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Peculiarities of Passive Voice Особенности пассивных конструкций




Железнякова Г.А.

 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

 

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

для студентов-заочников специальности СТ (СП, ЭУН, СА)

 

2 семестр

 

Чита 2016

 

УДК 802.0 (075)

ББК м.б. 81.2 Англ. я 7

ББК н.б. Ш13 (Англ) я 7

Ж 512

ISBN 5-9293-0296-0

 

 

Железнякова Г.А. Английский язык: Методические указания для студентов-заочников специальности СТ (СП, ЭУН, СА) (2 сем.) / Г.А. Железнякова. - Чита: 2016. - 40 с.

 

Ил. - Табл.- Библ. - 11

 

Методические указания предназначены для студентов-заочников специальности СТ. Цель методических указаний – формирование у студентов практических умений и навыков чтения литературы по специальности, научить студентов ориентироваться в структуре английского предложения научно-технического характера. Грамматика отобрана с учетом явлений типичных для стиля научно-технического текста и программы.

 

© Читинский государственный университет, 1998 г.

© Читинский государственный университет, 2006 г.

© Читинский государственный университет, 2008 г.

© Читинский государственный университет, 2010 г.

© Чита, 2012 г.

© Чита, 2016 г.

Контрольное задание 2

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить Контрольное задание 2, необ­ходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видо-временных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect

2. Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

3. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив в функции: а) под-лежащего, б) составной части сказуемого, в) определения, г) обстоятельства цели.

4. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I (Pre­sent Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях оп­ределения и обстоятельства.

5. Количественные местоимения

6. Функции слова ONE

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 1 (К УПР. I)

 
The new laboratory equipment was sent foryesterday. Вчера послали Вчера послали за новым оборудованием лаборатории.  
was sent for -Past Indefinite Passive от глагола to send.  
His scientific work is muchspoken about. О его научной работе много говорят.  
is spoken –Present Indefinite Passive от глагола to speak  
       

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 2 (К УПР. II)

 

1. The changes affecting the composition of materials are called chemical changes. Изменения, влияющие на состав материалов, называются химическими изменениями.  
Affecting- Participle I, определение.    
2. When heatedto the boiling point water evaporates. Когда воду нагревают до точки кипения, она испа­ряется, (или: При нагревании до точ­ки кипения вода ис­паряется.)  
(When) heated — Participle II, обстоятельство    
3. Heat isradiated by the Sun to the Earth. Тепло излучается Солнцем на Землю  
radiated — Participle II, составная часть видо-временной формы Present Indefinite Passive от глагола to radiate.

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and by nature.

2. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies.

3. They will be shown a new film tomorrow.

4. The launching of Sputnik 1 was followed by many achieve­ments in science and engineering.

5. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published.

6. He was asked many questions at the exams.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите пре­дложения на русский язык

1. The atoms forming our planet are built of negative electrons, positive protons and ordinary neutrons.

2. Nylon was the first synthetic fibre used in clothing.

3. This kind of treatment when used makes the metals heat-resistant.

4. When passing through an electroscope, X-rays cause its discharge.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. This metro station was opened last year, and that one will be put into operation in two years.

2. One of our teachers will be in London this week.

3. One must take part in scientific work.

4. Our old laboratory equipment was much worse than the new one.

 

IV. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива

1. It is necessary for a Soviet specialist to know a foreign language.

2. The Russian scientists were the first to construct and launch the space rocket.

3. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.

4. The new method to be introduced at our plant will boost labour productivity.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. There aremany kinds of building materials.

2. In the next few years a new generation computer will be developed.

3. We haven't much time to solve this problem.

4. There is little water in this cup.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык текст

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Building construction is an ancient human activity. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates. Human shelters were at first very simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months. Over time, however, even temporary structures evolved into such highly refined forms as the igloo. Gradually more durable structures began to appear, particularly after the advent of agriculture, when people began to stay in one place for long periods.

The first shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such as food storage and ceremony, were housed in separate buildings. Some structures began to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the beginning of the distinction between architecture and building.

The history of building is marked by a number of trends:

One is the increasing durability of the materials used. Early building materials were perishable, such as leaves, branches, etc. Later, more durable natural materials such as clay, stone, and timber and, finally, synthetic materials such as brick, concrete, metals, and plastics were used.

Another is a quest for buildings of ever greater height and span; this was made possible by the development of stronger materials and by knowledge of how materials behave and how to exploit them to greater advantage.

A third major trend involves the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of buildings: increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels, humidity, odours, air speed, and other factors that affect human comfort.

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What trends is the history of building marked by?

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. Synthetic rubber products were developed between 1914 and the 1930s.

2. All the work will be done by automatic machinery.

3. When was this University founded?

4. The intensity of this process is influenced by many factors.

5. This lecturer is listened to with great interest.

6. When much had been done in the study of ecology by our institute it became an important scientific centre.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите пре­дложения на русский язык

1. Molecular crystals are solids constructed of molecules held together by relatively weak forces.

2. A body moving with a certain velocity carries within itself the kinetic energy of motion.

3. While absorbing the energy of cosmic rays the upper atmo­sphere becomes radioactive.

4. Unless properly treated the metal must not be applied for space technology.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. In London one must get used to the left-side traffic.

2. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.

3. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with traditional ones.

4. One should always be careful when he operates this machine-tool.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфи­нитива

1. The teacher told her students to learn the poem by heart.

2. The Soviet Union was the first country to send man into space.

3. Scientific discoveries to be practically applied in industry and agriculture are paid special attention to.

4. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. Einstein studied many subjects to increase his knowledge but physics became his life interest.

2. Few scientists study the structure of matter.

3. Gagarin spent much time, preparing for the flight.

4. There are a few journals on the shelf.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык текст

Structural engineering

Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers (overpasses), tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, aerostructure and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc.

The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for (to be serviceable). Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including wind engineering and earthquake engineering.

Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.

Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining streets, sidewalks, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and disposal, etc.

VII. Ответьте на следующий вопрос:

What properties do design considerations include?

ВАРИАНТ 3

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. The construction of the dam has been completed this month.

2. Heat energy is transmitted in two different ways.

3. An interesting problem was discussed at the lecture.

4. Becquerel's discovery was followed by an intensive re­search work of Marie and Pierre Curie.

5. This material is unaffected by solar radiation.

6. Electric cars will be widely used in future.

 

II. Переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. These reactions convert hydrogen into helium, giving off a great amount of light and heat.

2. The formula E=mc2 deduced by Einstein is perhaps the most well-known equation in the world.

3. Soils containing too much sand or clay are of less value in agriculture.

4. Plastics articles are often difficult to repair if broken.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. One must apply the material that can be machined easily.

2. The problem that has become the most important one is the problem of pollution.

3. One can easily regulate the speed of this machine.

4. This apparatus is more powerful than the one installed in the laboratory.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфи­нитива в предложении

1. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.

2. The purpose of this book is to describe certain properties of metals.

3. To convert chemical energy into electrical energy we must use an electrical cell.

4. The experiment to be carried out is of great importance for our research.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. Few people know that the first programmer in the world was Lord Bayron’s daughter.

2. Our teacher knows much about new discoveries in astronomy.

3. There were many theories on the nature of heat.

4. Atomic power stations need little fuel.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переве­дите текст

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HOUSE

Early humans are often thought of as dwelling in caves. Caves are winter shelter. On a summer's day, which of us chooses to remain inside? The response of our ancestors seems to have been the same. But living outside, with the freedom to roam widely for the purposes of hunting and gathering, suggests the need for at least a temporary shelter. And this, even at the simplest level, means the beginning of something approaching architecture.

In the days of early civilization, once men had learnt how to build simple houses for their families, they began to feel a need to have a number of different kinds of houses in one place. At first the difference was mainly in size – the chief or leader had a larger hut or tent than the rest of the people. Much later, when men began to build towns, there grew up a difference between town houses and country houses. The streets in towns were very narrow and there was not much place for building within the town walls, and therefore houses had to be built higher than they were in the country. A typical town house consisted of a shop opening on the street where the man did his work or sold his goods, with a kitchen behind and a bedroom above.

It is evident that social conditions and climate influence the character of the buildings of a country or nation. So we have what are called the characteristic buildings of different nations. For example: Egypt is noted for its temples and towers; Assyria for its palaces; Greece for its temples; Rome, for its bridges and aqueducts; mediaeval Europe for castles and churches.

 

VII. Ответьте на следующий вопрос:

Why were the houses in town higher than in the country?

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. Today many polymeric materials are produced on a mas­sive scale.

2. New houses are built everywhere: in cities, towns and villages.

3. The alloys were experimented upon in our lab.

4. A lot of problems were discussed at the conference.

5. The radar has been used for the automatic control of ground transport.

6. The research of planets will be developed with the help of cosmic apparatus.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите пре­дложения на русский язык

1. Natural rubber is a thermoplastic material that becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.

2. Matter composed of any chemical combination of elements is called a compound.

3. The smallest particle having all the characteristics of an el­ement is called an atom.

4. While bombarding the upper layers of the atmosphere, cosmic rays reach the surface of the earth.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. One of the most famous buildings in England is St. Paul's Cathedral.

2. One should always inspect the machine tool before he turns it on.

3. The church was designed and built by one and the same man.

4. The wooden wall was later replaced by a brick one.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфи­нитива в предложении

1. То design new buildings is the work of an architect.

2. To measure volumes we must know the dimensions of a body.

3. Our plant was the first to install the automatic equipment.

4. To attain this end careful attention must be given to the selection of cement, aggregate, and water.

5. They were to go on a business trip.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. The scientists presented a few methods of solution of the problem

2. Atomic ice-breakers need little fuel.

3. We shall be able to make very few experiments.

4. We haven't much time for the experiments.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переве­дите текст

Construction engineering

In modern usage, civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works. Most civil engineering today deals with roads, structures, water supply, sewer, flood control and traffic. In essence civil engineering is the profession which makes the world a more habitable place to live.

Engineering has developed from observations of the ways natural and constructed systems react and from the development of empirical equations that provide bases for design. Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields. In fact engineering was once divided into only two fields--military and civil. All the engineering specialties have derived from civil engineering

Construction engineering involves planning and execution, transportation of materials, site development based on hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineering. As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms do, construction engineers often engage in more business-like transactions, for example, drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations, and monitoring prices of supplies.

Environmental engineering is the contemporary term for sanitary engineering, though sanitary engineering traditionally had not included much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work covered by environmental engineering. Public health engineering and environmental health engineering are other terms being used.

Environmental engineering deals with treatment of chemical, biological, or thermal wastes, purification of water and air, and remediation of contaminated sites after waste disposal or accidental contamination.

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What does construction engineering involve?

ВАРИАНТ 5

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the orbiting electrons.

2. The construction of this house will be completed in a month.

3. As a rule one great discovery is generally followed by nu­merous others.

4.The automatic equipment is being installed in our shop.

5. The engineer was asked about the new technology used at the plant.

6. The experiments will be completed by the end of the week.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите пре­дложения на русский язык

1. The cloud chamber (камера Вильсона) is one of the de­vices used to detect the presence of radioactivity.

2. Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements occur­ring in nature.

3. One can use several modern devices while detecting and measuring radioactivity.

4. When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. One cannot read this technical paper without a dictionary.

2. This article is easier than the one we translated last week.

3. This was one of the reasons for the lengthening of the bus route.

4. One must know that these rays produce a harmful effect on man.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфи­нитива в предложении

1. The Soviet science was the first to make great contribution to the development of space technology.

2. The main purpose of the computers is to solve complex problems quickly.

3. In order to make interplanetary flights in the future it is necessary to know factors affecting the human organism.

4. The problem to be solved is of great importance for our research.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. Now we can see many different radio and TV sets in every house.

2. A calculator makes these calculations in a few seconds.

3. Our teacher knows .little about new discoveries in astronomy.

4. The assembly of heavy units took much time.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переве­дите на русский язык текст

Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Civil engineering is the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including architectural engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, earthquake engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, wastewater engineering, facade engineering, construction surveying, and construction engineering.

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt, and Mesopotamia when humans started creating a need for the construction of shelter.

In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.

Civil engineering was defined as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns.

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What does civil engineering deal with?

 

 

Грамматика: контрольное задание 2

26 Indefinite Tenses. Passive Voice. Cтрадательный залог

 

Present   Past Future
am is + Participle II are was + Participle II were shall be + Participle II will be

 

Три способа перевода страдательного залога на русский язык:

1. Глагол-связка быть (в прошедшем и будущем времени) + краткая форма причастия страдательного залога

The house was built. Дом был построен.

The students will be asked by the teacher. Студенты будут опрошены преподавателем.

2. Возвратными глаголами на –ся, -сь.

Substances are divided into elements and compounds. Вещества делятся на элементы и соединения.

3. Неопределенно-личной формой, т.е. без подлежащего.

I was given an English book. Мне дали английскую книгу.

They will be shown a new film. Им покажут новый фильм.

 
 


Participle I. Причастие I


translate + ing = translating write + ing = writing

write –writing stop - stopping tie - tying

TEXTS FOR READING

VI. CIVIL ENGINEERING

 

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consulting engineer инженер-консультант, эксперт

deal - dealt – dealt with иметь дело с, рассматривать

feasibility studyтехнико-экономическое обоснование проекта

site investigationинженерно-геологические изыскания

 

The word "engineering" means the art of designing, constructing or using engines. Engineering is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mathematics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information that depended on observation and experience. Engineering is divided into many branches. The most important of them are: civil, mechanical, military, electrical, marine, sanitary, mining and nuclear engineering. The term “civil engineering” was first used in the 18th century. While the definition "civil engineering" dates back only two centuries, the profession of a civil engineer is as old as civilized life.

Up to about the middle of the 18th century there were two main branches of engineering - civil and military. Later there came a remarkable series of mechanical inventions¹, great discoveries in electrical science and atomic energy. It led to differentiation² of mechanical, electrical, nuclear engineering, etc. This growth in the number of branches was continuing with the development of aerospace, petroleum and electronic engineering. Architecture had become a profession by itself.

In the oldest and widest sense³ the term "civil engineering" includes all non-military branches of engineering as it did two centuries ago. But in its narrower sense, civil engineering includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, metallurgical and mining engineering. Here are some fields of civil engineering: 1. Housing, agricultural and industrial construction. 2. Hydraulic engineering which includes the construction of dams and power plants. 3. The construction of pavements and highways. 4. The construction of railroads. 5. Structural engineering. 6. The construction of harbours and canals.

The above enumeration will make clear the vast extent of the field of civil engineering.

The functions of the civil engineer can be divided into three categories: those performed before construction (feasibility studies, site investigations and design), those performed during construction (dealing with clients, consulting engineers and contractors), and those performed after construction (maintenance and research).

Notes: 1. изобретения в области механики; 2. это привело к разделению

3. в самом широком смысле

 

 

C O N T E N T S

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ 2…………………………………………………...3

ВАРИАНТ 1…………………………………………………………………………….....4

ВАРИАНТ 2…………………………………………………………………………….....6

ВАРИАНТ 3…………………………………………………………………………….....9

ВАРИАНТ 4……………………………………………………………………………...11

ВАРИАНТ 5……………………………………………………………………………...14

Грамматика: КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ 2………………………………….17

Страдательный залог. Indefinite Tenses (26) ...................................................................17

Особенности пассивных конструкций (27) ....................................................................17

Страдательный залог. Continuous Tenses (28).................................................................18

Страдательный залог. Perfect Tenses (29)........................................................................18

Таблица времен группы Indefinite Active (30)................................................................19

Сводная таблица времен (31)...........................................................................................20

Количественные местоимения (32)........................... ......................................................21

Функции слова one (33).....................................................................................................21

Инфинитив (34).................................................................................................................22

Причастие I (35).................................................................................................................24

Причастие II (36)...............................................................................................................25

Тексты для чтения для 1 курса (2 семестр)…………………………………………27

VI. CIVIL ENGINEERING............................................…................................................27

VII.THE PROFESSION OF A BUILDER.........................................................................29

VIII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HOUSE ……………………………….....................32

IX. FROM THE HISTORY OF HUMAN DWELLINGS………………………………..35

X. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A BUILDING ………………………………………...37

Железнякова Г.А.

 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

 

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

для студентов-заочников специальности СТ (СП, ЭУН, СА)

 

2 семестр

 

Чита 2016

 

УДК 802.0 (075)

ББК м.б. 81.2 Англ. я 7

ББК н.б. Ш13 (Англ) я 7

Ж 512

ISBN 5-9293-0296-0

 

 

Железнякова Г.А. Английский язык: Методические указания для студентов-заочников специальности СТ (СП, ЭУН, СА) (2 сем.) / Г.А. Железнякова. - Чита: 2016. - 40 с.

 

Ил. - Табл.- Библ. - 11

 

Методические указания предназначены для студентов-заочников специальности СТ. Цель методических указаний – формирование у студентов практических умений и навыков чтения литературы по специальности, научить студентов ориентироваться в структуре английского предложения научно-технического характера. Грамматика отобрана с учетом явлений типичных для стиля научно-технического текста и программы.

 

© Читинский государственный университет, 1998 г.

© Читинский государственный университет, 2006 г.

© Читинский государственный университет, 2008 г.

© Читинский государственный университет, 2010 г.

© Чита, 2012 г.

© Чита, 2016 г.

Контрольное задание 2

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить Контрольное задание 2, необ­ходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видо-временных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect

2. Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

3. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив в функции: а) под-лежащего, б) составной части сказуемого, в) определения, г) обстоятельства цели.

4. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I (Pre­sent Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях оп­ределения и обстоятельства.

5. Количественные местоимения

6. Функции слова ONE

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 1 (К УПР. I)

 
The new laboratory equipment was sent foryesterday. Вчера послали Вчера послали за новым оборудованием лаборатории.  
was sent for -Past Indefinite Passive от глагола to send.  
His scientific work is muchspoken about. О его научной работе много говорят.  
is spoken –Present Indefinite Passive от глагола to speak  
       

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 2 (К УПР. II)

 

1. The changes affecting the composition of materials are called chemical changes. Изменения, влияющие на состав материалов, называются химическими изменениями.  
Affecting- Participle I, определение.    
2. When heatedto the boiling point water evaporates. Когда воду нагревают до точки кипения, она испа­ряется, (или: При нагревании до точ­ки кипения вода ис­паряется.)  
(When) heated — Participle II, обстоятельство    
3. Heat isradiated by the Sun to the Earth. Тепло излучается Солнцем на Землю  
radiated — Participle II, составная часть видо-временной формы Present Indefinite Passive от глагола to radiate.

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and by nature.

2. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies.

3. They will be shown a new film tomorrow.

4. The launching of Sputnik 1 was followed by many achieve­ments in science and engineering.

5. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published.

6. He was asked many questions at the exams.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите пре­дложения на русский язык

1. The atoms forming our planet are built of negative electrons, positive protons and ordinary neutrons.

2. Nylon was the first synthetic fibre used in clothing.

3. This kind of treatment when used makes the metals heat-resistant.

4. When passing through an electroscope, X-rays cause its discharge.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. This metro station was opened last year, and that one will be put into operation in two years.

2. One of our teachers will be in London this week.

3. One must take part in scientific work.

4. Our old laboratory equipment was much worse than the new one.

 

IV. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива

1. It is necessary for a Soviet specialist to know a foreign language.

2. The Russian scientists were the first to construct and launch the space rocket.

3. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.

4. The new method to be introduced at our plant will boost labour productivity.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. There aremany kinds of building materials.

2. In the next few years a new generation computer will be developed.

3. We haven't much time to solve this problem.

4. There is little water in this cup.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык текст

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Building construction is an ancient human activity. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates. Human shelters were at first very simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months. Over time, however, even temporary structures evolved into such highly refined forms as the igloo. Gradually more durable structures began to appear, particularly after the advent of agriculture, when people began to stay in one place for long periods.

The first shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such as food storage and ceremony, were housed in separate buildings. Some structures began to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the beginning of the distinction between architecture and building.

The history of building is marked by a number of trends:

One is the increasing durability of the materials used. Early building materials were perishable, such as leaves, branches, etc. Later, more durable natural materials such as clay, stone, and timber and, finally, synthetic materials such as brick, concrete, metals, and plastics were used.

Another is a quest for buildings of ever greater height and span; this was made possible by the development of stronger materials and by knowledge of how materials behave and how to exploit them to greater advantage.

A third major trend involves the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of buildings: increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels, humidity, odours, air speed, and other factors that affect human comfort.

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What trends is the history of building marked by?

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. Synthetic rubber products were developed between 1914 and the 1930s.

2. All the work will be done by automatic machinery.

3. When was this University founded?

4. The intensity of this process is influenced by many factors.

5. This lecturer is listened to with great interest.

6. When much had been done in the study of ecology by our institute it became an important scientific centre.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите пре­дложения на русский язык

1. Molecular crystals are solids constructed of molecules held together by relatively weak forces.

2. A body moving with a certain velocity carries within itself the kinetic energy of motion.

3. While absorbing the energy of cosmic rays the upper atmo­sphere becomes radioactive.

4. Unless properly treated the metal must not be applied for space technology.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. In London one must get used to the left-side traffic.

2. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.

3. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with traditional ones.

4. One should always be careful when he operates this machine-tool.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфи­нитива

1. The teacher told her students to learn the poem by heart.

2. The Soviet Union was the first country to send man into space.

3. Scientific discoveries to be practically applied in industry and agriculture are paid special attention to.

4. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. Einstein studied many subjects to increase his knowledge but physics became his life interest.

2. Few scientists study the structure of matter.

3. Gagarin spent much time, preparing for the flight.

4. There are a few journals on the shelf.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык текст

Structural engineering

Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers (overpasses), tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, aerostructure and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc.

The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for (to be serviceable). Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including wind engineering and earthquake engineering.

Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.

Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining streets, sidewalks, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and disposal, etc.

VII. Ответьте на следующий вопрос:

What properties do design considerations include?

ВАРИАНТ 3

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. The construction of the dam has been completed this month.

2. Heat energy is transmitted in two different ways.

3. An interesting problem was discussed at the lecture.

4. Becquerel's discovery was followed by an intensive re­search work of Marie and Pierre Curie.

5. This material is unaffected by solar radiation.

6. Electric cars will be widely used in future.

 

II. Переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. These reactions convert hydrogen into helium, giving off a great amount of light and heat.

2. The formula E=mc2 deduced by Einstein is perhaps the most well-known equation in the world.

3. Soils containing too much sand or clay are of less value in agriculture.

4. Plastics articles are often difficult to repair if broken.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. One must apply the material that can be machined easily.

2. The problem that has become the most important one is the problem of pollution.

3. One can easily regulate the speed of this machine.

4. This apparatus is more powerful than the one installed in the laboratory.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфи­нитива в предложении

1. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.

2. The purpose of this book is to describe certain properties of metals.

3. To convert chemical energy into electrical energy we must use an electrical cell.

4. The experiment to be carried out is of great importance for our research.

 

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. Few people know that the first programmer in the world was Lord Bayron’s daughter.

2. Our teacher knows much about new discoveries in astronomy.

3. There were many theories on the nature of heat.

4. Atomic power stations need little fuel.

 

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переве­дите текст

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HOUSE

Early humans are often thought of as dwelling in caves. Caves are winter shelter. On a summer's day, which of us chooses to remain inside? The response of our ancestors seems to have been the same. But living outside, with the freedom to roam widely for the purposes of hunting and gathering, suggests the need for at least a temporary shelter. And this, even at the simplest level, means the beginning of something approaching architecture.

In the days of early civilization, once men had learnt how to build simple houses for their families, they began to feel a need to have a number of different kinds of houses in one place. At first the difference was mainly in size – the chief or leader had a larger hut or tent than the rest of the people. Much later, when men began to build towns, there grew up a difference between town houses and country houses. The streets in towns were very narrow and there was not much place for building within the town walls, and therefore houses had to be built higher than they were in the country. A typical town house consisted of a shop opening on the street where the man did his work or sold his goods, with a kitchen behind and a bedroom above.

It is evident that social conditions and climate influence the character of the buildings of a country or nation. So we have what are called the characteristic buildings of different nations. For example: Egypt is noted for its temples and towers; Assyria for its palaces; Greece for its temples; Rome, for its bridges and aqueducts; mediaeval Europe for castles and churches.

 

VII. Ответьте на следующий вопрос:

Why were the houses in town higher than in the country?

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций

1. Today many polymeric materials are produced on a mas­sive scale.

2. New houses are built everywhere: in cities, towns and villages.

3. The alloys were experimented upon in our lab.

4. A lot of problems were discussed at the conference.

5. The radar has been used for the automatic control of ground transport.

6. The research of planets will be developed with the help of cosmic apparatus.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите пре­дложения на русский язык

1. Natural rubber is a thermoplastic material that becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.

2. Matter composed of any chemical combination of elements is called a compound.

3. The smallest particle having all the characteristics of an el­ement is called an atom.

4. While bombarding the upper layers of the atmosphere, cosmic rays reach the surface of the earth.

 

III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова ONE

1. One of the most famous buildings in England is St. Paul's Cathedral.

2. One should always inspect the machine tool before he turns it on.





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