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Text 4. Society and loneliness

Is it possible that a person may feel lonely and forgotten when surrounded by hundreds and thousands of people? The answer is often a positive one. Society is not only a thing we cannot do without, for some people it stands for an unending toil of hardships and sorrows. Some scientists say that the more developed society gets, the less secure some people feel in it.

One of the main functions of any society is to impose social demands on people. It is scientifically acknowledged that one of the objective factors that may lead to mental illness for some people relates to the demands of society. We are often forced to behave in certain ways, to be up to some standards that we care little for the people who feel insecure and have little control over their behavior. Sometimes it is a real dilemma. Some people find the demands unbearable and rebel fiercely against them, others think it is better to conform.

No wonder that the number of the so-called runaways (children who flee from their home for different reasons) is steadily rising. Bulling at school, diminishing parental control, drugs, the impact of mass media only contribute to this problem. Some kids react violently to it.

Society includes our friends, family and other groups we belong to. Within these smaller groups there exist similar problems and similar demands. People who are more liable to mental problems find it difficult to be up to these standards, requirements. They fail to compete with others and eventually it leads them to an inferiority complex. They often lose their self-esteem as well and felling of inadequacy prevent them from communicating with people and making their way in life.

Text 5. Stress and conflicts at a workplace

Today many office workers in Europe suffer from mental problems in their work-places. Scientists say it is a stress, because we live in the century of stress, the stress is around us, it controls our lives, does not let us work and provokes scandals and quarrels between family members.

Snapping at colleagues, biting fingernails, kicking out at the coffee machine when it refuses to work- these are the tell-tale signs that a worker is under stress. And these days, as the stress levels increase, many companies have to devise ways of reducing them. They have to resort to such remedies as stress management training that teaches medication and relaxation techniques; and some large companies even provide aromatherapy as the solution of the problem. But what is at the grass roots of the stress?

Workers at offices and large companies have to work longer hours, stay in office late and everybody is in constant fear of losing his or her job. Many specialists say that stress can easily destroy the quality of life for people, their families and society. One of the factors that lead to stress is computerization and that fact that today workers must learn and know more than years ago.

Many companies, who conducted a few experiments to find what the effect of the stress on workers lives and health is, came to a conclusion that the main factor that causes mental anguish and mental disorders is " too much information". People have to work with letters, telephone, fax, e- mail, Internet and they cannot get rest at home, thus an excess of information may cause even physical illness.

But many specialists say there is one thing that can help you to fight the stress-you must laugh, be optimistic. It is better than to take a medicine. Laughing cures stress, it pumps adrenaline and endorphins into the bloodstream. It reduces muscular tension, improves breathing and regulates the heartbeat.


III.II. Юриспруденция

III.II.I. Лексический материал

Words and Word Combinations

Criminal case Уголовное дело
Civil case Гражданское дело
Influence on the law Влияние на право
The apex of legal codification Вершина правовой кодификации
Provide a new code of law Предоставить новый свод законов
To put the laws into writing Излагать законы в письменном виде
Prior to Roman Law До Римского права
To pass (reject) a bill Принять (отклонить) законопроект
To put in charge Представить на рассмотрение
To take a vote Провести голосование
In effect В действительности
To appoint government heads and federal judges Назначать глав ведомств и федеральных судей
To guarantee legal procedures and rights Гарантировать правовые процедуры и гражданские права
To negotiate a treaty Вести переговоры о заключении договора
To remove from office Снимать с поста
Republican form of government Республиканская форма правления
Resignation of the government Отставка правительства
To suspend the activity of an act Приостановить действие закона
To introduce a state of emergency Вводить чрезвычайное положение
Universal suffrage Всеобщее избирательное право
The Federal Assembly Федеральное собрание
Supreme body Верховная власть
The Accounting Chamber Счетная палата
The Security Council Совет Безопасности
The Deputy Chairman Помощник председателя
The Prosecutor General Генеральный прокурор


III.II.II. Тексты.

The Ancient Systems of Law

The oldest codes of law from anywhere in the world is that of Ur-Nammu, the Summerian king who lived in the 21st century B.C. The next known is again in Sumerian; it was promulgated under Lipit-Ishtar (about 1850—1840 B.C.), the ruler of Isin. All of these codes date from before Hammurapi. As we have noted, he was not the first ruler of Mesopotamia to issue a collection of laws; but his code was so far ahead of anything previously attempted that we must regard it as the apex of legal codification prior to Roman Law. In fact, Hammurapi's Code is the best mirror of Mesopotamian society. Hammurapi ordered to cave this code into a great stone stele. This stele was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk and every citizen could read it. After the fall of Babylon in the 16th century B.C. the stele was lost for centuries and lay buried until French archaeologists unearthed it in 1901—1902. It is now in the Louvre museum in Paris. Hammurapi's Code is carefully arranged laws aiming at regulating society in clear language. It covered crime, divorce and marriage, slaveholding, theft and property ownership and even kidnapping.

Another ancient code is the code of Hebrew Law contained in the Book of Exodus in the Bible.

In Greece each city state had its own law, some laws were common to many states. In the seventh century B.C. the Greeks began to put their laws into writing. About 594 B.C. Solon, the famous Athenian lawgiver, provided a new code of law. He was not without some experience in matters of law

and justice before he was chosen as lawgiver. The judicial reforms of Solon, which secured a minimum of popular participation in the administration of justice and laid the foundation of democracy, are among the most important in Athenian history. The Athenians did not consider it necessary to have legal experts for non-criminal cases. In a civil case the verdict was given by a jury, which might number anything from 201 to 2, 500. The members of the jury listened to speeches made by persons who had brought the case before them, and by their friends. Barristers did not participate in court proceedings, but professional speech-writers sometimes prepared speeches.

Roman Law is one of the greatest systems that has ever existed. It was based upon custom, and by A.D. 528 the quantity of Roman Law had become so immense that the Emperor Justinian in Constantinople ordered to make a clear, systematic code of all the laws. Roman Law had a deep influence upon the law of the world. It had a strong influence on the law of most European countries and some influence on Anglo-Saxon law, which is the other great law system of the world. After many years Roman Law reappeared in the eleventh century, when there was a great revival of learning. Many European countries began to use Roman Law in their courts. Notes

Hebrew Law [ 'hibru: ] – древнееврейское право

Book of Exodus [ 'eksadas ] – Исход (2-я книга ветхого Завета)

B.C. (Before Christ) – до нашей эры

A.D. (Anno Domini) – нашей эры



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