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VIII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HOUSE




 

aboveнад, выше addдобавлять ancientдревний arch арка cave пещера columnколонна coneконус enemyвраг history история hut хижина leafлист lime известь lookвыглядеть rain дождь simple простой slab плита snowснег weatherпогода wild дикий activityдеятельность admire восхищаться decorateукрашать destroy разрушать differ различаться dry сухой, сушить dwellingжилище imitateимитировать individualотдельный limestone известняк place укладывать poleстолб, шест precastсборный roof крыша, кровля skin шкура, кожа slantingнаклонный soonскоро, вскоре thickтолстый, густой together вместе advantageпреимущество age век, столетие, возраст anythingчто-нибудь, все be in advance опередить both … and как … так и chimney труба, дымоход finish отделка, отделывать holeдыра, отверстие, яма in turn в свою очередь institution учреждение kindвид, сорт, разновидность originalпервоначальный play a roleиграть роль primitiveпервобытный publicобщественный put up воздвигать, строить rafterстропило, балка shelter укрытие, укрывать tieскреплять, связывать
advanceпрогресс, развиваться courtyardвнутренний двор coverпокрытие, покрывать earthenэемляной, глиняный precast concrete сборный бетон shallowнеглубокий, мелкий techniqueтехника, технология at hand находящийся под рукой greatlyвесьма, значительно, очень in advance заранее, предварительно originate from происходить, брать начало rock камень, скала, горная порода shapeформа, очертание, придавать форму structure сооружение, здание, строение
thus так, таким образом constructionстроение, зданиe; строительство
 
         

Most of the time of a modern man is spent within the walls of some buildings. Houses are built for dwelling; large buildings are constructed for individual purposes; theatres, museums, public and scientific institutions are built for cultural activities of the people. The purposes of modern buildings differ widely, but all of them originate from the efforts of primitive men to protect themselves from stormy weather, wild animals and human enemies.

The people of the Old Stone Age had to find some warm and dry place to shelter from bad weather. They chose caves, dwelling places that storm and cold could not destroy. Later caves were imitated in stone structures, trees were taken as a model for huts built of branches. Primitive stone structures, huts and tents are the earliest types of human dwellings.

Man has always been a builder. The kind of house he built depended upon the climate and upon the building materials at hand. The most ancient homes on the territory of Rus were earthen houses. They consisted of a shallow hole of oval shape. The floor was covered with limestone slabs. The roof was conical and stood on poles covered by branches or animal skins.

The first houses in many parts of the world were made of wood. Men tied together the tops of several trees and covered them with the skins of animals or with leaves and grass. A hut was the first house of primitive people. In other regions the most convenient building material was stone. Men began building houses out of stone long ago.

The first kind of house in Britain was a simple one-room building of stone or wood, according to the materials the people could obtain. They were used about four thousand years ago. The people who lived in them were greatly in advance of the primitive men who used rock shelters. The walls of such houses were very thick, and the roof was made of whalebone rafters covered with skins, with a hole in the middle as a chimney. Those houses were plastered. A plastered house is warmer and looks nicer. There were no windows in such houses and the light came in through the hole in the roof. When it rained they covered the hole and opened the door.

The ancient houses of which anything is known are those of ancient Egypt. The Egyptians built very simple houses by present standards. They were built of bricks dried in the sun. Having dried the bricks², they put up four walls, and above these they placed a flat roof. The roof was flat because there was very little rain in Egypt. Some of them were built around a courtyard or garden with rooms opening into it. Their buildings were simple in construction but very beautiful. We still admire their monuments, pyramids, sphinxes and palaces. An important part in the history of building has been played by the column and ancient Egypt gave the world the lessons in the art of making columns. The Greeks learned much from Egypt. But they built a slanting roof because there was much rain in their country. They also improved on Egypt's column and soon became the teachers of the world in column making. In Rome bricks were used for building and houses were often finished with plaster over bricks on both inside and outside walls. The Romans, in turn, learned much from the Greeks. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings.

A very advanced construction technique¹ today is the use of precast concrete. It has many advantages over other building materials. Precast building units can be assembled at the site, the main part of the work is done at the factory. The precast concrete technique plays a great role in building.

Notes: whaleboneкитовый ус передовая технология строительства

IX. FROM THE HISTORY OF HUMAN DWELLINGS

 

beamбалка briefкраткий cheap дешевый clayглина domeкупол easeлегкость fewмало forтак как ironжелезо marbleмрамор size размер seldomредко shellоболочка steelсталь templeхрам unionсоюз vaultсвод accurateточный abound изобиловать absenceотсутствие abundanceизобилие attentionвнимание due to благодаря entireвесь, целый excellentотличный factor коэффициент fireplace камин look for искать onlyединственный protectionзащита recent недавний roundкруглый skeletonкаркас thereforeпоэтому availableимеющийся в наличии because потому что, так как catch – caught – caught ловить cloudyоблачный, туманный flow (down)течь, протекать fortunateудачный, благоприятный inherentприсущий, неотъемлемый introductionвведение, внедрение largelyв значительной степени list список, вносить в список perfect ['pə:fikt] совершенный perfect [pə'fekt] совершенствовать pointed arch остроконечная арка prehistoricдоисторический presenceналичие, присутствие schemeсхема, проект, план throughout the world во всем мире
convenienceудобство durabilityдолговечность generalобщий, обычный influenceвлиять, влияние interrelate взаимосвязывать note отмечать, замечать possessиметь, обладать pozzuolana пуццолана steepкрутой, отвесный strong прочный, сильный timberлесоматериал be due to быть вызванным, быть обусловленным characteristicхарактерная черта, особенность come into beingвозникать, появляться entirelyвсецело, полностью, совершенно featureхарактерная черта, особенность framework рама, каркас, рамная конструкция neglectпренебрегать, не обращать внимание obtainableдоступный, достижимый scarcity ['skεəsiti] нехватка, недостаток shell construction оболочечная конструкция untilдо, до тех пор, (до тех пор) пока (не)
meltплавиться, таять mixсмесь, смешивать result in кончаться, приводить к, иметь результатом span пролет, расстояние между опорами, перекрывать
 
         

Architecture is the art and science of building. Nearly 2000 years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius listed 3 basic factors in architecture - convenience, strength and beauty. These three factors are always present and interrelated in the best structures.



In prehistoric times men looked for protection under the branches of trees. The people of the Old Stone Age had to find some warm and dry place to shelter from bad weather. They chose caves. When man began to build a home for himself, caves were imitated in stone structures, trees were taken as a model for huts built of branches. From these beginnings was developed the column and beam method of construction. For many centuries the column and beam was the only generally employed method of stone construction.

Most of the world's great architecture¹ is in stone, because until recently this was the material used in practically all the buildings. But to say that the history of architecture is embraced entirely in stone structures is not accurate, for this neglects² the remarkable work of the Romans in concrete and many structures of wood and brick throughout the world. It is of interest to note briefly the influence of materials upon the schools of architecture. Where clay abounded, as in Egypt, sun-dried bricks were easily and cheaply made. Stone was also obtainable, and because of its durability it became the material of the temples and palaces. Simple dwellings were built of brick.

In Mesopotamia the presence of excellent clay and the scarcity of stone and timber led in the very early days to the introduction of brick construction and in the absence of stone and wood to span their areas, the arch and dome came into being.³ Greece possessed perfect marble for columns and beams, and the arch and dome received little attention. A fortunate combination of lime, limestone, clay and pozzuolana gave Rome stone and cement, and the great part of structures is largely due to the union of stone, brick, strong mortar and concrete. During the Roman Empire round arches, vaults and domes were perfected in stone, brick and concrete; this development being made possible by the abundance in Italy of good limestone and pozzuolana, a volcanic material which when mixed with lime produced an excellent cement. The pointed arch was an inherent feature of the Gothic style. In Nothern Europe, Switzerland and Russia, where forests abounded and other materials were difficult to obtain, wooden architecture was characteristic for buildings of all types.

The climate of a country is one of the factors that influence the style of its architecture. It can be best illustrated by British residential buildings. The weather in England is often cloudy and there are few sunny days in the winter season. Therefore, as a rule, the windows in an English house are of a large size to catch as much light and sunshine as possible. Since there is much rain in England, typical British houses have high steep roofs where rain water and melting snow can easily flow down. Most of the houses have a fireplace which forms the most characteristic feature of an English home and is seldom seen in other European countries.

In our time the use of steel and reinforced concrete introduced new possibilities into construction. Great changes in building methods together with numerous mechanical inventions and the appearance of new materials such as concrete resulted in great buildings being erected during the following centuries. The structural scheme today is one of skeleton framework.

1. великая архитектура мира 2. пренебрегать (не принимать во внимание)

3. появились арка и купол

 

 

X. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A BUILDING

againstпротив as if как будто decide решать frost мороз generallyобычно gypsumгипс heightвысота soil почва, грунт spotместо weightвес wind ветер without без dig - dug - dug копать durableдолговечный girderпрогон, балка imposeналагать make up составлять sheetлист, листовой staircaseлестница storeyэтаж, ярус strengthпрочность strengthenукреплять weighвзвешивать wholeвесь, целый below ниже, под, внизу blueprint синька (чертеж) contactсоприкосновение either ... or... или ... или excavate вынимать грунт firmness устойчивость keep out не пропускать meanпредназначать(ся) preventпредотвращать reed тростник, солома stabilityустойчивость supplyподавать, подводить
multistoreyмногоэтажный separate['seprit] отдельный basementподвал, основание, фундамент exposureвоздействие окружающей среды
encloseокружать, огораживать fire-resistant огнестойкий hold – held – held держать interiorвнутренний, интерьер load груз, нагрузка, нагружать mark отмечать, обозначать raiseвоздвигать, поднимать settlement осадка, оседание supportопора, поддерживать tieскреплять, связывать wasteтерять (время), тратить arrangeрасполагать, монтировать as far as ... is concerned что касается ... carefulвнимательный, тщательный carryнести, перевозить, выдерживать coveringпокрытие, обшивка, облицовка keep - kept - kept хранить, держать plumbingвнутренний трубопровод proportionсоразмерять, пропорция sewarage ['sjuəridʒ] канализация show - showed - shown показывать spaceпространство, располагать
concern забота, участие, интерес; касаться, иметь отношение exposeвыставлять, обнажать, подвергать воздействию (атмосферы)
         

A building is a construction which is raised on a foundation and is generally made of stone, concrete blocks, bricks and mortar or cement. Bricks and concrete blocks are held together by mortar. Houses are built of wood, brick, stone and concrete. Many new types of houses are made from reed slabs, rolled gypsum panels or wooden sheets. Nowadays houses are often built of complete concrete structural units, prefabricated blocks (prefabs), which are factory-made and assembled on the spot.

Every detail of a house must be carefully planned. The working plan itself is called a blueprint. Without a blueprint the workmen would make all sorts of mistakes and waste a lot of time. Plans for building a house are drawn by an architect. The architect draws a separate plan for each individual floor. He shows all the parts of the house exactly as if the house were already built. It is from the blueprint of the architect that the workman sees where to place the walls, the windows, the doors, the staircases, etc. The size of the rooms, the width of the doors and windows, the height of the ceilings are also marked on the plan by the architect.

First the excavation is dug for the basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed. Foundations are to keep the floors and walls from contact with the soil, to act against the action of the frost and to prevent from settlement. The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the framework. It carries the loads which are imposed on it. The floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the construction must be carefully designed and proportioned. The floors divide a building into stories. They may be either of timber or, in brick buildings, of reinforced concrete details of big and small sizes.

The designer determines the size of the walls, the floors, the beams, the girders and the parts which make up the framework. He also decides how they are to be spaced and arranged. Walls are constructed to enclose areas and to support the weight of floors and roofs. The coverings or upper parts of buildings meant to keep out rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to the weather are called roofs. They tie the walls and give the construction strength and firmness.

Every building should be provided with water, electricity, ventilation and heating systems. The water supply and sewerage systems are called plumbing.

The buildings erected nowadays can be divided into two general classes: buildings for housing and industrial buildings. As far as material is concerned buildings can be divided into brick, wood, concrete and steel buildings. Buildings made of stone are durable and fire-resisting.

 

C O N T E N T S

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ 2…………………………………………………...3

ВАРИАНТ 1…………………………………………………………………………….....4

ВАРИАНТ 2…………………………………………………………………………….....6

ВАРИАНТ 3…………………………………………………………………………….....9

ВАРИАНТ 4……………………………………………………………………………...11

ВАРИАНТ 5……………………………………………………………………………...14

Грамматика: КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ 2………………………………….17

Страдательный залог. Indefinite Tenses (26) ...................................................................17

Особенности пассивных конструкций (27) ....................................................................17

Страдательный залог. Continuous Tenses (28).................................................................18

Страдательный залог. Perfect Tenses (29)........................................................................18

Таблица времен группы Indefinite Active (30)................................................................19

Сводная таблица времен (31)...........................................................................................20

Количественные местоимения (32)........................... ......................................................21

Функции слова one (33).....................................................................................................21

Инфинитив (34).................................................................................................................22

Причастие I (35).................................................................................................................24

Причастие II (36)...............................................................................................................25

Тексты для чтения для 1 курса (2 семестр)…………………………………………27

VI. CIVIL ENGINEERING............................................…................................................27

VII.THE PROFESSION OF A BUILDER.........................................................................29

VIII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HOUSE ……………………………….....................32

IX. FROM THE HISTORY OF HUMAN DWELLINGS………………………………..35

X. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A BUILDING ………………………………………...37





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