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Correct the wrong sentences.



1. Economics demands that locomotives be durable, reliable, and difficult to maintain.

2. The first locomotives (around 1830) were steam propelled.

3. Steam locomotives began to be replaced shortly after World War I.

4. Electric locomotives draw electricity from external sources.

5. The power of diesel-electric locomotive units doesn't depend on their sizes.

6. Switching or shunting locomotives are of approximately5000 hp and low maximum speed.

7. Mainline passenger and freight units are being designed to produce 1000 hp.

 

Answer the following questions.

1. What demands should locomotives correspond to?

2. How were the first locomotives propelled?

3. Why did steam locomotives begin to be replaced shortly after World War II?

4. Where do electric locomotives draw electricity from?

5. How does a pantograph compensate for wire height variations?

6. What restricted the use of electric motive power to only very high traffic routes such as the Northeast Corridor of Amtrak in the United States, commuter lines, and some routes in Japan, Russia, England, and continental Europe?

7. What is the power of diesel-electric locomotive units?

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2

Вариант 1

Read and translate the text in writing using the words below.

advantage - преимущество

performance - коэффициент полезного действия

power plants - энергетическая установка

quiet - тихий, бесшумный

acceleration - ускорение

frequent - частый

route - маршрут

advanced - продвинутый

 

One advantage of electrification is the lack of pollution from the locomotives. Electrification results in higher performance, lower maintenance costs and lower energy costs.

Power plants, even if they burn fossil fuels, are far cleaner than mobile sources such as locomotive engines. The power can come from clean or renewable sources, including geothermal power, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, solar power and wind turbines. Electric locomotives are quiet compared to diesel locomotives since there is no engine and exhaust noise and less mechanical noise. The lack of reciprocating parts means electric locomotives are easier on the track, reducing track maintenance.

Power plant capacity is far greater than any individual locomotive uses, so electric locomotives can have a higher power output than diesel locomotives and they can produce even higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration. Electric locomotives are ideal for commuter rail service with frequent stops. They are used on high-speed lines, such as ICE in Germany, Acela in the U.S., Shinkansen in Japan, China Railway High-speed in China and TGV in France. Electric locomotives are used on freight routes with consistently high traffic volumes, or in areas with advanced rail networks.

 

2. Translate the following word combinations from English into Russian.

One advantage of electrification, pollution from the locomotives, maintenance costs, fossil fuels, mechanical noise, power plant capacity, individual locomotive, a higher power output, fast acceleration, commuter rail service, high-speed lines, freight routes.

 

Translate the following word combinations from Russian into English.

Снижение стоимости энергии, сжигать органическое топливо, атомная энергия, ветряные турбины, техническое обслуживание железнодорожных путей, мощность электростанции, дизельный локомотив, частые остановки, высокоскоростные линии, развитые железнодорожные сети.

 

Complete the sentences.

1. One advantage of electrification is the lack....

2. Electrification results in....

3. Power plants are....

4. The power can come from such sources as....

5. Electric locomotives are quiet compared to....

6. Electric locomotives are ideal for....

7. Electric locomotives are used on....

 

Correct the wrong sentences.

1. One advantage of electrification is the pollution from the locomotives.

2. Power plants, even if they burn liquid fuels, are less clean than mobile sources such as locomotive engines.

3. Electric locomotives are as quiet as diesel ones.

4. Numerous reciprocating parts mean electric locomotives are easier on the track, reducing track maintenance.

5. Power plant capacity is far greater than any individual locomotive uses.

6. Electric locomotives are ideal for long-distance rail service.

7. Electric locomotives are used on freight routes with consistently low traffic volumes.

 

Answer the following questions.

1. What are the advantages of electrification?

2. What sources can the power come from?

3. Why are electric locomotives quiet compared to diesel locomotives?

4. Why are electric locomotives easier on the track than diesel ones?

5. Why can electric locomotives have a higher power output than diesel locomotives and produce even higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration?

6. What service are electric locomotives are ideal for?

7. Where else are electric locomotives used?

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2

Вариант 2

Read and translate the text in writing using the words below.

 

gain - прибыль

regenerative braking - рекуперативное торможение

disadvantage - недостаток

substation - подстанция

tax - налог

weak - слабый

emission - выброс

investment - инвестиция

 

Electric locomotives benefit from the high efficiency of electric motors, often above 90% (not including the inefficiency of generating the electricity). Additional efficiency can be gained from regenerative braking, which allows kinetic energy to be recovered during braking to put power back on the line. Newer electric locomotives use AC motor-inverter drive systems that provide for regenerative braking.

The chief disadvantage of electrification is the cost for infrastructure: overhead lines or third rail, substations, and control systems. Public policy in the U.S. interferes with electrification: higher property taxes are imposed on privately owned rail facilities if they are electrified. U.S. regulations on diesel locomotives are very weak compared to regulations on automobile emissions or power plant emissions.

In Europe and elsewhere, railway networks are considered part of the national transport infrastructure, just like roads, highways and waterways, so are often financed by the state. Operators of the rolling stock pay fees according to rail use. This makes possible the large investments required for the technically, and in the long-term also, economically advantageous electrification. Because railroad infrastructure is privately owned in the U.S., railroads are unwilling to make the necessary investments for electrification.

 

2. Translate the following word combinations from English into Russian.

High efficiency of electric motors, kinetic energy, AC motor-inverter drive systems, is the cost for infrastructure, public policy in the U.S., privately owned rail facilities, power plant emissions, national transport infrastructure, to pay fees, the necessary investments for electrification.

 

Translate the following word combinations from Russian into English.

Свыше 90%, вырабатывать электричество, дополнительная эффективность, более современные электрические локомотивы, главный недостаток, более высокий налог на имущество, финансироваться государством, владельцы подвижного состава, крупные инвестиции.

 

Complete the sentences.

1. Electric locomotives benefit from... of electric motors.

2. Regenerative braking allows... during braking to put power back on the line.

3. Newer electric locomotives use... that provide for... braking.

4. The chief disadvantage of electrification is....

5. In the U.S. higher property taxes are imposed on....

6. U.S. regulations on diesel locomotives are very weak compared to regulations on... or....

7. Because railroad infrastructure is... in the U.S., railroads are unwilling to make the necessary investments for electrification.

 


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