Английский язык за пределами Англии. Л. 1971.

Беляева Т.М. Словообразовательная валентность глагольных основ в английском языке. М., 1979.

Виноградов В.В. Об основных типах фразеологических единиц в русском языке. Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография. Избранные труды. М. 1977.

Волков С.C., Cенько Е.В. Неологизмы и внутренние стимулы языкового развития. Новые слова и словари новых слов. Л., 1963.

Жлуктенко Ю.А. и др. Английские неологизмы. Киев.,1983.

Заботкина В.И. Новая лексика современного английского языка. М., 1989.

Иванов А.Н. Английская неология. Сб. науч. тр. МГПИИЯ 1984.Вып. 227.

Ивлева Г.Г. Tенденции развития слова и словарного состава. М. 1986.

Кубрякова Е.С. Роль словообразования в формировании языковой картины мира. М. 1988.

Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. М. 1972.

Мешков О.Д. Словообразование современного английского языка. М. 1976.

Cилис Я.Я. Лингвистическое и социальное в неологии британского варианта современного английского обращения. Неологизмы в лексике, грамматике и фонетике. Рига , 1985.

Тимошенко Т.Р. Телескопия в словообразовательной системе современного английского языка. Киев.1976.

Швейцер А.Д. Cовременная социолингвистика. Теория.Проблемы. Методы.М.1977.

Швейцер А.Д. Социальная дифференциация языка в США. М. 1983.

 

Dictionaries.

 

Bloomsbury Dictionary of New Words. M. 1996.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford 1964.

Hornby The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Lnd. 1974.

The Longman Register of New Words. M. 1990.

Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. M. 1986.

Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English. Longman. 1981.

21st century Dictionary of Slang. N.Y. 1994.

Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English. N.Y. 1978.

Апресян Ю.Д. Новый большой англо-русский словарь. M. 1993.

Апресян Ю.Д. Англо-русский синонимический словарь. M. 1979.

Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь. М. 1967.

Трофимова З.C. Dictionary of New Words and New Meanings. Изд. «Павлин» ,1993.

 

 

Lecture 1

The Subject of Lexicology.

Word Definition

Types of Word.

KEEP ON SMILING!

1. Diner: Do you serve crabs here?

Waiter: We serve anyone - sit down.

2. What's black and white and red. Red (read) all over? - A newspaper.

What's a baby pig called?

- A piglet.

- So what's a baby toy called?

- A toilet.

When is a car not a car?

- When it turns into a garage.

Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not. A sense of humour - to console him for what he is.

LEXICOLOGY - 2009

 

 

LECTURE 1

 

OUTLINE

The subject of lexicology.





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