Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии

The Scientists and the Watches

One night, a crazy scientist got involved in a rather silly argument with a fellow scientist. They were arguing about whose watch was the better, the Swiss one or the Japanese one. Being scientists, they decided to do an experiment to test the watches. The first part of the test was to see if both were waterproof. (They were both so convinced of the quality of their watches that they were willing to risk ruining them.)

They went into their laboratory looking very serious. They filled the sink with water, put the watches in, waited impatiently for ten minutes and took them out.

They could see there was some­thing wrong with both watches, but being cautious men of science they observed them for a couple of hours before speaking to each other. The tension was unbearable. They silently realized that the Swiss watch was losing sixty minutes an hour and the Japanese one was 120 minutes slow.

The scientist with the Japanese watch then slowly raised his head and said, " Both watches are now defective but my watch is right more often than yours, so it's better." The scientist with the Swiss watch left the room without saying a word.

Was the man with the Japanese watch right? If so, how?


1. What were they arguing about at the beginning of the story?

2. Why couldn't they go on with the experiment after they took the watches out of the water?

3. What did they do for a couple of hours?

4. What did they realise the Swiss watch was doing?

5. If the Swiss watch was losing sixty minutes in sixty minutes, was it

a. going forwards?.

b. stopped?

c. going backwards?

6. So how often in every 12-hour periods would the Swiss watch show the right time?

a. Once.

b. Twice.

7. How many minutes was the Japanese watch losing every hour?

8. If a watch loses 120 minutes every sixty minutes, is it

a. going forwards?

b. stopped?

c. going backwards?

9. How often in every 12-hour period will the Japanese watch show the correct time?

a. Once.

b. Twice.

10. Was the scientist right when he said, " But my watch is right more often than yours"?

11. Why is this absurd?

From " Challenge to Think"


II. Word Bingo.

Note! Bingo is a popular gambling game played with cards on which numbered

squares are covered as the numbers are called at random.

Look at the list of words given below. Write down any 5 words. The teacher is going to read the definitions of all the words in random order. If you hear the definition of one of the words you have chosen cross it out. The first student to cross all the words he or she has chosen calls out " Bingo" and reads the words to prove his claim:

foot, language, examination, physics, explanation, mathe­matics, traffic, invention, history, nature, achievement, time, steam, coal, tunnel, sandwich, experience, experiment, speed, ac­cident, clay, science, discovery, railway, problem.

III. Solve crossword puzzles.




1. A statement saying that something is true.

2. Very high quality.

3. A person who tells some­body what should be done.

4. A partof anything.

5. Not to pay attention to something.

6. An institution for edu­cating children.

7. Wanting to know or learn about something.

8. We are very tired because our... was very hard.

9. Don't speak so quickly, I don't... you.





1. An American physicist, born in Germany, who studied the behaviour of atoms and formed the theory of relativity.

2. A photocopy made on a special electric copying machine.

3. A person who studies or works in physics.

4. An American inventor whose inventions include the phonograph, electric lighting, and automatic telegraphy.

5. A radioactive element discovered by Marie Curie.

6. A person who invents something new.

7. 1, 000, 000

8. Sherlock Holmes often used the phrase: “_____, my dear Watson”.

9. A famous scientist who discovered the law of gravity.

10. To study or examine by means of a test.



Unit 9


G r a m m a r: 1. Modal verbs and their equivalents 2. Functions of the verbs to be, to have T e x t s: A. British Economy B. C. The Subject of the Science of Economics D. Planning: the Path to Better Results C o n v e r s a t i o n: On Economics


Г р а м м а т и ч е с к и й м а т е р и а л


1. Модальные глаголы и их заменители

(Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents)


be able to


Present Past Future
Can am is able to... are Could was able to... were -   will be able to...


Возможность: могу, умею возможно Разрешение: можно Запрещение: нельзя · I can run very fast. · He can speak French. Can he do sums? · You can get there by bus. · You can come at any time. · Can I have a cup of coffee?   · You can’t cross the street here.


Когда эквивалент модального глагола (can) дублирует уже имеющиеся формы (I can = I am able; He could = He was able), он имеет собственный оттенок значения am / is / are / able to - быть в состоянии, быть способным, were / were able to - смог, сумел, удалось (= manage).



have to

be to



Must have / has to... am / is / are to... - had to... was / were to... - will have to... -


Долг, обязательство Приказ, настоятельный совет: должен Запрещение: нельзя, запрещено · We must study hard. · I must buy some bread. · You must go there at once. · You must see the doctor immediately. · You mustn’t smoke here.


Оттенки значения эквивалентов глагола must:

1. have to - вынужден, придется (в связи с обстоятельствами).

Ann’s eyes are not very good. She has to wear glasses for reading.

Jane was feeling ill last night so she had to leave the party early.


be to - долженствование, связанное с планом, договоренностью.

He is to meet us at the station at 5.

This is Dora. She is to share your room.


2. Для образования вопросительной и отрицательной формы эквивалента have to используются вспомогательные глаголы do / does / did.

Why did you have to go to hospital?

Do you have to get up early on weekends?

Tom doesn’t have to work on Sundays.


3. Mustn’t и don’t have to имеют разные значения:

не должен (просьба, приказ)

You mustn’t tell anyone what I said.


не нужно (отсутствие необходимости)

She stayed in bed this morning because she didn’t have to go to work.



be allowed to


May am is allowed to... are Might was allowed to... were -   will be allowed to...


Разрешение: * можно, разрешается Строгое запрещение: не смей Возможность: (воз)можно · May I come in? Yes, you can (may). No, you can’t (may not). · You may not leave the room until I say so.   · You may often see such faces in the South of Russia.

* В современном разговорном языке в этих случаях чаще используется глагол can (may - более официальная форма).


Спросить разрешения сделать что-либо можно следующим образом:

* Can / Could / May / Might I borrow your umbrella?

Краткий отрицательный ответ на такой вопрос может быть выражен следующим образом:

No, don’t - просьба не делать этого.

No, you may not - запрещение.

No, you must not No, you can not запрещение исходит не от вас, это запрещено правилами, законами и т.п.


Эквивалент модального глагола may (be allowed / permitted to...) используется, когда необходимо подчеркнуть, что разрешение/запрещение исходит от кого-либо:

* You are (not) allowed / permitted to wait here.



Имеет лишь одну форму и выражает моральный долг, обязательство, совет, рекомендацию, порицание: должен, следует, нужно, нужно было бы, следовало бы.


Утвердительное предложение Вопросительное предложение Отрицательное предложение
I He should stay here. We I Should We stay here? He I He shouldn’t stay here. We

Should может употребляться:


С простым инфинитивом, если речь идет о настоящем или будущем времени (о действии вообще). С перфектным инфинитивом, если относится к прошедшему времени и имеет оттенок сожаления, упрека.
  · You should stop smoking. · Tom shouldn’t drive so fast. · Do you think, I should apply for the job?   · The party last night was great. You should have come. Why didn’t you? · It was his birthday yesterday. I should have sent him a birthday card (but I didn’t).




Глагол need употребляется только в форме настоящего времени в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях.

* Need he come here? Ему нужно приходить сюда?

* You needn’t come so early. Вам не нужно приходить так рано.


  Необходимость совершения действия: нужно; есть ли необходимость. Отсутствие необходимости: не надо; нет необходимости. Разрешение не делать что-либо: можно не....   · Need I do it today? · Need I go there at once?   · He needn’t hurry. · You needn’t change your suit. · You needn’t copy your essay. · You needn’t go there today.


Ответы на вопросы с глаголами need и must оформляются следующим образом:


  Need I go there at once? Yes, you must. Да, обязательно.
  No, you needn’t. Нет, не нужно.
  Must I go there at once? Yes, you must. Да, должны
  No, you needn’t. Нет, не нужно.


2. Многофункциональность глаголов to be, to have


to be

1. Самостоятельный глагол со значением быть, находиться.   The book is on the table.
2. Глагол-связка.   He is an engineer.
3. Вспомогательный глагол, употребляющийся для образования: а) Continuous Tenses; б) Passive Voice.       We are translating the text now. I am asked to do this work.
4. Перед инфинитивом имеет функцию модального глагола со значением долженствования.     They are to do this work today.
5. Глагол-связка (перед инфинитивом) со значением состоит в том, чтобы; заключается в том, чтобы; после существительных таких, как task. aim, plan, object.     Our task is to learn the English language.


to have

1. Самостоятельный глагол со значением иметь, обладать.   We have many laboratories at our University.
2. Вспомогательный глагол для образования Perfect Tenses.   He has already translated the text.
3. Перед инфинитивом - модальный глагол со значением долженствования.   We have to do these exercises.








I. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the predicate:


a) with a modal verb.

1. We must use new methods in our research work. 2. You may use this device in your laboratory. 3. This job cannot be done in time. 4. They ought to help their colleagues to solve this important problem. 5. He could not complete his research in time as he worked very slowly. 6. You should turn off the light before you leave the room.


b) with an equivalent of the modal verb.

1. The students were unable to do the work without their teacher’s help. He had to help them. 2. You needn’t take these documents with you. 3. You were to consult the dictionary. 4. He had to work much before he was able to complete his research. 5. You will have to show your research work to your scientific adviser. 6. Nobody was able to understand this mysterious phenomenon. 7. As the student was late he was not allowed to enter the classroom.


II. Substitute the equivalents for modal verbs. Translate the sentences.

1. Electronic machines can add, subtract, multiply and divide much quicker than man. 2. The conference on economic problems in Russia must take place next month. 3. You may use these new devices for your research. 4. With the help of this new design the scientist could develop new methods of solving the problem. 5. The student may not leave the lab if his experiment is not over. 6. Most people must work in order to earn their living.


III. Put a predicate of the following sentences in Past and Future Simple, change the adverbial modifier of time where it is necessary. Translate the sentences.

1. We must study the fundamentals of economics. 2. These students may work at the computer class from 9 to 12 today. 3. She can use different methods in her research work. 4. The students must explain how the economic system works. 5. Economists must study our everyday life.


IV. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the functions of the verbs to be, to have.

1. Studying economics is of great importance for future specialists. 2. Every student is to study economics for some years. 3. The quality of these goods is very high. 4. You will have to do it in time. 5. He was to come there yesterday. 6. The students are not at the auditorium. They are to be at the conference. 7. He had much work to do. He had to work hard to complete it in time. 8. Scientists have developed new methods to solve this problem. They will have to make some reports on it. 9. You want to have a new house. You will have to work hard.


V. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the different ways of expressing obligation.

1. We must explain the work of this system. 2. One should study hard to be a good specialist. 3. This problem is very complex. You have to think it over properly. 4. We ought to say that this phenomenon is worth investigating. 5. We should be prepared for scientific study of management in industry. 6. Laws must serve people. 7. The lecture is to begin at 6 o’clock. We ought to come in time. 8. You were to come to my place yesterday. Why didn’t you do that? 9. He will have to improve his knowledge of English.


VI. Make the sentences a) interrogative; b) negative.

1. Students have to know some facts of the economy in which we live. 2. He had to sit up late with this work. 3. You will have to get up very early tomorrow. 4. He had to come to the office at 5 sharp. 5. She will have to do it once over again. 6. These documents have to be filled in. 7. They had to cover the whole distance on foot. 8. We shall have to speak to him about his participation in the conference.


VII. Translate the sentences.

1. Вы не должны прекращать работу, пока не закончите её. 2. Так как он приготовил всё заранее, ему не нужно делать это теперь. 3. Все слова в тексте были настолько хорошо знакомы, что мне даже незачем было пользоваться словарем. 4. Вам нужно было быть здесь не раньше пяти. 5. Не может быть, чтобы он опоздал. 6. Он не мог прочитать эту книгу так быстро; она трудна для него. 7. Вам следует теперь прочитать специальную литературу по экономике. 8. Вы можете не приносить эту статью сегодня; всё равно её будут печатать только завтра. 9. Возможно, он опоздает. 10. Могу ли я взять твой словарь? 11. Разве я мог подумать, что не попаду на лекцию по экономике Великобритании? 12. Вы, должно быть, все читали эту статью? 13. Мне не пришлось сегодня подготовиться к докладу. Библиотека закрыта. 14. Он, очевидно, не уловил вашей мысли. Вам следовало бы подробно объяснить свою точку зрения.



Text A. British Economy

Britain lives by manufacture and trade. For every person employed in agriculture eleven people are employed in mining, manufacturing and building. The United Kingdom is one of the world’s largest exporters of manufactured goods per head of population.

Apart from coal and iron ore Britain has very few natural resources and mostly depends on imports. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs. The other half and most of the raw materials for its industries such as oil and various metals (copper, zinc, uranium ore and others) have to be imported. Britain also has to import timber, cotton, fruit and farm products.

Britain used to be richly forested, but most of the forests were cut down to make more room for cultivation. The greater part of land is used for cattle and sheep breeding, and pig raising. Among the crops grown on the farms are wheat, barley and oats. The fields are mainly in the eastern part of the country. Most of the farms are small (one third of them is less than one hundred acres). Farms tend to be bigger where the soil is less fertile.

In the past century Britain secured a leading position in the world as manufacturer, merchant and banker. After World War I the world demand for the products of Britain’s traditional industries - textiles, coal and machinery - fell off, and Britain began expanding trade in new engineering products and electrical goods.

The crisis of 1929 - 1933 brought about mass unemployment, which reached its peak in 1932. Britain’s share in the world industrial output decreased. After the crisis production and employment increased following some revival in world trade and as a result of the extensive armament program.

During World War II Britain’s economy was fully employed in the war effort. Massed raids of German planes on British industrial centres caused considerable damage to Britain’s industry. World War II brought about a further weakening of Britain’s might. Great Britain is no longer the leading imperialist power it used to be. It has lost its colonies which used to supply it with cheap raw materials.

Britain produces high quality expensive goods, which has always been characteristic of its industry. A shortage of raw materials, as well as the high cost of production makes it unprofitable for British industry to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. Britain mostly produces articles requiring skilled labour, such as precision instruments, electronic equipment, chemicals and high quality consumer goods. Britain produces and exports cotton and woollen goods, leather goods, and articles made of various kinds of synthetic (man-made) materials.

The original basis of British industry was coal mining, and the early factories grew up not far from the main mining areas. Glasgow and Newcastle became great centres of engineering and shipbuilding. Lancashire produced cotton goods and Yorkshire woollens, with Sheffield concentrating on iron and steel. Birmingham developed light engineering.

There appeared a tendency for industry and population to move to the south, particularly to the London area. (Britain’s industry is now widely dispersed). Great progress was made in the development of new industries, such as the aircraft, automobile, electronic industries and others. A number of atomic power reactors were made. Great emphasis was made on the development of the war industry.




be employed in agriculture (industry, etc.) быть занятым в сельском хозяйстве (промышленности и т.п.)
employ smb. нанимать кого-л.
agriculture сельское хозяйство
mining горнодобывающая промышленность
manufacturing обрабатывающая промышленность
manufactured goods промышленные товары
per head of population на душу населения
apart from smth. помимо, кроме чего-л.
research научно-исследовательская работа, научные исследования
labour-saving machine машина, экономящая труд
in the past few years за последние несколько лет
scientist ученый
plant завод
make a discovery делать открытие
labour productivity производительность труда
do away with smth. покончить с чем-л., ликвидировать что-л.
physics физика
chemistry химия
distribute smth. распределять что-л.
unevenly неравномерно
enterprise предприятие
grain зерно, зерновые культуры


I. Translate the words of the same root; define what part of speech they belong to:

discover - discovery; physics - physicist - physical; chemist - chemical - chemistry; distribute - distributor - distributive - distribution - distributable; even - evenly - unevenly; manufacture - manufacturer - manufacturing; employ - employee - employer - employment; mine - miner - mining; export - exporter - exportation; depend - dependable - dependent - dependence - dependency.


II. Read the following international words. Guess their meaning. Look them up in a dictionary to make sure you are right:

nouns: exporter, import, industry, farm, position, banker, product, program, economy, centre, colony, instrument, chemicals, tendency, reactor;

adjectives: electrical, industrial, imperialist, characteristic, electronic, synthetic, atomic.


III. Read the text British Economy. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:

быть занятым в промышленности, производительность труда, промышленные товары, на душу населения, делать открытие, за последние несколько лет, полезные ископаемые, сырьё, дешевые товары, товары высокого качества, новые отрасли промышленности, квалифицированный труд, ведущая империалистическая держава, судостроительная промышленность, характерная черта.


IV. Translate the text 'British Economy'.


V. Finish the phrases, choosing the necessary words in brackets.

1. Great Britain is rich in... (oil; gold; copper; silver; iron ore; zinc; coal). 2. Great Britain has to import... (coal; agricultural products; electrical goods; chemicals; electronic equipment; oil; various metals; food products; cotton; timber; tobacco; wheat; fruit). 3. When the world demand for the products of Britain's main industries - textiles, coal and machinery - decreased, it began seeking compensation in new engineering products, such as... (cars; atomic power reactors; electrical goods; electronic equipment). 4. It is characteristic of Britain's industry to produce... (semifinished goods; cheap articles; raw materials; high quality expensive goods; articles requiring skilled labour; precision instruments; electronic equipment). 5.The main products of Britain's industry are... (precision instruments; high quality consumer goods; electronic equipment; chemicals; textiles; ready-made clothing; manufactured goods; petrol). 6. A great number of new industries were added to the traditional ones such as... (the aircraft industry; the textile industry; the electronic industry; the shipbuilding industry; the automobile industry; mining; engineering). 7. The main crops grown in Britain are... (flax; cotton; wheat; barley; tobacco; oats). 8. In Britain they breed... (cattle, that is cows and oxen; horses; sheep; pigs; goats; deer; rabbits).


VI. Put the questions, the answers to which are the following sentences.

1. No, it isn’t. Apart from coal and iron ore Great Britain has very few natural resources. 2. It imports raw materials for its industries such as oil and various metals. It also imports agricultural products. 3. It is a shortage of raw materials that makes it unprofitable for British industry to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. 4. It produces articles requiring skilled labour such as precision instruments, transport engineering equipment, electronic equipment, chemicals and high quality consumer goods. 5. It’s widely dispersed, not concentrated in one area. 6. Cattle, sheep and pigs. 7. Wheat, barley and oats. 8. Where the soil is less fertile.


VII. Finish the questions and answer them.

1. Does Great Britain live by agriculture or...? 2. Does Great Britain export raw materials or...? 3. Did the world demand for the products of Britain's main industries after World War I increase or...? 4. Did Britain's share in the world industrial output increase as a result of the crisis of 1929-1933 or...? 5. Does Britain's industry produce high quality goods or...? 6. Is Britain's industry located in one area or...? 7. Is Britain still a mighty colonial power it used to be or has she lost...?


VIII. Put alternative questions and answer them.

1. It does not export raw materials, it imports them. 2. The world demand for the products of Britain's traditional industries has decreased. 3. It's characteristic of British industry to produce high quality expensive goods, not cheap articles. 4. It is not concentrated in one area, it is widely dispersed. 5. Automation is introduced both in heavy and in light industries.


IX. Finish the sentences.

1. Great Britain is rich in... 2. Great Britain has to import... 3. When the world demand for the products of Britain's main industries decreased it began seeking compensation in... 4. The characteristic feature of Britain's industry is production of... 5. The main products of Britain's industry are... 6. Britain's industry is widely dispersed, but it is still possible to point out the following concentrations of industry... 7. A great number of new branches were added to the traditional industries such as...


X. Answer the questions.

1. What natural resources does Great Britain have? 2. What raw materials does Great Britain import? 3. What does Great Britain export? 4. What did the crisis of 1929-1933 bring about? 5. What is the characteristic feature of Britain's industry? 6. Why is it unprofitable for Great Britain to produce semifinished goods or cheap articles? 7. What are the main articles produced by British industry? 8. What are the main industrial centres of Great Britain? 9. What are Britain's main industries? 10. What can you say about Britain's agriculture?


XI. Correct the statements which do not correspond to the reality.

1. Great Britain is an agricultural country. 2. Great Britain is rich in natural resources, such as oil, copper, zinc and others. 3. Great Britain exports raw materials to other countries. 4. After World War I the world demand for the products of Britain's main industries - textiles, coal and machinery - increased greatly. 5. As a result of the crisis of 1929-1933 Britain's share in the world industrial output became greater. 6. The crisis of 1929-1933 brought about mass unemployment. 7. When World War II came to an end, the USA found itself dependent, financially and economically, on Great Britain. 8. Very few people are employed in the mining and manufacturing industries in Great Britain. 9. Britain's industry produces mostly very cheap low quality goods. 10. A shortage of raw materials makes it profitable for Great Britain to produce semifinished goods and cheap articles. 11. No emphasis is made on the development of war industry. 12. Britain's industry is concentrated in one area. 13. All Britain's industries and services have been nationalised.


XII. Make up the plan of the text 'British Economy'. Retell the text according to your plan.


XIII. Translate into English in written form.

Экономика Великобритании


Великобритания - крупная капиталистическая страна. Она имеет высокоразвитую промышленность. Большая часть её населения занята в промышленности, и только небольшая часть - около 8 % населения - занимается сельским хозяйством.

В Великобритании не много полезных ископаемых. Она богата лишь углем и железной рудой, поэтому ей приходится ввозить сырьё из других стран. Недостаток сырья делает невыгодным для промышленности Англии производство полуфабрикатов и дешевых товаров. Характерной чертой Британской промышленности является производство товаров высокого качества, требующих квалифицированного труда.

Традиционными отраслями английской промышленности являются машиностроение, текстильная, судостроительная и угольная промышленность. Однако после первой мировой войны спрос на продукцию традиционных отраслей промышленности сократился, и Великобритания начала развивать новые отрасли промышленности, такие как химическая, авиационная и др.

Великобритания больше не является ведущей империалистической державой, какой она когда-то была. Она потеряла свои колонии, которые снабжали её дешевым сырьем.


Text B

Most people work in order to earn their living. They produce goods and services. Goods are either produced on farms, like maize and milk, or in factories, like cars and paper. Services are provided by such things as schools, hospitals and shops. Some people provide goods; some provide services. Other people provide both goods and services. For example, in the same garage, a man may buy a car, or he may buy some service which helps him to maintain his car. The work which people do is called their economic activity. Economic activities make up the economic system. The economic system is the sum-total of what people do and what they want. An educated man has to study the economic system and economics which affect our lives. Economics is a science. It is based upon the facts of our everyday lives. Economists study our everyday lives and try to describe the facts of the economy in which we live. They try to explain how the system works and their methods should be objective and scientific. We need food, clothes and shelter. If we could get food, clothes and shelter without working, we probably would not work. But even when we have these essential things, we may want other things. If we had them, these other things (like radios, books and toys for children) might make life more enjoyable. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs and wants. It is not just concerned with basic needs and wants like food, clothes and shelter.


I. Translate the words of the same root. Define speech parts.

economic - economics - economist - economy - economical - economically.


II. Fill in the blanks with one of the words given in exercise I. Translate the sentences.

1. Adam Smith and Keynes are two famous.... 2. These people are studying the science of.... 3. We sometimes call a person’s work his... activity. 4. People should be very... with the money they earn. 5. The economic system of a country is usually called the national....6. The people in that town live very....


III. Study the different meanings of the word order.

Order: - way in which things are placed in relation to one another - порядок;

- condition in which everything is carefully arranged - режим;

- command - приказ;

- request to supply goods - заказ;

- purpose, intention:

in order to - для того, чтобы;

in order that - с целью;

- rank or class of society - орден.


Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the word order:

1. The order of baronets sounds archaic nowadays. 2. The device has been operating in the working order since its construction. 3. The words in the dictionary are always placed in the alphabetic order. 4. The boss said we should obey his orders. 5. Economists study our lives in order to understand the general economic system. 6. All the goods on this order have been packed.


IV. In each of these sentences a word is missing. Provide a word from the list below and translate the sentences.

1. Transport systems like railways, buses and planes provide the public with important.... 2. They told him to look at the... and then do the exercises. 3. He decided to... the work in order to make some.... 4. It was... for him to go to the city as soon as possible. 5. They had enough... to buy most of the... they needed.

Prompts: commodities, money, essential, services, example, undertake.


V. Read Text B without a dictionary. Find the sentences with modal verbs. Translate them.


VI. Translate Text B.

VII. Say, whether these statements are true or false, and if they are false say why.

1. Most people produce only goods. 2. Services are provided by such things as schools, hospitals and shops. 3. Economic activities make up the economic system. 4. The economic system is the part of what people do and what they want. 5. Economists study only our individual lives. 6. They try to describe the facts and explain how the system works. 7. We need only food, shelter and clothes. 8. The science of economics is concerned only with our basic needs.


VIII. Group work. Suggest a few headlines to Text B and discuss them with your fellow students. Choose the best one.


IX. Most people work in order to earn their living, and they produce goods and services. This fact can be shown as a diagram:


Most people produce

goods or services


The things which people produce are called their products. So the diagram can be drawn as:



goods services


Below there are 20 kinds of people. Ten of them produce goods; ten produce services. Make a diagram like this one and list the people under goods and services.


  cattle-breeder pilot shoemaker horse-breeder builder coal miner teacher steelworker shopkeeper electrician musician doctor nurse cook policeman farmer banker fruit-grower fisherman miner



Text C. The Subject of the Science of Economics

The science of economics is based upon the facts of our everyday lives. Economists study our everyday lives and the general life of our communities in order to understand the whole economic system of which we are the part. They try to describe the facts of the economy in which we live, and to explain how it works. The economist’s methods should of course be strictly objective and scientific.

We need food, clothes and shelter. We probably would not go to work if we could satisfy these basic needs without working. But even when we have satisfied such basic needs, we may still want other things. Our lives might be more enjoyable if we had such things as radios, books and toys for the children. Human beings certainly have a wide and very complex range of wants. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs: it is concerned with the desire to have a radio as well as the basic necessity of having enough food to eat.


I. Read Text C and say what basic needs and what non-essential wants are mentioned in the text. Put them down in the chart.

Basic needs Non-essential wants
1...... 2...... 3...... 1...... 2...... 3......


II. Speak on the science of economics. The questions below will help you:

1. What is the subject of the science of economics? 2. What methods do the economists use? 3. What needs and wants is the science of economics concerned with?


Text D. Planning: the Path to Better Results

Planning is the most important guide to starting, building and managing a successful business. All business owners must plan. Planning is a future-oriented activity. It makes your future what you want it to be. Planning produces benefits that are essential to effective business. It is the best tool available to help a small business raise money. A business plan is a communications tool for investors, suppliers, employees and others interested in understanding the operations and goals of your business. There are some obstacles that hinder planning, including lack of know-how, fear of the unknown, inexactness. A business plan describes what a business does, how it will be done, who has to do it, where it will be done, why it’s being done and when it has to be completed. A typical business plan contains the following elements: business description, products and services, sales and marketing, operating requirements, financial management, concluding narrative. Your business plan should be complete, clear, neat and accurate. It will be an extension of you and your business. What many managers fail to recognize is that planning is a good investment. If you don’t plan for the success of your business… you will fail. It is that simple!


I. Translate Text D with a dictionary in written form.

II. Retell the text.




On Economics


I. Find in the text international words. Write them out. Translate them. Consult the dictionary if it is necessary.


Text. US Economy

The United States is rich in natural resources, the main being iron ore, coal and oil. The nation produces more than 100 million tons of iron a year. Four fifths of the ore mined in the USA comes from the Great Lakes region. Though a great deal of the ore has been used up, its resources have not been exhausted. Most of the coal mined in the USA is used by power plants to produce electricity. Coal is also used in the chemical industries for the manufacture of plastics and other synthetics. The production, processing and marketing of such oil products as petrol (called «gasoline» or «gas» in the USA) make up one of America's largest industries.

The basic metals and minerals mined in the United States are zinc, copper and silver.

Some of the main crops grown in the USA are wheat, maize, cotton, tobacco and fruit.

Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important branch of America's agriculture.

To make the farmer's work more productive scientific methods of farming are employed and modern technique of freezing, canning and packaging farm products is used.

The United States is a highly industrialized country with various branches of heavy industry prevailing, namely, the mining, metallurgical, automobile and chemical industries as well as engineering. Many branches of light industry are also developed, among them are the textile, food and wood-working industries.

A great deal of attention in American industry is devoted to re­search and emphasis is made on the use of labour-saving machines. In the past few years the number of workers has increased only a few per cent, while the number of scientists and engineers in the plants has almost doubled.

Mechanisation and automation do away with thousands of office jobs, intensify production and increase labour productivity. But they also bring about a further growth of unemployment.

New industries are created as new discoveries are made in physics, chemistry and other sciences. Atomic energy, for example, has created a wide range of new industries. Electronics has become a major industry.

Throughout American industry great emphasis is being made on management training. A great number of schools are training young people to become industrial leaders.

American industry is distributed unevenly. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the eastern part of the country. But industry is spreading out as there is a tendency to build factories far removed from the home plant and closer to natural resources and markets. Good transportation facilities and rapid communications systems make it possible for the main plants to keep in touch with branch factories.

The leading US exports are industrial machinery, electronic equipment, textiles, grain, iron, coal, oil products and chemicals.


II. Finish phrases, using the necessary word combinations or sentences.

1....is rich in... (coal; oil; iron ore; gold; zinc; copper; uranium ore; water resources). 2. The greater part of the population is employed in... (fishing; hunting; heavy industry; light industry; agriculture; the manufacturing industry; trade). 3. Industry is... (concentrated in one area; widely dispersed; distributed unevenly; concentrated in several industrial regions). 4. The main industries are... (the metallurgical industry; the chemical industry; the electronic industry; the textile industry; the automobile industry; the wood-working industry; the food industry; the shipbuilding industry; the mining industry; the war industry). 5. Great emphasis is made on... (the development of industry; the development of agriculture; research; management training; employing scientific methods in farming). 6. In the past few years... (new industries have been created; automation has been introduced at most factories and plants; labour productivity has increased greatly; industrial output has decreased). 7. As a resultof mechanisation and automation... (many workers lost their jobs; labour productivity increased greatly; the standard of living was raised considerably). 8....trades with...(the neighbouring countries; many countries; a great number of countries all over the world). 9. The main exports (imports) are... (grain; fruit; fish; wines; tobacco; electronic equipment; electrical goods; chemicals; cars; machines; weapons; raw materials; consumer goods; manufactured goods).


III. Complete the sentences.


1.... is rich in... 2. The greater part of the population is employed in... 3. Its industry is... 4. The main branches of industry are... 5. Great emphasis is made on... 6. In the past few years... 7. As a result of automation... 8.... trades with... 9. The main exports are... 10. The main imports are...


IV. Render the following text in English.


Экономика США

США богаты полезными ископаемыми. Основными полезными ископаемыми являются железная руда, уголь и нефть. США имеют высокоразвитую промышленность. Основные отрасли ее тяжелой промышленности — металлургическая, горнодобывающая, маши­ностроительная, автомобильная, химическая и военная. Многие отрасли легкой промышленности, такие, например, как химичес­кая, текстильная и пищевая, также высоко развиты.

Большое внимание в США уделяется научно-исследовательской работе. За последние годы значительно возросло число ученых и инженеров, тогда как число рабочих возросло лишь на несколько процентов. Большое внимание уделяется также подготовке руко­водящих кадров.

Американская промышленность распределена неравномерно. Большая часть промышленных предприятий сосредоточена в вос­точной части страны. Однако имеется тенденция строить заводы и фабрики вдали от крупных промышленных центров, ближе к источникам сырья и рынкам.

США ведут торговлю со многими странами. Ведущими статьями экспорта являются электронное оборудование, изделия химической промышленности, текстиль, железо, уголь, нефтепродукты, зерно и другие товары.

Одной из ведущих отраслей американской промышленности является военная промышленность.


V. Speak about the economy of Great Britain, USA or any other country. Use the offered scheme.

1....is rich (poor) in natural resources. 2. It imports (exports)... from (to)... 3. It is a highly industrialised country. (It is an agricultural country.) 4. Its industry is located... 5. Nearly (Over)... workers are employed in manufacturing work. 6. Special emphasis is being placed on the development of such industries as... 7. In recent years new branches have been added to the traditional industries of the country, such as.... 8. It is (not) profitable for the country to produce... because it has a lot of (very few) raw materials. 9. Great attention is also paid to the development of... 10. The country's share in the world industrial output has (greatly) increased (decreased) in the past few years. 11. It trades with... 12. The main articles of its import (export) are... 13. The demand for its products is (great; increasing with every passing year; decreasing). 14. It is very profitable for... to trade with... 15. The main crops grown in the country are....


VI. Answer the questions about the economy of the country you are interested in.

1. Is... rich in natural resources? What are its main natural resources? 2. Does it import raw materials from other countries? What raw materials does it import? From what countries? 3. What are its main industries? Where are the main industrial centres located? 4. Is it profitable for the country to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles? Why is it (not)...? 5. Are many workers employed in manufacturing? How many...? 6. Does... trade with other countries? What countries...? 7. Does it depend financially and economically on any other country? 8. Is the policy of its government influenced by any other country? By which country...? 9. What is being done to intensify production and increase labour productivity? 10. What is being done to make the farmer's work more productive? 11. How is management training organised?


VII. Your friend has just come from the country you are interested in. Question him about the economical situation of this country.




Read the following dialogues. Reproduce them in pairs.


Talking Business


" I should like to speak to Mr. Grey."

" Have you an appointment? "

" No. But here is my card."



" Good morning, Mr. Grey. What can 1 do for you? "

" I've got a proposal to make. I think you know our firm."

" Yes, I do, but I've never had the pleasure of doing any business with you."

" Our firm has a great distributing business with branches in several countries. We suggest that you should act as our agents and handle ourbusiness in this country."

" What aboutthe terms of payment and other conditions? "

" We propose to allow you 2.5% (two and a half per cent) commission on all business transacted."

" I think it would suit us, but I've got to consult my partners first."




" We wish to inform you, Mr. Brown, that we are ready to give you technical assistance in the construction of the project."

" I am glad to hear it. Let's discuss the terms in detail."



" We've reached agreement on the main points: the cost of equipment, the terms of payment and the terms of delivery."

" Well, let's consider the matter settled."



" We have carefully studied your draft contract and we believe the terms could be acceptable. Only we'd like to clear up some points."

" What particular points would you like to clear up? "

" The main point is the price of the equipment. It seems too high. Could you make it lower? "

" My partners and I will look into the matter again and in a couple of days we'll be ready to resume our discussions."



" You have received our claim, haven't you? You are responsible for the delay in commissioning the plant."

" I think I've got to give you some explanation. The matter is that you failed to deliver the right material in time and that delayed us for several days, so we decline your claim."




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