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Функции that (The Functions of that)


Указательное местоимение Союз Союзное слово Слово-заместитель (заменяет существительное во избежании повтора)
    He visited that country twice.   Он посетил эту страну дважды.     1. She says that the plane has already landed. Она говорит, что самолет уже приземлился.   2. That London is the capital of the UK is known to everybody. То, что Лондон столица Соединенного Королевства, всем известно.     Water is one of the few substances that man knows well.   Вода – одно из немногих веществ, которые человеку хорошо известны.     The density of the liquid air is only a little less than that of water.   Плотность жидкого воздуха лишь немного меньше плотности воды.

3. Словообразование. Суффиксы существительных

(Word-building. The suffixes of nouns)

а) Суффиксы -er, -or образуют имена существительные, обозначающие действующее лицо:

to teach – обучать; teacher – учитель

to listen – слушать; listener – слушатель


б) Суффикс -ian указывает на национальную принадлежность или профессию:

Russian – русский

historian – историк


в) Суффикс -ist обозначает принадлежность к политическому или научному направлению, а также профессию:

artist – художник

specialist – специалист

physicist – физик


г) Суффиксы, образующие существительные, обозначающие отвлеченные понятия:

-ion, -tion, -ation, -sion, -ssion.

organization – организация

compression – сжатие

explosion – взрыв


government – правительство

achievement – достижение


lecture – лекция

pressure – давление

-ance, -ence

dependence – зависимость

resistance – сопротивление

-ness (образует существительные от прилагательных)

kindness – доброта


childhood – детство


friendship – дружба


long – длинный; length – длина

wide – широкий; width – ширина


kingdom – королевство

freedom – свобода


capitalism – капитализм



E x e r c i s e s

I. Write three forms of the verbs:

to be, to become, to begin, to break, to bring, to buy, to come, to catch, to choose, to do, to drink, to drive, to draw, to eat, to fall, to feel, to forget, to give, to go, to grow, to hear, to keep, to know, to leave, to lose, to make, to pay, to read, to rise, to run, to see, to send, to show, to sit, to sleep, to stand, to strike, to take, to teach, to think, to wake, to write.


II. Practise all possible combinations by using the tables.


he she my sister Tom her friend has (not) written read come seen been bought booked travelled visited a letter this book the test home a new film by plane to England the USA tickets by phone a TV set
I you they our friends have (not)



Has   he she Tom Mary visited been travelled booked seen translated to England? Egypt? by ship? tickets by phone? a new film? a lot? this poem?
Have I we you they


III. Make up sentences. Use the Present Perfect Tense.

Model: He - /to send/ a telegram.

He has just sent a telegram.

1. John - /to come/ home.

2. Jim - /to go/ to Canada.

3. We - /to arrive/.

4. I - /to see/ him.

5. They - /to have/ lunch.

6. She - /to book/ tickets.

7. Ann - /to phone/.


IV. Make the following sentences a) interrogative; b) negative.

Model: We have been to Greece.

Have you been to England?

No, we haven’t been to England.

We’ve been to Greece.

1. They have travelled a lot. 2. I have never been to London. 3. She has visited China twice. 4. This is the first time he has driven a car. 5. Tom has met many interesting people. 6. She has already translated this article. 7. Nick has just seen him.


V. Complete these questions. Let your fellow students answer them.

1. Have you seen...? 2. Have you been to...? 3. Have you written...? 4. Have you visited...? 5. Has he booked...? 6. Has she travelled by...? 7. Has Tom done...?


VI. Put who -questions.

Model: They have sent a letter.

Who has sent a letter?

1. I have written a letter to my friend. 2. They have eaten at a new English restaurant. 3. I have been to Italy this year. 4. We have had our lunch. 5. He has already booked tickets. 6. We have met a lot of interesting people. 7. She has studied very much this term.


VII. Put all possible questions to the following sentences:

1. Nora has traveled a lot. 2. She has already booked tickets. 3. She has visited China twice. 4. I have known him since my childhood. 5. They have seen this film. 6. We have just seen him. 7. He has read a lot of English books.


VIII. Fill in the blanks with “for” or “since”.

1. He has forgotten his Spanish... he left Cuba. 2. What have you done... I last saw you? 3. I haven’t seen him... ages. 4. It has rained... Monday. 5. I have known him... childhood. 6. I’ve known him... years. 7. How long have you been here? – I’ve been here... two months, ... last May. 8. How long have you studied Chinese? -... five years, ... I was eighteen. 9. How long have you been in the library? – I’ve been here... ten o’clock, ... three hours. 10. Peter is hungry because he has had nothing to eat... five hours, ... morning. 11. They have been here... an hour. 12. It’s been foggy... a fortnight. 13.... when has he been in love?


IX. Put the adverbs in the right place.

1. (ever) Have you travelled? 2. (always) She has been a bright student. 3. (never) We have seen a flying saucer. 4. (just) They have had a walk in the park. 5. (yet) Have you finished your homework? 6. (always) I have wanted to meet your parents. 7. (yet) She hasn’t sent a telegram. 8. (lately) Have you heard from Mary? 9. (long) He has studied the subject. 10. (ever) Has your sister had any troubles with her son?


X. Mary has had a day off today. Say what she has done. Use the following word combinations:

to clean the windows, to sweep the floor, to dust the furniture, to water the flowers, to wash up the dishes, to go shopping, to buy some food, to pick up the linen from the laundry, to iron clothes, to sew some buttons on the kids’ jackets, to cook dinner, to bake a cake, to make coffee, to take the dog for a walk, to meet the children from school, to have a busy day.


XI. Make up sentences using Present Perfect:

Model: I am very tired. (to work) – I have worked hard.

1. She can speak English. (to learn) 2. He can share his impressions about the film. (to see) 3. I know the contents of the letter. (to read) 4. I like her husband. (to meet) 5. They may come to the party. (to return) 6. Ann isn’t here. (to leave) 7. I am going to wear a new blouse tonight. (to buy) 8. She knows the truth. (to tell) 9. They can tell us a lot about London. (to visit) 10. I know how to get there. (to be) 11. She looks fresh. (to have a rest) 12. I have no money. (to spend) 13. Sue is looking for her gloves. (to lose) 14. Bill can’t play football. (to break)


XII. Make up questions. Use the model.

Model: you ever /be/ to Italy?

Have you ever been to Italy?

1. you ever /be/ to South America?

2. you / read/ any English books?

3. you /live/ in this town all your life?

4. how many times / you/ be / to England?

5. What’s the most beautiful country you /ever/ visit?

6. you ever /speak/ to a famous person?

XIII. Complete the sentences:


1. I’ve just умылся

накрыл на стол

добрался до института


совершил ошибку

опоздал на поезд

включил телевизор

поссорился с ней

обсудил этот вопрос


2. He’s (already) посмотрел этот фильм

перевел третий текст

встретил их на станции

проводил ее

нашел книгу

прибыл в город

потратил деньги



3. She’s never работала на фирме

читала книги в оригинале

спорила с ним

переходила улицу на красный свет

готовила обед мужу

вставала рано

путешествовала вокруг света

получала любовные письма

видела достопримечательности Рима

брала чужие вещи


4. They’ve always покупали только дешевые вещи

обедали на кухне

платили наличными

жили в самых роскошных отелях

приглашали гостей на Рождество

делали работу по дому сами

читали «Таймс»

гуляли в дождливую погоду

сдавали экзамены успешно

любили петь громко


5. Have you ever гуляли под дождем без зонта?

видели семь чудес света?

наблюдали сильный снегопад?

слышали эту песню?

влюблялись с первого взгляда?

купались в реке зимой?

пробовали манго?

обижали своих родителей?


6. I haven’t сказала ему правду

путешествовала по Европе

видела достопримечательности Лондона

видела спектакль

послала ей письмо

нашла свое кольцо

пробовала пирог

написала книгу

говорила с ним

звонила ей

кончила читать книгу

купила билеты


XIV. Use Present Perfect or Present Indefinite:

1. Helen (to be) sick since last week. She (to miss) her grammar test. 2. He (to read) a lot and (to know) a lot. 3. Bob’s parents usually (to stay) in the country the whole summer. 4. We (to stay) here for a month, and it (to rain) almost every day. 5. You (to be) at home in the evening? 6. I (to be) here ever since morning. 7. He (to receive) letters from her every week. 8. He (to receive) letters from her since last year. 9. Is it the first time he (to see) a tiger? 10. That’s the third time I (to phone) her today. 11. How long you (to know) each other? 12. I hardly (to hear) anything from her since that time. 13. It long (to be) my dream to visit Canada. 14. She (to dream) of becoming an actress. 15. Normally I (to have) breakfast at 8 in the morning. 16. I (to have) just my breakfast.


XV. Translate the first part of the sentences using Present Indefinite or Present Perfect:

1. Мы живем в Москве now

since 1960

2. Я изучаю английский twice a week

since childhood

3. Он работает на фирме three days a week

for two years

4. Они ходят в этот магазин every Saturday

since they moved here

5. Мы встречаемся друг с другом sometimes

for many years

6. Я знаю этого человека now

since we went to school

7. Я здесь every day

since 9 o’clock

8. Он играет в футбол once a week

since early childhood

9. Он может водить автомобиль now

since he got the driving license

10. Они получают от него письма regularly

since last spring


XVI. Fill in the blanks. Use:

long, long ago, for a long time, last, last time, in the last few years, lately, late in spring, this year, just, just now, for three years, three years ago, last year.

1. When did you go to the Bolshoi Theatre...? 2. I haven’t had a holiday.... 3. They got married.... 4. How often have you visited Canada...? 5. He graduated from the university.... 6. She has... left. 7. It happened.... 8. I saw her in the corridor.... 9. This team hasn’t won a game.... 10. They started making the film.... 11. He has learned Latin.... 12. We have worked together....


XVII. Use Past Indefinite or Present Perfect:


1. When you (to go) to the cinema last? – I’m afraid I (not to be) to the cinema for a few months. 2. I (to make) a report at the seminar on Monday. You (to make) your report yet? 3. Anybody (to see) her today? – Yes, I (to see) her an hour ago. 4. Let’s go home, it (to grow) dark. 5. It (to be) dark when we (to come) home. 6. You ever (to see) any plays by Alby? – Yes, I (to see) one last week. 7. Your brother (to graduate) from the University? – Yes, he (to graduate) in May. 8. I (to pass) my last examination. 9. I (to pass) my English exam last week. 10. Moscow (to change) greatly for the last few years. 11. They (to live) in Canada for a few years and then (to move) to Australia.



1. “You (to make) good progress in your English lately, ” said the teacher. 2. It (to rain) every weekend since we arrived here. 3. The boss (to be) away the whole day today. 4. What (to happen) to him? – He (to break) his arm yesterday, that’s why he (not to come) today. 5. When you (to receive) a letter from your uncle last? – I (not to hear) from him since he (to leave) three years ago. 6. He (to be) President of the company ever since its foundation. 7. There (to be) a lot of disasters this year. 8. The plane (to land)? – Yes, it (to land) just. 9. The postman (to bring) the mail? – Yes, he (to come) while you (to be) asleep as usual. 10. It’s a nice dress. Where you (to buy) it? 11. I (not to hear) what you (to say). 12. You (to understand) what I (to say)?


XVIII. Use the correct tense forms.


1. Have you heard about Tom? He (be) to England. Really? When (he/go) there? - He (go) there in July.

2. You (see) Nora recently? - No, she (go) to Italy. - Really? But she (be) there last year. - Yes, but Italy (to be) her favourite country. She (go) there every year.

3. Mr. Smith (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.

4. Emily lives in Belfast. She (live) there all her life.

5. Bob and Alice (go) to Paris. - (you ever/be) to Paris?

6. When we were on holiday the weather (be) awful.

7. The weather (be) very nice recently, don’t you think?

8. I don’t know Carol’s husband. I (never/meet) him.

9. (you/see) Ann last week?

10. I (play) tennis when I was on holiday.



Dan just (to meet) Tim who (to return) from the USA a few days ago. They (to have) a cup of coffee and (to discuss) Tim’s problems. Tim (to be) unemployed now. He (to lose) his job three years ago. He (to go) to the USA because he (to hope) to find some job there. He (to be) a dentist and he (to discover) that his qualification (not to be) enough to start his own practice there.

So he (to be) out of work for three years now. He (to turn) to a number of employment agencies but he (to be) unsuccessful so far. Dan (to ask), “You (to expect) to find a job easily? I’m afraid it (not to be) so easy. The economic situation in the country (to change) for the worse this year and many companies (to close up). I (to advise) you to consider some other opportunities.” “What you (to mean)? ” “Take any job you (to find), no matter how little they (to pay).” “I (to think) about it but I (to spend) all my savings and I (not to know) what tomorrow (to have) in store for me.” “All right. If you (not to find) anything else in the near future, I (to think) my father (to offer) you a job in his office.” “I (to appreciate) it.”


XIX. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Вы когда-нибудь были в Англии? – Нет. А вы? – Я был в Англии дважды. Один раз в прошлом году и второй раз в этом году. 2. Я никогда не путешествовала морем. А вы? – Я путешествовала морем несколько раз. В последний раз я плавала на корабле из Одессы в Варну два года тому назад. 3. Он ездил в Москву на этой неделе. – Когда он ездил? – В понедельник. 4. Мы встретили много интересных людей, когда были в отпуске в прошлом году. 5. Я уже купила билеты. 6. Он ведет машину в первый раз. 7. Это самая красивая страна, которую я посетил. 8. Я еще не заказал билеты, но я сделаю это сегодня. 9. Ты видел Джона сегодня? – Нет, сегодня я его не видел, но видел его вчера. 10. Николай прочитал все пьесы Шекспира.


XX. Study the table “The Functions of that”. Translate the sentences, pay attention to the functions of that.

1. I feel that he has told the truth. 2. The territory of the Ukraine is larger than that of Byelorussia. 3. From that window you can see large buildings of the University. 4. The rivers in the western part of our country are not so long as those in the eastern part. 5. She has a feeling that she has forgotten to do something. 6. That day in the middle of August was his last day in Paris. 7. He knew that his father disapproved of his interest in natural history. 8. That man is very proud by nature. 9. Who’s done that? 10. When I’ve finished my work will you remind me of that? 11. The fact that you denied it was unexpected. 12. That art reflects reality is known to everybody. 13. The fact that the environment influences people is no longer disputed. 14. In English there are many words borrowed from the French language. That is a result of the Norman invasion of England.


XXI. Form nouns with the given suffixes. Translate them into Russian:

-er to buy, to sell, to work, to write, to travel, to found, to make

-or to direct, to invent, to translate, to visit

-ment to agree, to develop, to pay, to govern, to achieve, to punish, to equip, to move

-ance (-ence) to depend, to correspond, to guide, to attend, to differ

-tion to emigrate, to liberate, to radiate, to examine, to prepare, to combine, to illustrate, to separate, to exhibit.


XXII. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the underlined words.

1. She finds great enjoyment in music. 2. After a long discussion the delegations came to an agreement. 3. I haven’t enough money today to make the payments. 4. A writer of plays is called a dramatist. 5. A journalist’s profession is called journalism. 6. The laser measurement of distances has become a new method in the exploration of the Earth-Moon system. 7. Lomonosov was not only a talented scientist, but a materialist philosopher as well. 8. K.Tsiolkovsky was a practical inventor who made his own laboratory equipment.


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