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Complete the following sentences, using the phraseological units given in the list below. Translate them into Russian.

l.If I pay my rent, I won't have any money to buy food. I'm between --. 2. It's no use grumbling about your problems - we're all —. 3. He's sold his house and his business to go to Australia, so he's really --. 4. She prefers not to rely on anyone else, she likes to —. 5. They didn't know whether to get married or not, but they finally --. 6. You can't expect everything to go right all the time, you must learn to --.

To take the rough with the smooth, between the devil and the deep sea, to take the plunge, in the same boat, to paddle one's own canoe, to burn one's boats.

9.Think of all the phraseological units that you can which contain the following words, use each phraseological unit in a sentence and explain the meaning of it: eye

(s), nose, ears, mouth, teeth, head, finger, thumb, heart, leg, foot (feet), hand, hair.


10. She would do anything for her
youngest son. He was the... of her eye.

a) plum; b) centre; c)star, d) apple.

11. I always get... in my stomach
before visiting the dentist
a) worms; b) butterflies; c) crabs; d) hedgehogs.

12.Complete the paired phraseological units in the sentences below. Choose from the following:

blood large shoulders sound take
cons nail soul



1. She was an outstanding student whose work was head and... above the others in her class. 2. The lecture was just the way the stu­dents liked it - short and... 3. Although it has its faults, by and... Britain is a pretty good country to live in. 4. Don't ask James to do anything practical; he's all fingers and... 5. Pauline was so funny on Saturday. She really

was the life and... of the party. 6. Oh, thank
heavens you're both safe and...! I was so
worried about you. 7. They promised to stand
by each other through thick and... 8. You can't
throw him out, surely? Not your brother, not
your own flesh and...9.A certain amount of
give and... is essential in any relationship.
lO.His flat was so spick and... that it looked
more like a well-kept museum than a home.
11. I'm afraid you'll have to wear a tie, sir. It's
a hard and... rule of the club. 12. They're
always fighting tooth and

... I'm surprised they don't get divorced. 13.
The managing director

outlined the pros and... of the proposed plan.
14.1 don't know about

you, David, but I'm sick and... of hearing about his fantastic children.

Theme 7: Stylistic classification of English Vocabulary

l.Comment on the terms:

Literary layer: terms, poetic words, archaic words, barbarisms, foreignisms; colloquial layer: slang, jargonisms,

professional words, dialectal words, vulgar words; neutral layer, nonce-words.

2.Find a word:

a) colloquial: parent, father, dad,

b) bookish: darkness, harmony, foolish, glad.

c) slangism: wife, sister, missus, mother.

d) professionalism: shop, lab, store, barn.

e) vulgarism: bad, negative, awful,

3.Translate the following neologisms. Comment on the word-building means:

Disadvantaged, gogglebox, deterrent, redundancy, rethinking, denuclearize, parolee, detainee, sitters-in, outdoorsman, to front­page, the go-ahead, to snow-ball, mini-cruize, foodoholic, brown-bagger.

4.Pick out the archaic words from the given and translate them into Russian:

Do, dost, does, you, thee, ye, thou, horse, though, albeit, also, eke, spring, vernal, said, quoth, told, maiden, girl, perhaps, ere, before.

5.Give modern equivalents of the words. Translate them into Russian:

Bade, spouce, dire, aught, kine, swain, courser, ire, charger, thy, thine, troth, hath, whit.

6.The italicized words and word-groups in the following extracts belong to formal style. Describe the stylistic peculiarities of each extract in general and say whether the italicized represents learned words, terms or archaisms. Look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary:

l." Sir,

in re Miss Ernestina Freeman We are instructed by Mr. Ernest Freeman, father of the above-mentioned Miss Ernestina Freeman, to request you to attend at these chambers at 3 o'clock this coming Friday. Your failure to attend will be regarded as an acknowledgement of our client's right to proceed."

(From The French Lieutenant's Woman by J. Fowles)


2. " I have, with esteemed advice..." Mr. Aubrey bowed briefly towards the sergeant, ... "... prepared an admission of guilt. I should instruct you that Mr. Freeman's decision not to proceed immediately is most strictly contingent upon your client's signing, on this occasion and in our presence, and witnessed by all

present, this document."

3. R о m e о... So shows a snowy

dove trooping with


As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows.

The measure done, I'll watch her place of stand,

And, touching hers, make blessed my rude hand.

Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight!

For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night. 1 Usually in modern correspondence you will find the form re [ri: ] without the in. 2 measure (here) - dance.

7.The italicized words and word-groups in the following extracts belong to informal style. Describe the stylistic peculiarities of each extract in general. Look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary:

l....Now you are talking! I thought you would come off it when you saw a chance of getting back a bit of what you chucked at me last night. You'd had a drop in, hadn't you?

2. What call would a woman with that strength in her have to die of influenza? What become of her new straw hat that should have come to me? Somebody pinched it; and what I say is, them as pinched it done her in.

3.Mind you, she's often thought of divorcing Dad, but somehow never got round to doing it. Not that she's got a good word to say for him, mind you. She says he was the laziest, pottiest, most selfish chap she's ever come across in all her life.

4.My wife has been kiddin' me about my friends ever since we was married. She says that...they ain't nobody in the world got a

rummier bunch of friends than me. I'll admit that most of them ain't, well, what you might call hot...But of course they are old friends and I can't give them the air.

8.Compose the following brief situations. Your language and style should suit both the subject and the situation:

a)A short formal letter to a Mrs. Grey, a distant acquaintance, in which you tell her that you cannot accept her invitation to a party. Explain the reason.

b)Two undergraduates are discussing why one of them has been expelled from his college. (Don't forget that young people use both literary and familiar colloquial words.)

c)The parents of the dismissed student are wondering what to do with him. (Older people, as you remember, are apt to be less informal in their choice of words.)

d)A short review on a theatrical production or film.

e)A discussion between two teenagers about the same play or film.

Theme 8: American English

l.Comment on the terms:

Variant, dialect, Americanisms (historical, proper), borrowings, American shortenings, grammatical differences of American English.


a) a full Briticism: fortnight; ship; country; window.

b) a full Americanism: drug-store; childhood; friendship; cinema.

c)the word the spelling of which in the USA differs from that in Britain: standard; national; labor; language.

d) the American form of Participle II:
written; proven; spoken; taken.

e) the word which is obsolete in
Britain but modern in the USA: building,
to pronounce, fall (season), to ask.

f)a dialectal word: village, city, town, burgh.

g)the word formed with the help of a dialectal suffix: doggy, dogeen, Charley, antie.

h)which of the dialects became the national language of Britain: Lowland, Northern, Western, Midland.

3.Јxplain the differences in the meanings of the following words in American and British English:

Corn, apartment, homely, guess, lunch.

4.1dentify the etymology of the following words:

Ohio, ranch, squash, mosquito, banjo, toboggan, pickaninny, Mississippi, sombrero, prairie, wigwam.

5.Say which of the two words is American and which is British. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. We've decided to take our vacation in the autumn/ fall this year. 2. At my son's new school the new semester/ term starts next week. 3.1 never eat biscuits or sweets/ candy. 4. Put that garbage in the dustbin/ trashcan. 5. The trousers look nice with that waistcoat/ vest. 6. The lorry/ track came past us on the highway. 7. My apartment is on the fifth floor but I'm afraid there's no lift/ elevator. 8. The people next door are on holiday/ vacation. 9. We left the car in the car park/ parking lot and took the subway. 10. My dress is in the wardrobe/ closet.

6.Translate into English giving two variants - British and American:

Тротуар, осень, консервная банка, каникулы, бензин, штора, ящик для мусора, лифт, конфета, грузовик, товарный поезд, багаж, метро, подтяжки, брюки, кран, почтовый ящик, бумажник, визитная

карточка, стюардесса, банкнота, свекла, ж.д. касса, багажник, ж.д. вагон, банкомат, кассир, центр города, аптека, компания, переезд, смокинг, район города, врач, правительство, первый этаж, ООО, ж.д. дорога, шпалы, кольцевая дорога, магазин, подземный переход, трамвай;

Надоесть, быть уволенным, на всей скорости, короче говоря, время до рассвета, трудолюбивый человек, встать с левой ноги.

7. Translate the following sentences:

1. The clause was stricken out.

2. I visited with my parents after doing all the errands in the West.

3. The University faculty were invited to attend a meeting with the delegation of the Detroit's sister-city.

4. This offer will sure be of interest to career officers.


5. The baggage claim area was right under the main hall of the airport.

6. The performance lasted for two hours without intermission.

7. He got the extension of his
program through March 1st.

8. Hope you'll be able to let up after everybody fills out their forms and leaves.

9. The frontier days attract a lot of visitors in Wyoming and Colorado.


10. Boning up on foreign languages is inevitable at the initial stage of studies.

11. He updated me on the recent events.

12. The unemployment has sky­
rocketed in the country due to recession.


Examination Questions in English Lexicology

1. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics

2. Branches of lexicology

3. The theory of a word

4. Morphological structure of English words

5. The native component

6. Causes and criteria of borrowings

7. Types of borrowings

8. Assimilation as a result of the pressure of the native component

9. Latin borrowings


10. Celtic borrowings

11. French borrowings


12. Borrowings of the Renaissance period

13. Word-building as a means of secondary nomination

14. Word-building pattern. Productivity of word-building patterns

15. Conversion

16. Composition

17. Affixation

18. Shortening. Blending


19. Sound imitation. Sound-and-stress interchange

20. Reduplication. Back-formation

21. Componental structure of lexical meaning

22. The referential approach to lexical meaning


23. Development of meaning: causes, process, result

24. Causes of homonymy

25. Classification of homonyms

26. Classification of synonyms


27. Criteria of synonymy

28. The dominant synonym


29. Euphemisms

30. Classification of antonyms


31. Polysemy as a linguistic category

32. A lexico-semantic variant. Types of relations between lexico-semantic variants

33. Classification of lexico-semantic variants


34. Phraseological units and free word groups. Sources of phraseology

35. Thematic and semantic classification of phraseological units

36. Structural classification. Pr. Smimitsky's classification of phraseological units

37. Pr. Koonin's classification of phraseological units. Contextual classification

38. Neutral vocabulary

39. Literary vocabulary

40. Colloquial vocabulary

41. Lexical peculiarities of American English

Recommended Literature:

Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского языка. -М., 1999.

Арнольд И.В. Лексикология. - М., 1959.

Арутюнова Н.Д. Типы языковых значений. Оценка. Событие. Факт. - М., 1988.

Беляева Т.М. Английский язык за пределами Англии. _ Л., 1961.

Васильев Л.М. Современная

лингвистическая семантика. - М., 1990.

Гак В.Г. Лексикология/

Лингвистический энциклопедический

словарь. -М., 1990.

Гинзбург Е.Л. Конструкции

полисемии в современном русском языке. -М., 1985.

Голикова Ж.А. Лексикология и фразеология современного английского языка. Практикум. - Минск, 2006.

Кацнельсон С.Д. Общее и типологическое языкознание. - Л., 1986.

Кубрякова Е.С. Типы языковых значений. Семантика производного слова. -М, 1981.

Кубрякова Е.С. Номинативный аспект речевой деятельности. - М., 1986.

Кунин А.В. Английская фразеология. -М., 1970.

Кунин А.В. Фразеология

современного английского языка. - М., 1972.

Маковский М.М. Английские социальные диалекты. - М., 1982.

Медникова Э.М. Значение слова и методы его описания. - М., 1974.

Мезенин СМ. Образные средства языка.-М., 1984.

Никитин М.В. Лексическое значение слова (структура и комбинаторика). - М., 1983.

Смирницкий А.И. Лексикология английского языка. -М., 1956.

Уфимцева А.А. Лексическое значение. -М., 1986.

Харитончик З.А. Лексикология английского языка. - Минск, 1992.

Швейцер А.Д, Литературный английский язык в США и Англии.-М.

Aitchison J. Words in the Mind. -Oxford, 1987.

Arnold I.V. The English Word. - M., 1986.

Cruise D.A. Lexical Semantics. -Cambridge, 1986.

Ginzburg L.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. - M., 1979.

Jackendorf R. Semantic Structures. -Cambridge, 1993.

Katz J J., Fodor J. A. The Structure of Semantic Theory/ Language. - 1963. - № 39.

Kashcheyva M. et al. Practical Lexicology. - M., 1974.

Lyons J. Language, Meaning and Context. - Lnd., 1981.

Readings in Modern English Lexicology.
L., 1968.


Св. план 2009г., поз. i9i Овчинникова Наталья Дмитриевна

Лексикология английского языка

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