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Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


Учебное пособие под ред. Т.Н.Шишкиной




Ассоциация "Гуманитарное знание", "Теис"Москва 1997

ББК 81.2АНГЛ.—923

Рекомендовано

Ученым советом факультета иностранных языков МГУ

им.М.В.Ломоносова, Советом по правоведению и Советом по

иностранным языкам УМО университетов России

в качестве учебного пособия для высших юридических учебных заведений.

Рецензенты

доктор филологических наук, профессор С.Г.Тер-Минасова, доктор юридических наук, профессор Н.А.Крашенинникова

Директор издательского проекта А.Ф.Настасяк Ведущий менеджер ЮА.Холоденко

Художник Е.Ю.Осипова Компьютерная верстка Е.Е.Вострокнутовой

Just English.Английский для юристов: Учебное пособие/ Ю.Л.Гуманова В.А.Королева М.Л.Свешникова Е.В.Тихомирова; Под ред. Т.Н.Шишкиной.-М.: Гумани­тарное знание, ТЕИС, 1997.—198 с.

Учебное пособие подготовлено профессорско-преподавательским составом кафедры английского языка для гуманитарных факультетов МГУ им М В Ломоносова на основе учебной программы курса английского языка для юридических ВУЗов

ISBN 5—7218—0033—х

© Коллектив авторов, 1997

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Предлагаемое вашему вниманию учебное пособие предназначено для студентов-юристов и рассчитано на широкую аудиторию. В нем есть разделы и задания, которые могут успешно применяться при обучении студентов с разным уровнем знания. В учебнике используются современные аутентичные материалы, обработанные и адаптированные для студентов юридического профиля. Цель его - последовательно провести студентов по разделам специальной лексики и грамматики, на современных текстах ввести страноведческий материал и сформировать навыки работы с литературой по специальности.

Правовая лексика вводится тематически, закрепляется в разнообразных упражнениях и находит свое применение в дискуссиях и ролевых играх Дополнительная лексика и справочный материал содержатся в глоссариях к соответствующим главам Заключительные упражнения могут быть использованы как для самоконтроля, так и в качестве контрольных работ.

Учебник состоит из пяти глав и хрестоматии. В первой главе обсуждаются общие проблемы права и дается обзор правовых систем Великобритании и США Во второй главе детально рассматривается государственная и правовая системы Великобритании. Третья глава описывает государственную и правовую системы Соединенных Штатов. В четвертой главе анализируется система суда присяжных на примере США. Пятая глава посвящена проблемам уголовного права. В хрестоматию включены тексты различного уровня трудности на юридические темы.

Каждая глава снабжена заключительными упражнениями, страничкой юмора и глоссарием.

ТН Шишкина

Авторы выражают искреннюю благодарность рецензентам доктору филологических наук, профессору С.Г.Тер-Минасовой, доктору юридических наук, профессору НА.Крашенинниковой, преподавателям кафедры английского языка для гуманитарных факультетов МГУ Л.В.Александровой, Д.П.Карповой, Т.И.Тарасовой за помощь в работе над этой книгой.

Chapter I. LAW AND ORDER............................................................/W7

Unit I. The Need for Law............................................................................,.».*««Л

Unit II. An Outline of Lawmaking Process in Great Britain and the USA......*.*9

Unit III. The Court System of England and Wales............................................11

Unit IV. People in Law Cases in Great Britain...............................................».. 13

A. Types of Legal Professions...................................................................... 13

B. Solicitors and Barristers...........................................................................14

C. Judges in Great Britain....................................................................».......18

Unit V. The Court System of the USA........................,,....................................25

Unit VI. Attorneys in the USA...................................*41.„..,.......„„................л.27

Unit VII. Language Activities.....................................,...................,..................30

A. Radio Phone-in.......................................................,...............................30

B. Spy Photo Case...............................................................................».*-..„ 33

Revision.............................................................................................................34

Just for Fun..............................................................................................40,^36

Glossary.....................................................................„..,.......»,,,.,,......мн**4..,.**37

, ! * *

Chapter II. GREAT BRITAIN,............................^.........,«.«>.^......:......43

Unit I. The System of Government......................,..4i«4,......w.U*.W4i,.............43



Unit II. Parliament.......................................,.......,.,.*»,........»,;*,...»**<..,„..............45

Unit III. A Member of Parliament...................................................k.................51

Unit IV. Elections..............................................................................................54

Unit V. The Royal Family..................................................................................59

Revision.............................................................................................................65

Just for Fun........................................................................................................68

Chapter III. THE USA..............................................................................71

Unit I. The Constitution....................................................................................Л1

Unit II. The System of Government..................................................................75

Unit III. The System of Checks and Balances...................................................85

Unit IV. American Federalism...........................................................................87

Unit V. Elections............................................................,..,..f........„Y,...,............90

Unit VI. Language Activities. Glimpses of American History...........,......,.......94

Revision.............................................................................................................96

Glossary to chapters II and III............................................................................97

Chapter IV. YOU - THE JURY...............................................................103

Unit I. A Handbook on Jury Service....................„...............................„.........103

Unit II. Justice?....................................................................................„.^.....115

Unit III. Language Activities. Lady Wyatt Accused of Shop-Lifting..,..,.......118

Revision...........................................................................................................121

Just for Fun.......................,............................................................................. 122

Glossary...........................................................................................................123

Chapter V. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT.............................................128

Unit I. Crime...................................................................................................128

Unit II. Punishment..........................................................................................131

Unit III. A Policeman and the Criminal World................................................135

Unit IV. The World of Crime........................................................................... 143

Unit V. Language Activities. Let's Do Justice...............................................151

Revision...........................................................................................................154

Just for Fun......................................................................................................158

Glossary...........................................................................................................159

Reader...................................................................................................164

Part I. Famous Lives. Crime and Justice..........................................................164

Part II. Law Stories..........................................................................................181

Part III. Tom Sawyer Testifies.........................................................................192

Some words with difficult pronunciation.........................................................197

Some names with difficult pronunciation........................................................198

Chapter I

Law and Order

Unit I. The Need for Law..........................................................................7

Unit II. An Outline of Lawmaking Process

in Great Britain,and the USA...................................................................9

Unit III. The Court System of England and Wales.................................11

Unit IV. People in Law Cases in Great Britain......................................13

A. Types of Legal Professions...........................................................13

B. Solicitors and Barristers................................................................14

C. Judges in Great Britain..................................................................18

Unit V. The Court System of the USA...................................................25

Unit VI. Attorneys in the USA...............................................................27

Unit VII. Language Activities................................................................30

A. Radio Phone-in............................................................................30

B. Spy Photo Case............................................................................33

Revision..................................................................................................34

Just for Fun.............................................................................................36

Glossary..................................................................................................37

Unit I THE NEED FOR LAW

TASKl. Read the text.

Mr. Jones, having murdered his wife, was burying her in the garden one night, when his neighbour, hearing the noise, asked him what he was doing.

"Just burying the cat," said Mr. Jones.

"Funny sort of time to bury a cat," said the neighbour.

"Funny sort of cat," said Mr. Jones.

Now it is obvious to everyone that, in a community such as the one in which we live, some kind of law is necessary to try to prevent people like Mr. Jones from killing their wives. When the world was at a very primitive stage, there was no such law, and, if a man chose to kill his wife or if a woman

succeeded in killing her husband, that was their own business and no one interfered officially

But, for a very long time now, members of every community have made laws for themselves in self-protection. Otherwise it would have meant that the stronger man could have done what he liked with the weaker, and bad men could have joined together and terrorized the whole neighbourhood.

If it were not for the law, you could not go out in broad daylight without the fear of being kidnapped, robbed or murdered. There are far, fai more good people in the world than bad, but there are enough of the bad to make law necessary in the interests of everyone.

There is no difficulty in understanding this but it is just as important to understand that law is not necessary just because there are bad people in the world. If we were all as good as we ought to be, laws would still be necessary. If we never told lies, never took anything that didn't belong to us, never ommitted to do anything that we ought to do and never did anything thai \ve ought not to do, we should still require a set of rules of behaviour, in other words laws, to enable us to live in any kind of satisfactory state.

How ts one good man in a motor-car to pass another good man also in a motor-car coming in the opposite direction, unless there is some rule of the road? People sometimes hover in front of one another when the> are walking on the pavement before they can pass, and they may even collide. Not much harm is done then, but, if two good men in motor­cars going in opposite directions hover in front of one another, not knowing which side to pass, the result will probably be that there will be two good men less in the world.

So you can see that there must be laws, however good we may be. Unfortunately, however, we are none of us always good and some of us are bad, or at any rate have our bad moments, and so the law has to provide for all kinds of possibilities. Suppose you went to a greengrocer and bought some potatoes and found on your return home that they were mouldy or even that some of them were stones, what could you do if there were no laws on the subject? In the absence of law you could only rely upon the law of the jungle. You could go back to the shop, demand proper potatoes and hit the shopkeeper on the nose if he refused to give them to you. You might then look round the shop to try to find some decent potatoes. While you were doing this,

the shopkeeper might hit you on the back of the neck with a pound weight. Altogether not a very satisfactory morning's shopping.

Or you might pay your money to go to see a film at a cinema. You might go inside, sit down and wait. When the cinema was full, there might be flashed on the screen: "You've had it, Chums". And that might be the whole of the entertainment. If there were no law, the manager could safely remain on the premises and, as you went out, smile at you and say: "Hope you've enjoyed the show, sir." That is to say, he could do this safely if he were bigger than you or had a well-armed bodyguard.

Every country tries, therefore, to provide laws which will help its people to live safely and as comfortably as possible. This is not at all an easy thing to do, and no country has been successful in producing laws which are entirely satisfactory. But we are far better off with the imperfect laws which we have, than if we had none at all.

TASK 2. Answer the questions.

Rules, laws, regulations - What is your personal understanding of these words? Is there any difference between them?

TASK 3. Work in groups. Make a list of arguments for and against the following statements.

1. Laws haven't changed since primeval times.

2. However hard people try, laws are always insufficient.

3. Laws are not for ordinary people, they are for lawyers.

TASK 4. Continue the list: chum, bloke, pal...

Unit II

AN OUTLINE OF LAWMAKING PROCESS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND THE USA

T.iSK 1. Read the following texts.

Britain

New legislation in Britain usually starts in the House of Lords. In each house a bill is considered in three stages, called readings. The first reading is

purely formajj to introduce the bill. The second reading is usuertrj? the occasion for debate. After the second reading the bill is examihedj ia detail by a committee. ' ^ t<^ ^v

Thef bill is then returned to one of the houses for the report stage, when it can be attended/ ilf passed after its third reading, it goes to the other house. Amendments made to a bill by the House of Lords must be considered by the Commons. If the House of Commons does not agree, the bill is altered and sent bask to the Lords. In the event of "persistent disagreement between the two houses, Commons prevails. *

Finally, the bill goes to the reigning monarch for the royal assent Nowadays the royal assent is merely a formality. In theory the queen could still refuse her consent, but the last monarch to use this power was Queen Anne, who vetoed the unpopular Scottish Militia Bill in 1707.

UnitedStates

The US Congress, the lawmaking arm of the federal government, consists of two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Any congressman in either house, or the president, may initiate new legislation.

The proposed legislation, or bill, is first introduced in the House of Representatives, then referred to one of the standing committees, which organizes hearings on it and may approve, amend or shelve the draft. If the committee passes the bill, it is considered by the House of Representatives as a whole. If passed there, it goes to the Senate for a similar sequence of committee hearings and general debate.

In cases of disagreement, the House of Representatives and the Senate confer together. Once passed by the Senate as a whole, the bill has to be examined by two more standing committees - the Committee on House Administration and the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration - and is then signed by the speaker of the House and by the president of the Senate.

Finally, it must be signed by the president, who has the right to veto it. If the president vetoes a bill, it can still become a law - but only if it is passed by a two-thirds majority in both houses of Congress.

TASK 2. Answer the questions.

1. In which House does new legislation usually start? ^a) in Great Britain

b) in the USA

2. What is a bill ? How does a bill become a law ?

a) in Great Britain

b) in the USA

3. Who has the right of veto ?

a) in Great Britain

b) in the USA

; 11 " f

TASK 3 Work in groups. Find as many differences (similarities) in the lawmaking in GB and the USA as possible.

Unit III V THE COURT SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES

TASK 1 Read the text and examine the chart.

iThe most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates' court. There are 700 magistrates' courts and about 30,000 magistrates. \Pfa t -

More serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County courts.'

Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals from magistrates' courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords; (Scotland has its own High Court in Edinburgh, which hears all appeals from Scottish courts.) Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. In addition, individuals have made the British Government change its practices in a number of areas as a result of petitions to the European Court of Human Rights.

The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners' courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths)! There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).





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