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Is a structured set of interrelated lexical variants with different denotational and connotational meanings.



ARNOL D I. Evaluative.
celebrated well known for... notorious
II. Emotional/Effective
anger – indignation - rage
III. Expressive/Intensifying
ire- rage
IV. Stylistic (bookish, formal...)
Emotional Excitement induced by intense displeasure Indignation   righteous generous intensify of anger
Anger merely the emotional reaction
Ire greater intensity (literary)
Rage adds the implication of lost self-control a sense of frustration, temporary derangement of the mind
Choler anger (bookish)


A N T R U S H I N A Of Cause = causative flush (from modesty, shame) redden (from anger)
Manner Trot - pace
Duration Stare, glimpse
Att. Circumstances peep (through a hole) peer (through the fog)
Att. Features Handsome: fine proportions tall statue Beautiful: classical features & perfect figure Pretty: small delicate features
express judgement of a person/ thing which is contem-plated perceived with sensuous aethetic pleasure BEAUTIFUL   LOVELY     HANDSOME PRETTY   BONNY   GOOD-LOOKING the riskest in significance very strong implication excites the keenest pleasure of senses, mind and soul keen emotional delight rather than intellectual or spiritual but little emotions! a judgement of approval smth pleasant to look upon perfect in form, taste, proportion pleases by its delicacy, grace, charm rather than elegance, style, perfection + diminutiveness / exquisiteness pleasing qualities: sweetness, simplicity, healthiness, plumpness   handsome, but pretty less expressive than handsome (Br. scot.)
    To take rest by a suspension of conscious-ness (mystery-ous state, sleep) SLEEP KIP NAP DOZE SNOOZE SHUT-EYE The periodical repose To lie down to sleep intentionally short (slang) Intentionally a short, light sleep esp. in the day-time Falling asleep for a brief period unintentionally naturally casual, slangy are not aware of (coll)  


The Semantic Structure of a Polysemantic Word is a structured set of interrelated lexical variants with different denotational and connotational meanings.

The elements are interrelated due to the existence of some common semantic component. Every meaning is characterized according to:

· the function,

· significative or pragmatic effect

· it has to fulfill denotative and connotative meaning referring the word

· to the extra-linguistic reality;

· to the speaker;

· to other meanings with which it contrasted.

Direct meaning:

it nominates the referent without the help of a context, in isolation:

run ”to go by moving the legs”; screen ‘a movable piece of furniture’(direct):: smoke screen ‘ an object which protects’(fig.):: ’a silver-colored sheet’(sec.):: screen actor (abstr.)

(Indirect) Figurative:

the object is named and characterized through its similarity with another object: “to operate or function”- I run the office;


Space b/w lines point of view

Concrete Abstract


A sweet sticky substance sweetness pleasantness

Special General


The planet the world

Main/primary Secondary

Jug- vessel jug - prison

Central Peripheric


Building any place

Narrow Extended


Institution for process of being

Educating children educated in a school

“I hate school”

To go to school



The main meaning is that which possesses the highest frequency at the present stage of the vocabulary development.

The contextual meaning represents only one of the possible variants of the word but it may render a complicated notion or emotion analyzable into several semes.

Lady Constance, peace! -War! War! no peace! Peace is to me a war” (Sharespeare)


Contextual meanings include nonce usage.

Nonce words are words invented and used for a particular occasion.



Conversational Words:

mad upset lots of
tell off funny dear
fed up great give up

Faded Words

nice nasty rich like
good strange poor got
bad interesting get  
  productive strong
    prosperous lush
    copious bright
  colour resonant creamy
  sound tasty affluent
RICH… taste abundant ample
  food luxuriant warm
  life fruitful vivid
  person delicious lavish
    opulent deep
    plentiful juicy


I n f o r m a l Obsolete Words F o r m a l Current Words
scyppend desceaft healdend ræ dend æ ð eling dē mend creator creation chief ruler prince judge
Old English Words Borrowings
Pluck Sweat Guts Clothes Climb Begin Book Pride Lung Courage Fr. Perspire Fr. Determination L. Attire Fr. Ascend L. Commence Fr. Volume Fr. Hubris Dr. Pulmonary L.


Antrushina: Ginsburg


Common colloquial

Substandard colloqual




Jargon -s


I.R. Galperin



Neutral Literary Non-Literary Familiar Colloqual
  - General - Low
  - Poetic - Jargon
- - Scientific - Learned - Archaic - Neologisms - Slang - Vulgarisms - Dialectal words



Witness1 “evidence, testimony” – a direct, abstract, primary meaning;

Witness2 “a person with knowledge of an event” – a metonymical, concrete, secondary;

Witness3 “a person who gives evidence in court” – metonymical, concrete, secondary;



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