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Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.




UNIT II. THE PASSIVE VOICE

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1) The article has been published. 2) When he entered the laboratory a new device was being tested. 3) The discovery was made by the team of our laboratory. 4) No attempts have been made to list all the contributions in which different procedures have been developed and later used. 5) The data is being collected and studied now. 6) The article had been translated by the time the chief of the laboratory came back. 7) The candidate thesis is submitted. 8) More evidence will be obtained to support the idea. 9) When he returned to the university an interesting experiment was being made. 10) The report has been listened to with great attention.

Exercise 2. Find the corresponding idea in the right-hand column.

ACTIVE PASSIVE
They often translate English texts. The experiment was made yesterday.
They are doing their homework. It has already been done.
They made the experiment yesterday. The test had been finished when the teacher came.
They were doing it from 5 till 7 o’clock yesterday. The apple pie will have been baked by 2 o’clock in the afternoon.
They have already done it. English texts are often translated.
They will repair the device tomorrow. The homework is being done now.
They will have baked the apple pie by 2 o’clock in the afternoon. It was being done from 5 till 7 o’clock yesterday.
They had finished the test when the teacher came. The device will be repaired tomorrow.

Exercise 3. Identify the passive structures followed by a pre­position and give Russian equivalents of the following sentences.

l) This method has been referred to in an earlier paper. 2) I do not think this instrument can be relied upon. 3) The data cannot be accounted for by the existing theory. 4) At the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant was sent for by the lecturer. 5) The invention was spoken of at the meeting of our stuff. 6) He is a good specialist; his advice can always be relied on. 7)The report is very interesting; the speaker is being listened to with great attention. 8) The latest research is much spoken about. 9) Some aspects of the foregoing topics are dealt with in the next chapter. 10) The prolongation of life may be thought of as a feat of endurance rather than a race against time. 11) The best of treatment was generally agreed upon.

Exercise 4. Make the sentences passive. Use by... only if it is necessary to say who does / did the action. The first sentence is done for you as an example:

Shakespeare wrote "Hamlet". - "Hamlet" was written by Shakespeare.

1) People are using computers in all kinds of work. 2) My supervisor gave me a new task. 3) They are repairing your car now. 4) People in Chile speak Spanish. 5) They listen carefully to his advice. 6) Electricity drives this car. 7) Somebody will tell you where to go. 8) This monograph touches upon the problem of vital importance. 9) They granted her leave in September. 10) The Chinese invented gunpowder. 11) They don’t sell stamps in bookshops. 12) The directors are still considering your application.

Exercise 5. Small group work. List as many activities as you can in five minutes that are being done within a kilometre of the classroom. Which group has the most ideas?

Example: Cars are being driven.

Exercise 6. Election campaign. You are preparing part of the candidate’s campaign for election to a post in the local government. What sort of things should your candidate promise in order to gain votes: what should he or she undertake?

For example: A new school will be built.

Work in small groups and work out a program of what will be done, each group for a different candidate, and write it out. Then one member of your group as ‘the candidate’ should present the program. You can help them while they are doing that! Finally, one of the candidates will be elected in a democratic election!

Exercise 7. Write down five things that are normally done by men, five things that are normally done by women, and five that are normally done equally by both. Share your ideas: do you agree with each other? Discuss whether these things can/might/should be done by a member of the opposite sex - and what will happen if they are.

Exercise 8. Transform the sentences to the passive:

1) They asked him to show the first-year students the new equipment of the laboratory.

2) They use this term in many specialities.

3) When the professor entered the lab, the new lab assistant greeted him.

4) Someone was adjusting the equipment while I was there.

5) They have invited her to the conference.

6) She will send her paper to the Organizing committee of the conference.

7) Have you changed anything?

8) How soon will they submit the paper?

9) Have they tested all the machines?

Exercise 9. Put in the words in the correct form of the passive.

I) At the conference the speaker (to ask) a lot of questions. 2) We (to tell) about the discovery. 3) Unfortunately he (not/to offer) any help. 4) They (to give) all the necessary information. 5) The laboratory (to promise) financial support. 6) He already (to sign) his papers. 7) Next week you (to send) to Moscow on business. 8) The team of the laboratory (to give) a dif­ficult problem to solve. 9) The new lab assistant (to teach) to use modern equipment by the chief of the laboratory now. 10) I am sure that his work (to complete) by the end of the month. 11) I can’t show you my written work as it (not/to return) by my teacher. 12) The question which (to discuss) now at the conference is very important.

Exercise 10. Practice orally by using impersonal passive structures as shown in the model.

Model: We have found that... - It has been found that...

1) I must admit that... 2) He has found that... 3) Everybody accepts that... 4) I believe that... 5) The author hopes that... 6) Scientists sometimes say that... 7) Most people assume that... 8) Physicists recognize nowadays that...

Now finish those sentences with ideas of your own.

Exercise 11. Translate into English.

1) Не входите! Там идет эксперимент. 2) Эти документы только что подписаны директором. 3) Когда вы позвонили, эксперимент был завершен. 4) На эту статью часто ссылаются. 5) На него можно положиться. 6) Я уверен, его будут слушать с большим вниманием. 7) Вопрос будет рассматриваться в следующей главе. 8) O его проекте много говорят. 9) В настоящее время предприняты многочисленные попытки усовершенствовать эту конструкцию. 10) За экспериментальной работой последовало теоретическое обоснование полученных данных. 11) Считают, что эксперимент будет завершен к первому марта. 12) Ученого попросили изложить свою точку зрения относительно этой гипотезы. 13) За докладом последовала бурная дискуссия. 14) Предполагается, что полученные расчетные данные были проверены экспериментально.

 

UNIT III. The Sequence of Tenses

Exercise 2. Translate from Russian into English.

l) Вчера сообщили, что конференция состоится в мае этого года. 2) Он не знал, откуда она это получила. 3) Нам сказали, что большое внимание будет уделено проблеме потребления топлива. 4) Никто не мог поверить, что этот молодой человек изобрел машину. 5) Все знали, что у него много публикаций по теме диссертации. 6) На кафедре было решено, что аспирант выполнил свой план. 7) Он сказал, что, несмотря на трудности, эксперимент проводится. 8) Ученый сообщил, что новый научный метод был разработан сотрудниками его лаборатории. 9) Докладчик отметил, что преимущества и недостатки нового метода будут еще уточняться. 10) Не было сомнений в том, что в ходе дальнейшей научной разработки необходимо использовать новые компьютерные программы. 12) Он был уверен, что никогда не поздно учиться.

 

UNIT IV. MODAL VERBS

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences using can, could, may, might (positive or negative)

1) Now people … travel a lot around the world.

2) He told me he ... earn his living since he was 16.

3) It … be a nice day tomorrow.

1) You … see the Great Wall of China from space.

2) I don’t believe computers … think.

3) He … understand the article, as he didn’t know many of the new words.

4) … this story be true?

5) You ... speak on the phone during the exam.

6) He … be French but I am not sure.

10) No one … enter the laboratory when the test is going on.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with can/could or be able to.

1) I … speak Spanish really well when I lived in Madrid.

2) The fire spread through the building quickly but everyone ... escape.

3) He … play the piano very well when he was a child.

4) It was difficult but they … find a new approach.

5) … you read when you were four?

6) I can’t understand Martin. I’ve never … understand him.

7) He ... repair the new equipment but it took him a long time.

8) My grandmother … speak four languages

9) Tom … drive, but he hasn’t got a car.

10)Ask Ann about your problem. She should … help you.

Exercise 3.To ask for permission to do something you can say:

Can I have...? / Could I have... ? / May I have... ?

UNIT II. THE PASSIVE VOICE

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1) The article has been published. 2) When he entered the laboratory a new device was being tested. 3) The discovery was made by the team of our laboratory. 4) No attempts have been made to list all the contributions in which different procedures have been developed and later used. 5) The data is being collected and studied now. 6) The article had been translated by the time the chief of the laboratory came back. 7) The candidate thesis is submitted. 8) More evidence will be obtained to support the idea. 9) When he returned to the university an interesting experiment was being made. 10) The report has been listened to with great attention.





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