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Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Text A. Science and Technology
In recent years life on our planet has been drastically changed due to scientific and technological developments. Our views both of ourselves as individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole have changed as well.
Today, science and technology are closely related. Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.
Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques to make their lives easier.
Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society. Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one estimate, 90 % of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideas, processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount.
The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo, who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water. However, it was not until the 19th century that technology truly was based on science and inventors began to build on the work of scientists.
In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all humankind.
technology, n техника
science and technology наука и техника
developments, n достижения
drastically, adv резко
a view (of smb., smth.), n взгляд (на кого-либо, что-либо)
be closely related быть тесно связанным
apply, v применять
application, n применение
an advance in pure science прогресс в чистой науке
create, v создавать
opportunity, n возможность
an instrument for investigation инструмент исследований
alter, v изменять
throughout human history на всем протяжении истории
narrow, a узкий
sense, n смысл
power-driven machines паровые машины
according to one estimate по одной оценке
increased scientific activity возросшая научная деятельность
discovery, n открытие
build on the work of scientists основываться на научных
I. Form the verbs from the following words. Translate them into Russian:
development, relation, application, knowledge, investigation, discovery, improvement, production, invention.
II. Translate the words of the same root; define what part of speech they belong to:
science – scientist – scientific;
develop – developer – development;
nucleus – nuclei – nuclear;
apply – applied – application;
accurate – accuracy;
invent – inventor – invention;
power – powerful – powerless;
produce – product – production – productive.
III. Match the adjectives and the nouns:
IV. Read the following international words. Guess their meaning. Look them up in the dictionary to make sure you are right:
nouns: technology, planet, individual, principle, instrument, machine,
material, techniques, factory, system, mass, basis, activity,
process, revolution, astronomy, physics, telescope, patent;
adjectives: modern, human, industrial, revolutionary;
verbs: to lift, to patent, to base.
V. Read the text ‘Science and Technology’. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:
наука и техника; достижения науки и техники; резко изменить жизнь; быть тесно связанным; атомная энергия; космический полет; применение научных знаний и принципов; прогресс в чистой науке; создать новые возможности; удовлетворять нужды и потребности; изменить окружающую среду; массовое производство товаров; создать основу; век науки и техники.
VI. Translate the words given in brackets.
1. In recent years our /взгляды/ of the Universe have drastically changed.
2. Modern technology /зависит от/ advances in pure science.
3. Technology provides science with more /точные/ instruments for research.
4. /На всем протяжении истории человечества/ people invented tools, machines, materials and technologies.
5. Modern technology began growth of the factory system and /массового производства товаров/.
6. /Только в 19 веке/ that technology began to build on the work of scientists.
VII. Translate the text ‘Science and Technology’.
VIII. Put questions to the subjects of the sentences. Give short answers.
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