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The Purpose of State Punishment




TASK 1. Answer the questions.

1. What does "The State Punishment" mean?

2. What kinds of punishment do you know?

3. How do you understand the purpose of State Punishment?

4. How should the punishment be organized?

TASK 2. Make a list of ideas and proposals on the topic of State Punishment. Supplement your list with the ideas you hear in class.

TASK 3. Complete the following text with the words or phrases from the box, using them in the appropriate form.

wrongdoer; deterrent; law-abiding;
misdeeds; reform; crime doesn't pay;
barbaric; retribution; corporal punishment;
humane; rehabilitate; death penalty.

What is the purpose of punishment? One purpose is obviously to

(a)___the offender, to correct the offender's moral attitudes and anti-social

him or her, which means to assist the offender to

behaviour and to (b)

return to normal life as a useful member of the community. Punishment can also

be seen as a (c)____because it warns other people of what will happen if

they are tempted to break the law and so prevejtfs them ,from doingf so. , However, a third purpose of punishment (ievperhaps^ in sdciety s desire for ^ (d)_____, which basically means revenge. In other words, don't we feel that я

f^ht Л, , 11 -

(e).

be cotisidere

punishmentdfit the crim f, . t cc^-Q. . </ their own property ,to e.

For those who subject to the

£с£/ф.*Лы?1'» ^ &£>'

automatically receive .__

т

ffer for his (f)

_? The form of punishment should also 'n the one hand, some .believe ihat we should "make the

>,тч. i- H4?'£ .1. u и u л №*№(: Иг

(Those who siealatrom others should be deprived of

IrevtW criminalsare left in no doub^ that (g)_____.

lers (h)___should be used/Muraefe*rsJ snould be

"an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth'r^and

i)____. On the other hand, it is said that such viewiP

d (j)_____ and that we should show a more

are unreasonable,

(k)____attitude to punishment and try to understand why a person commits a

crime and how society has failed to enable him to live a respectable, (1)_____

life.

Penalties in England

TASK 4. Read the text and examine the chart.

In England there are no minimum sentences, except for murder, which carries a penalty of life imprisonment. There are maximum sentences for other crimes. Crimes are first heard by a magistrate who can either pass sentence, or refer the crime to a Crown Court with a judge and jury. Here are maximum sentences for some crimes. Sentences can be reduced for good behaviour, often by one-third or more. "Life sentences" are rarely more than 14 years, and it would be possible to release prisoners after 7 years.

 

Crime Magistrates' Court Crown Court
Fine Prison Fine Prison
Burglary £1000 6 months unlimited 14 years
Grievous bodily harm £1000 6 months unlimited 5 years
Possession of firearm £1000 6 months unlimited 5 years
Possession of cannabis £500 3 months unlimited 5 years
Common assault £200 2 months
"Going equipped for stealing" £1000 6 months unlimited 3 years
Murder life imprisonment

TASK 5. These are the general types of punishment in England Give a Russian equivalent for each of them. Which of these punishments exist in your country? Discuss this in your group.

Prison

Suspended sentences', the offender does not go to prison unless he or she commits another offence;

Probation: normal life at home, but under supervision;

Youth custody in special centres for young adults; Short disciplinary training in a detention centre; Community service: decorating old people's houses, etc.; Compensation: paying, or working for, one's victim; Fines: the punishment in 80 per cent of cases; Disqualification from driving; Fixed penalty fines: especially for parking offences.

TASK 6 Work in pairs and discuss the following.

1. Which punishment do you think is appropriate for each of the following crimes?

a) murder of a policeman;

b) vandalizing a'telephone box;

c) drinking and driving, without causing an accident;

d) robbing a supermarket with a gun;

e) stealing goods from a shop ("shop-lifting");

f) parking a car illegally.

2. Match these actual sentences from British courts with the crimes in question 1.

a) five to ten years in prison;

b) a small fixed penalty fine;

c) life imprisonmfint; (^

d) a £400 finejjEb

e) a £200 fine amrclisqualification from driving;

f) 100 hours of community service. \K

3. Turn to the list of crimes (see "the survey of crimes" Task 6). Try to find the proper penalties for those crimes. Discuss which of you is the harsher

R judge?

TASK 7. Work in groups and find six arguments for and against the death penalty. In the discussion, use the following forms of agreement and disagreement:

- Exactly!

- That's it!

- By no means! -Nothing of the kind!

- Just so!

- You don't say so!

- You bet!

• I quite agree!

• That's right!

• Absolutely!

I don't think it's quite right... I disagree. Absolutely wrong! Rubbish!

TASK 8. Newspaper discussion

a) Read this article and find synonyms for the following expressions from the text.

- burst into tears;

- respectable;

- shop-lifting;

- youngster;

,. л< PQt4 £

- fhghf -

b) Tell this story as if you were:

- Samantha;

- store detective;

- police officer.

I<ef off iwitli n caution

1 Fourteen year/old Samantha was lucky this time. Caught by a store detective with a bottle of hair conditioner, eye-lash dye, and a copy of Young Generation hidden in her bag, she found herself in a van being driven to the police station. |Even more upset than Samantha was her Mum. She was as white as a sheet when she went to collect Samantha from police station, and burst into tears.

Samantha says, "I was lucky. Two policemen came and looked at my home, which is very middle class

and respectable. I think that's why they let me off. They even asked to see my school books."

After two years of regular shop­lifting, Samantha has decided to go straight from now on She says she did it mostly out of boredom, and not to impress her friends as a tot of youngsters do. But she feels she's grown out of it after the fright she got the other day, and has decided to took for other interests.

[The Evening Post]

TASK 9. Translate this article into Russian. Write a list of measures that a store owner should take to prevent shop-lifting.

Big London stores do not like Discussing changing patterns in shop­lifting, presumably for fear of alarming their customers. One store says it never reveals information about customers or staff. Another says it does not keep records of violent incidents relating to shop-lifting and is

unable to comment. However, security officers in some of the stores have revealed that violence has become increasingly common when dealing with shop-lifters.

The security officer of one London branch stores has been assaulted six times by shop-lifters,

uffering a broken nose and a dislocated jaw in separate incidents. He says that if you go after the gangs, they go after you. Sometimes, you can recover the goods, but usually the gangs are too welt-organized to hang

around until the police get to the scene. This kind of incident is definitely on the increase. An efficient deterrent must be found. [The Daily Record]

Unit III A POLICEMAN AND THE CRIMINAL WORLD



TASK 1. Read the text and answer the questions below.

On tape that follows we speak to a Superintendent of Police. That is a very high position. He is responsible for the direction of the police in a very large area. He tells us about his feelings towards various types of criminals. He describes his reactions to the terrible case in London in 1966 when three policemen were all shot dead at the same time. British policemen are not normally armed. He tells us how he and other policemen feel about this and also what happens when the police catch a man who has killed another policeman. Finally he describes what happened when he had to face a violent dangerous man.

1. What is the Superintendent responsible for?

2. What does he describe?

TASK 2. Match each word and phrase on the left with the correct definition on the right

a) part and parcel of

b) affinity with

c) a hard-core minority

d) they have a sneaking regard for them

1. they almost like them even though they feel they shouldn't

2. a small number of very "hard" cases

3. a basic part of

4. a feeling of very close sympathy

TASK 3. Listen to part 1 of the tape Make notes while you are listening to be able to answer the following questions *' The Superintendent mentions a criminal who "has become part and parcel" of the station. How has this happened?

2. What do you think he means when he says this criminal is "always in"?

3. What does he feel towards this type of criminal?

4. Who is "Old Fred". Say what he does, when, and why.

5. What does the Superintendent mean by "the other end of the scale"?

6. How does he describe the second type of criminal and how does he feel towards them?

TASK 4. Transform the sentences according to the model

MODEL: There are criminals. Policemen have a sneaking regard for

them.

There are criminals who policemen have a sneaking regard for.

a) Old Fred is a man. The Superintendent has an affinity with him.

b) There are some criminals. The police get on well with them.

c) There are others. The police have a special hatred for them.

d) These are the children. You have to take care of them.

e) This is the man. You ought to pay the money to him.

MODEL: He's been caught many times. He's become part and parcel of

the station.

He's been caught so many times that he's become part and parcel of the

station.

a) He's been in many prisons. He knows them all.

b) The police meet many people. They can tell when someone is lying.

c) He's been before the Magistrates many times. They recognize him immediately.

d) Old Fred has been in prison many times. He does not know how to live outside, j^ ^°

e) He's lived in-many countries.»-He has made friends all over the world.

TASKS Work т groups Prepare your arguments for the questions below.

1. Why do you think the Superintendent has an affinity with some types of criminal and not with others.

2. What makes "Old Fred" prefer to go to prison than stay outside?

TASK 6. Listen the Part 2 of the tape.

In 1967 three policemen were shot dead at the same time one afternoon. The Superintendent describes his reactions and also what happens when they catch the men who do such things.

TASK 7 Match each word or phrase on the left with the correct definition on the right.

a) sheer anguish

b) on this sale

c) bend over backwards

d) scrutiny

e) fair

f) ordinary

1. non exceptional, commonplace

2. close inspection

3. free from self-interest, honest

4. extreme mental pain and unhappiness

5. to be so careful and considerate that it is almost ridiculous >.

6. here, "so many"

TASK 8. Answer the questions

1. Why was he shocked when the policemen were killed?

2. Had policemen ever been shot before? What exactly is said about this?

3. What do the police do when they catch a man who has killed a policeman?

4. Why do they do this?

TASK 9 Transform the sentences according to the model.

MODEL: My first reaction was one o/sheer anguish, (first impression/ deep despair) My first impression was one o/deep despair.

a) first reaction/profound shock

b) next feeling/complete amazement

c) initial reaction/utter disbelief

d) main impression/deep bitterness

e) final reaction/sheer boredom

MODEL: This country had reached a stage... Its policemen could be

shot.

This country had reached a stage where its policemen could be shot.

a) He reached a stage. He just couldn't go on running.

b) He didn't want to reach a stage. He might lose his temper.

c) The world may reach a stage. There won't be enough food.

d) Work hard and your English will reach a stage. It will be perfect.

e) Britain may reach a stage. Its policemen will carry guns.

f) Education in Britain has reached a stage. More money will have to be spent.

TASK 10. Work in pairs and discuss the following.

1. What do you think should be done with people who kill a

policeman?

Discuss reasons for:

a) putting them in prison, possibly for life;

b) executing them.

2. How would you react if you were the policeman who arrested a man who had killed another policeman? What would you want to do? Why?

TASK 11. Listen to Part 3 of the tape.

British policemen are not normally armed. That is, they do not carry guns. The Superintendent describes how policemen feel about this.

 

TASK 12. Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right.

a) anus 1. marked by extreme force or sudden intense

activity

b) honestly 2. to make use of sth.

c) average 3. weapons

d) foreign to his nature 4. in a way that is free fraud or deception

e) resort to sth. 5. the setting of differences through consent reached

by mutual concessions

f) violent 6. not out of the ordinary, common

g) compromise 7. something he would naturally never do

TASK 13. Answer the questions.

1. At the very beginning the Superintendent says. "I honestly think the average policeman never thinks about it." What does his phrase mean here?

2. What does he say the average policeman feels about the average Britisher?

3. What does he say about "certain elements in the criminal world"?

4. Who exactly are the "certain elements"?

5. What reason does he give for saying "We are not a violent nation"?

TASK 14. Listen to the tape.

"Of course, it is true to say that there are certain elements in the criminal world that are resorting to firearms."

1. Does the phrase "It's true to say that" mean: a) You're stupid if you cannot understand this.

b) I'm not lying!

c) On the other hand.

2. Put "Of course, it's true to say that..." between these pairs of sentences.

a) Most British people trust the police. There are certain exceptions.

b) On the whole the police don't like firearms. Some policemen want guns.

c) He's a very good manager. He has made a few bad mistakes.

d) Policemen in Britain rarely need guns. Every policeman knows how to use one.

e) The police are pretty honest. There are always a few who are not.

Listen again to the tape. "As a nation, we love compromise, don't we? "

1. Does the Superintendent expect agreement or is he asking real questions?

2. Transform the following in the same way with the same intonation: MODEL: We are a nation. We love compromise. "As a nation, we love compromise, don't we?"

a) "Manchester United" are a team. They are unbeatable.

b) We are a company. We have to think of our employees.

c) The police are a public institution. They have to be beyond criticism.

d) Policemen are a group. They have to accept danger.

e) Britain is a country. It will have to export more.

TASK 15. Discuss the following.

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of policemen being armed?

2. Why are the police armed (or not armed) in your country?

TASK 16 Listen to part 4 of the tape.

The Superintendent describes what he did once when he faced a violent man.

TASK 17. Match the -words and expressions on the left -with the apprropriate definitions on the right.

a) eventually

b) threatening

c) particular

d) have a chat

e) trust

f) pompous

g) common denominator

1. a sense of understanding, of having sth. in common with another person

2. self-important, pretentious

3. after a while

4. confident belief in or reliance on

5. have a pleasant, informal, casual conversation

6. specific

7. indicating imminent danger or harm

TASK 18. Answer the questions.

1. Why did the Superintendent have to go to the house?

2. What was the man doing when the Superintendent had to deal with him?

3. Describe at least three of the things the Superintendent did.

4. What does he say you must try and do with such a man?

5. Why does the Superintendent say "I hope this doesn't sound pompous"? Think of possible consequences.

6. What are his last comments here?

TASK 19. Transform the sentences according to the model.

MODEL: You just go and sit there, (have a chat) You just have a chat.

a) hope for the best

b) do what you can c)take a chance

d) try to get his confidence

e) persuade them to listen

MODEL: Does this sound pompous? I hope not. I hope this doesn't sound pompous.

a) Does this sound stupid? 1 hope not.

b) Does this seem impossible? We hope not.

c) Does this seem reasonable? We hope not.

d) Does this sound a good idea? I hope so.

e) Does this sound absurd? I hope not.

TASK 20. Discuss the following.

1. What difference would it have made if the Superintendent had had a gun?

2. What difference would it have made if the man had had a

gun?

TASK 21. Read the text and answer the questions below.

The British police officer - sometimes called the "bobby" after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force - is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen British films. Policemen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in the streets ("pounding the beai^or driving in cars (known as "panda cars" because of their distinctive mamngs). Few people realize, however, that the police in Britain are organized very differently from many other countries.

Most countries, for example, have a national police force which is controlled by central Government. Britain has no national police force, although , ^ police policy is governed by the central Government's Home Office. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority - a committee of local county councillors and magistrates.

The forces co-operate with each other, but it is unusual for members of one force to operate in another's area unless they are asked to give assistance. This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious crime. A Chief Constable (the most senior police officer of a force) may sometimes ask for the assistance of London's police force, based at New Scotland Yard - known simply as "the Yard".

In most countries the police carry guns. The British police generally do not carry firearms, except in Northern Ireland. Only a few police are regularly armed - for instance, those who guard politicians and diplomats or who patrol airports. In certain circumstances specially trained police officers can be armed, but only with the signed permission of a magistrate.

All members of the police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training. Like the army, there are a number of ranks: after the Chief Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. Women make up about 10 per cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables - members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week.

Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Members of CIDs are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms. (The other uniformed people you see in British towns are traffic wardens, Their job is to

make sure that drivers obey the parking regulations. They have no other powers - it is the police who are responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving.)

The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safeguarding public order and dealing with lost property. One of their main functions is, of course, apprehending criminals and would-be criminals.

1. Who was the founder of the British police?

2. Is there one police force, organized by central Government?

3. In what situations can the policemen carry arms?

4. What are the ranks of the policeman.

5. What are the duties of traffic wardens?

6. What is Scotland Yard and what does it do?

TASK 22. Read the text and fill т the gaps -with the appropriate words from the previous text.

In Britain different areas have different (a)

. For instance, the

Metropolitan police operate in London, but there are different police forces in the counties outside London.

The top man in each police force is (b)______. He is appointed by

the local Watch Committee which is a (c)______of the local government.

The Watch Committee can dismiss him, too, if the central government agrees. The Chief Constable appoints all the (d)_____below him in his force.

Things are slightly different in London. The top man is known as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner and his appointment is arranged through the central government.

British police are normally not (e)_____. In special cases, when their

work becomes dangerous, they can be given (f)______however.

As is well known, the (g)______of the British policeman is blue,

with a tall helmet. These days, though, you can see a different uniform in the

streets. This is the uniform with the yellow hatband worn by (h)______.

Their job is simply to control traffic and (i)______.

The most famous name connected with the British police is

(j)______. It is the headquarters of the London police force. Besides dealing

with local police matters, the London police also help all over England and Wales with difficult crimes. They do this at the request of the local police.

TASK 23. Using the information of the Unit, summarize the topic "Police".

Unit IV THE WORLD OF CRIME

Bank Robbery

TASK 1. Look at this picture and read the text.

Z>o yen* know tluls

Photofit of the suspect

Police are searching for a man who is wanted for questioning about a string of burglaries in the Manchester area, which they suspect may be connected.

In the first of two recent incidents, a man tied up a woman in

her own house in the early hours of the morning and escaped with goods valued at around £2,000. They included items of jewellery, a stereo, a video recorder and a colour TV set. She managed to free herself, unhurt, after he fled. She described him as white, around 5'8", in his late twenties, well-built, clean-shaven, with a pointed nose and straight dark hair.

Two days later a man wearing a stocking mask broke into a factory in the same area and got away with cash of around £3,000. A man fitting the description above was later seen driving away from the scene in an old blue Escort van.

Police warn that this man could be armed and therefore dangerous. They have issued the photofit picture above and ask the public to contact; them immediately if they have any. information. i

TASK 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for these words and expressions.

- наличные деньги;

- допрос;

- вооружен и, следовательно, опасен;

- подозреваемый;

- кража со взломом;

- полиция разыскивает;

- фоторобот;

- маска-чулок;

- ворваться;

- человек, соответствующий этому описанию;

- место преступления.

TASK 3. Find m the text the description of the criminal and compose an opposite one e g. "She described him as black, very tall "

TASK 4 Listen to the tape

There have been several bank and post office robberies recently. The police are investigating the crimes and they would like to interview two men and one woman who were seen near two of the banks last week. The police officer is describing to journalists at a press conference the three people they would like to interview. Use the information you hear to help you to complete these drawings of the three people.

TASK 5. Listen to Tony talking about the experience he had, and answer the following questions 1 • What kind °f robbery was it?

2. Was it a successful robbery?

3. How did Tony feel a) during it? b) after it?

Listen again and fill in the following notes, which the police took during their interview with Tony a few days later

a) What time of day was it?

b) Where was the bank?

c) How many customers were in it?

d) What was Tony doing when the robbers arrived?

e) How many robbers were there?

f) What were they wearing?

g) What were they carrying? h) What did the robbers say? i) What did people do?

j) How did the robbers get the cash?

k) What did they say when they were leaving?

1) When did the police arrive?

m) What did Tony do next?

TASK 6 Fill this story about a bank robbery with the appropriate phrasal verbs in the correct tense The meaning of each verb is given m brackets Choose the appropriate phrasal verb from the box below

The bank robbery

«^Yesterday, robbers (a)

___ (forced an entry into) the National

Midland Bank in the High Street soon after closing time^They (b)_____

(threatened with guns) the staff, and forced the manager tc|(c)_____(give

them) £50,000 in cash. The robbers ran out of the bank and$(d)_____

(escaped) in a stolen car, and were last seen£(e)_____(going in the direction

of) the London Road. Police have warned the public that these men are very dangerous, and are unlikely tcffif) V (surrender) without a fight. Said Chief Inspector Ralph Smith: "We're sure that we'll catch them soon. They won't f (g)_____(avoid punishment for) it".

make off; 3 get away with; У break into; give up; у hold up;_____^ make for.

7 hand over;

TASK 7 Look at the following expressions used by criminals Match each expression with its synonym given below.

1. Fred's been sent down for 10 years for armed robbery.

2. Now John's out of prison, he's determined to go straight, i

3. Haven't you heard about Mary9 Stye's been done for pinching a gold bracelet from a shop. С

4. He came clean as soon as the police caught him. "

5. Uncle Fred has done his time and now he's a free man. 6

a) admit committing the crime

b) sent to prison

c) prosecuted

d) finish a prison sentence

e) stealing

f) stop breaking the law

TASK 8. Retell the story about the bank robbery as if you -were:

- one of the criminals

_ a detective investigating the case

- the clerk of the bank

- one of the bank guards

TASK 9. Work in groups and discuss the following.

Have you ever been involved in any kind of robbery?

TASK 10 Find in Russian or British newspapers criminal reports about robberies. Present them in class

A Case of Murder

TASK 11. Read the text.

At the age of forty-two, Kurt Hofmann, a German businessman, was given a very high position in a large company in Zurich, Switzerland. He took the job as head of the marketing department even though he had not had direct experience in this type of work before. He was very ambitious and really wanted this well-paid job. The company gave him the job even though they knew it was a "problem" position.

After about six month it was clear that Mr. Hofmann was under a lot of stress.

TASK 12. Work with a partner and number these stress factors 1-10, starting with 1 as the most serious.

_his job was beyond him, he just couldn't do it;

_his colleagues, five men in particular, disliked him and told

everyone how bad he was at his job;

_his superior didn't help him at all;

_his wife left him;

_his girlfriend refused to move to Zurich;

_^ he had to move away from the town where he had always lived;

_he was living in a foreign country;

_he worked at least twelve hours a day trying to do the job;

_^ there was no one at work he could trust;

,_he was living alone for the first time in his life.

TASK 13. Tell the group Mr. Hofmann's story up to the day when he committed a crime.

TASK 14. Read this press report from an the evening newspaper.

1ШСШЛ inarltetiiMi chief kill* four

The head of the marketing department at REGINA, Kurt Hofmann, shot five employees, killing four and seriously injuring one, this morning. He escaped from the REGINA head office and has not been

found yet. He is armed and may be dangerous.

He was arrested a couple of weeks later in a hotel a few hundred miles away. When his trial took place month later, lots of comments were made about him.

TASK 15. Imagine you are a witness for Mr. Hofmann's case Develop these ideas Persuade the court that he is guilty (not guilty)

"I'm a handwriting analyst. Samples of his handwriting over the years show definite signs of instability."

"I work at REGINA. He should be put in prison for the rest of his life - every day of it."

"I'm a psychiatrist. I've examined Mr. Hofmann and I can definitely say that he is unable to cope with stress. He is not a leader and probably never was."

"Mr. Hofmann lived in the flat upstairs.

He seemed such a nice man.

I can't understand it all.

I feel very sorry for him."

The consequences of that fateful day were:

-for Mr. Hofmann - seventeen years in prison;

-for his immediate superior - early retirement with a good pension;

-for four employees - death, leaving three widows and seven orphans;

-for one employee - disability for the rest of his life.

TASK 16. Work in groups of four to decide:

a) if you think seventeen years was a fair sentence.

b) if you think any other people were also partly responsible for what Mr. Hofmann did.

Give reasons for your decisions. c)What do you think will be the consequences of Mr. Hoftnann's long stay in prison?

"I'm Going Straight!"

(the problem of long-term prisoners)

TASK 17. Answer the questions.

1. Do you think imprisonment is the right method to help a criminal go straight? Prove your opinion.

2. What crimes should be punished by imprisonment?

3. What qualities can a person get rid of in prison (if any)?

TASK 18. Listen to the interview and explain some of Harry's words.

1.... we used to hang round there all day ...

2.... I ended up in Borstal...

3.... for beating up old ladies ...

4.... the worst thing is being shut up all the time...

5.... I can't stand setting up ... 6.... burglary mostly... 7.... I've admitted doing a lot of things ... 8.... spending half of my life behind bars ... 9.... I'm hoping to qualify as mechanic. 10... That's a bit of a problem! 11... employing someone with a record like mine.

TASK 19. Listen again and comment on the meanings of these words.

a) a "nipper" is

b) "juke box" is

c) "Woolworth's" is

d) "Borstal" is

TASK 20. Read Harry's interview.

1. a pickpocket

2. a shop-lifter

3. a young guy

1. a box of chewing gum

2. a record player in a bar

3. the radio

1. a railway station

2. a department store

3. a police station

1. a special centre for young offenders

2. a famous theatre

3. sea resort

In tonight's edition of Reflections we are going to look at the problems of long-term-prisoners. We took our cameras into several prisons, and our first interview is with a man we shall call "Harry", although that is not his real name. He spoke to Chloe West about his career in crime.

Chloe: Harry, you're serving a five year sentence for robbery with violence.

Harry: That's right.

Chloe: Perhaps you could begin by telling us about your early life.

Harry:

Chloe: Harry.

Chloe-Harry-Chloe:

Yeah. Well, I grew up in South London. 1 was on my own a lot; see, my mother used to work down the fish market, and my dad - well, he ran off when I was just a nipper. Did you have any friends?

Oh, yeah. All the kids from our street used to meet up at the coffee bar. There was one at the end of the road. We didn't have much money, so we used to hang round there all day. We never used to go to the cinema, or dancing, or anything like that. We couldn't afford it. What did you use to do there?

Oh, we just sat around listening to the juke box. Nothing special. When did you start getting into trouble?

Harry I suppose I was fourteen, something like that. My friends used to go shop­lifting at Woollies ...Woolworth's, and one day we were caught. I ended up in Borstal. Chloe. You mean, they sent you to Borstal

for... for shop-lifting? Harry: Well, yeah. After the fourth time ...

and for beating-up old ladies. Chloe You used to beat-up old ladies? Harry: Well, only when I was trying to rob them.

Chloe- You beat them up and then robbed them? Harry: Yeah. I used to do that. Chloe: Perhaps you'd tell me about your life in prison.

Harry: I suppose the worst thing is being shut up all the time. Yeah, and I can't stand getting up at 5.30, either. I just can't get used to that, even though I've been here more than three years. You see, before I came here I liked staying in bed all morning. I was on night work, you see. Chloe. Night work? Harry: Mmm. Burglary, mostly. Hah-ha. I caught you there. I can't get used to

going to bed at eight, either. Chloe. Harry, if you don't mind me saying so, a lot of viewers will think of you

as an enemy of society.

Harry- Well, that's fair enough. But I've admitted doing a lot of things. I've spent a lot of time thinking. I could keep on stealing things, but I'd end up spending half my life behind bars. I'm going straight this time, don't you worry.

Chloe What do you intend doing when you get out?

Harry. I'm very fond of working on motor-bikes. I've been studying while I've been inside, and I'm hoping to qualify as a mechanic.

Chloe: Do you think you'll be able to get a job?

Harry: That's a bit of a problem. People are scared of employing someone with

a record like mine, you know, for fear they begin stealing again. Chloe: How will you ge,t round that?

Harry: I'm planning on working for my brother. He's got a motor-bike shop. Chloe: So, you plan to work for your brother? Harry: That's right. I tell you, I won't be back. I'm not going to risk wasting

another five years.

Chloe: Well, I wish you luck, Harry. Harry: Thanks.

Chloe West is a TV reporter - so she's made a TV programme about Harry. Imagine you are a newspaper reporter. Write a short article for your newspaper about Harry.

TASK 21. Work in pairs and discuss the following points.

1. Do you think Harry will really go straight? Prove your opinion.

2. If you were in prison what wouldn't you be able to get used to?

UnitV LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES

LET'S DO JUSTICE

Law Breakers

TASK I. Match each word on the left with the appropriate definition on the

right.

ЛРК Л.'.О^ I.(ац, arsonjst о , . attacks and robs people, often in the street

'."§ shop-ljffta $ - sets fire to property illegally 3. a mugger®^ l(2J^f *s anyone who breaks the law |l l^an iDffender^tMi^b/eaks into houses or other buildings to steal

5. a vandal - steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer

6. a burglar

7. a murderer

8. a kidnapper • юГа Mckpocief ^

10. ah accomplice

11. a drug dealer

12. a spy , , j

13. a terrorist

14. an assassin

15. a hooligan

16. a stowaway л .b^'ii'vu f#

17. a thief

» «m

- kills someone

- deliberately causes damage to property

- steals things from people's pockets in crowded places

- gets secret information from another country

- buys and sells drugs illegally

- takes away people by force and demands money for their return

- helps a criminal in a criminal act

- uses violence for political reasons j.eauses damage or disturbance in public places

- hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey

esi control of a plane by force and makes the pilot cnrargefjpourse

- murders for political reasons or a reward

18. a hijackerl^Q^A ^fji someone who steals p ^f ^ ( ^ ^x/ ^ ^_

19. a forger Q - makes counterfeit (false)' money or signatures

20. arobbeAoAtffiVo»8a member of a criminal §гои»| | - С ^it^bblrtk*

21. a smuggler - steals money, etc. by force frofft people of places M " VP

22. a traitoryjA^ g^^mar/ies illegally, being married already

23. a gangster^Ms&f >• is a soldier who runs away from the army

23. Fdeserterto^pl" brings goods into a country illegally without paying tax 2$, a bigamisuT -' betrays his or her country to another state

$ v *j Let's Do Justice! (Role play)

ГЛЖ 2 Work in pairs Each pair consists of a criminal (choose your role from the list above) and a defence lawyer

STEP 1. The lawyer questions his client (the criminal) and finds out all the circumstances of the crime. STEP 2. The lawyer delivers a speech trying to prove his client non guilty.

STEP 3. The rest of the group - the jurors - hold deliberations and bring in the verdict.

A Macabre Story

TASK 3. In the passage below, verbs are mainly given in the infinitive form; your task is to put them into the appropriate tense or form

The moment she (to turn) the corner, Jill (to notice) that her front door (to stand) open. She definitely (to shut) it when she (to go) out, and her flat­mate, Louis, not (to say) that she (to come) this evening. Jill (to slacken) her pace, (to think) what she (can) do. If she (to ask) her neighbours (to accompany) her and it (to turn out) that there (to be) no one there, then she (to look) a fooL

On the other hand, if she (to enter) the flat alone, and (to find) an intruder there, it (can) end very badly.

"This never (to happen) to me before," Jill (to think), "and I (to hope) it never (to happen) again."

TASK 4. Continue the story as if you were

- Jill

- her neighbour

- her flat-mate

- the person inside

Be a Detective

TASK 5. Read the end of a detective story

So, one foggy November night, Mr. X, wearing a long overcoat, walked along a back street in Liverpool with a box under his arm. He came to a house, put his box down on the ground, and knocked at the door. When a man opened the door, Mr. X picked up the box and gave it to him. The man in the house nodded, took the box, and closed the door. Mr. X walked away.

Two days later, Mr. X read in the newspaper that a dead body had been found in a Liverpool park with its left arm missing and he was extremely shocked.

How did it all start? You can find out the whole previous story by asking your teacher yes/no questions. In order to get the right train of thought find out the following.

1. Find out the relationship between the

two men.

2. Think about the size ot the box and what was in it.

3. Why did Mr. X put the box on the ground before knocking on the door?

4. What was significant about the dead body?

Revision

TASK 1 Solve the crossword

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  £ * * /e / J 7"   i 3  
         
5"     £ tf £         J 1
            p       ^•^i'   MMM  
/(7   Лг        
                 
    "     ^•ww          
             
          /.?   I. .1
/V          

TV ftfrXHfWE ^ PRftW.

...:"J>

you your, ей к

PLflCE, YOl/НШ TO PAY Я ____

for a mm

do.

TASK 2. Complete the following sentences with the words and phrases from the box. , >ЛГ^

arrested; f in custody; \o defence; /sP
solicitor;^ evidence; (/ barrister; *J
verdict; J proof; a -2 witness;^/
fme;V charged ;/ 5 testimony; z г
juvenile delinquent; 5 sentenced;^ arson; / з Ш ^ ^
ball ; f Magistrate's Court; /<" burglary; <? ^
prosecution; * probation; (£ imprisonment, г/"
commit;*" embezzlement; '*  
shop-lifting; 5 Crown Court; tf  

crimes has"risen shafp

1. The number of young people who

in recent years.

2. Another house was broken into last week. This is the third _ in

the area in the past month.

3. The judge him to seven years' *$ for armed robbery.

4. After twelve hours, the Jury finally reached its . j> : the prisoner

was guilty. л.40^4^ ioM-t

5. Although the police suspectedJhat he had been involved in the

robbery, since they had no aefraite Д there was nothing they could do about it.

6. He parked his car in the wrong place and had to pay a £20 parking

7. This is the fourth fire in the area recently. The police suspe

by the police outside a pub in Soho and

- . <3 for minor

8. Theshop decided to install closed-circuit television in an effort to

cimbat the problem of

9. He was _(______

IЬ with murder.

10. There are two criminal courts in Britain - the 1*) offences and the____iff for more serious ones.

11.А Ъ

12. A___«M

13. The lawyer who prepares the case for his or her client prfo'r to

fVu rLOlLM. ^

appearing in court is called a <l______. The lawyer who

is a young person who breaks the law.

is someone who sees a crime being committed, ижд^*'

actually presents the case in court is called a

14. The sum of money left with a court of law so that a prisoner may be set free until his or her trial comes up is called ql

15. The bank manager, aomitted taking £250,000 of the bank's money

Ь-^Ь- r^l/C^A & ^""f

during the previews five years. He was found guilty of (<| - e6

16. The witness held the Bible in her right hand and said: "I sweaTby Almighty God that the И_____I shall give shall be the

truth, the wholejruth, and nothing but the truth." 1. The formal statement made by a witness in court i

17. The formal sMement made by a witness in court is called a____

18. If a person is t<?_______5 this means that he or she is put in

prison before his or her trial comes up.

19. Since it was his first offence, he was not sent to prison but put on

' ^ for 6 months.

20. At a trial, the barrister who speaks for the accused is called the Counsel for the г , while the barrister who speaks against him is called the Counsel for the___/ ^_____.

TASK 3. Complete the following sentences with the words and phrases from the box.

A. Police

walkie-talkie; police force; join; rank; plain clothes; policeman; detective; uniform.

Alan is now old enough and tall enough to (a)_____the (b)

At first, of course, he'll be an ordinary (c)_______ of the

(d)__

. He'll wear a (e)

with the police station with his (f)__

in (h)_______investigating serious crimes.

B. Security Work

lowest

and go out in the streets keeping in touch __. Then he'd like to be a (g)_____

guards; tap; armoured vehicles; bullet-proof;

kidnappers; couriers bug; security firm; private detectives.

I run a (a)_____which offers a complete range of security services.

We have (b)____with special (c)____windows to transport money and

other valuable items. We can supply trained (d)____to protect exhibits at art

shows and jewellery displays. We can advise you if you think someone is trying

to (e)____your phone or (f)_____your private conversations at home or

in the office with hidden microphones. We have ex-policemen whom you can

hire as (g)_______and special (h)_____to deliver your valuable parcels

anywhere in the world. We can protect you or your children against possible (i)______•

C. Military Service

army; navy; compulsory; promotion; forces; officer; volunteers; air force.

In some countries military service is (a)_____. All young men and

sometimes young women must spend a year or two in the (b)______. (In

Britain they don't have to. All members of the armed services are (c)____).

To be a soldier you join the (d)____, to be a sailor you join the (e)_____

and to be an airman you join the (f)_____. If you are good at your job and

can take responsibility, ybu might get (g)____and become an (h)______.

D. Arrest
theft; pleaded; fingerprints; found; cell
evidence; arrest; oath; investigate;  
sentence; charge; detained; fine;  
court; magistrate; handcuff; witnesses;  

A policeman was sent to (a)

the disappearance of some

v_.x_________ miv v»i jtippvcu aiiV't VJl SUIIIC

property from a hotel. When he arrived, he found that the hotel staff had caught a boy in one of the rooms with a camera and some cash. When the policeman

tried to (b)____ the boy, he became violent and the policeman had to

(c)_____him. At the police station the boy could not give a satisfactory

explanation for his actions and the police decided to (d)_____him with the

(e)____of the camera and cash. They took his (f)______, locked him in a

(g)

(0.

guilty. Two (m) staff, gave (n) (o)__

and (h) __

before the (j)

him overnight. The next morning he appeared in . He took an (k)____and (1)__not

_, the owner of the property and a member of the hotel . After both sides of the case had been heard the boy was guilty. He had to pay a (p)____of £50 and he was given a

(q)____of three month in prison suspended for two years.

E. Law and Punishment
detective; coroner; plain clothes; verdict; jury; solicitor; warders; trial; inquest; death penalty.

a) If you want legal advice in Britain, you go to a_____.

b) At the end of the_____, the judge ordered the twelve men and women of

the____to retire and consider their_____, guilty or not guilty.

c) Men or women who look after prisoners in prison are called prison officers or

d) If a person dies in unusual circumstances, an court, and the "judge" is called a_____.

is held at a special . He wears

e) A policeman who investigates serious crime is called a _ ___, not uniform.

f) In some countries murderers are executed but other countries have abolished the

F. Sentences

before; in; to; of; with.

a) He's being kept__

b) He was sentenced

c) She got a sentence

d) He was accused_

custody.

___five years.

six months.

murder, theft.

handcuffs.

e) She's been charged____

f) He appeared____court______

g) They were brought_____the judge.

h) The jury reached a verdict_____guilty.

Just for Fun

A beautiful blonde walked into a Chicago police station and gave the desk sergeant a detailed description of a man who had dragged her by the hair down three flights of stairs, threatened to choke her to death and finally beat her up.

"With this description we'll have him arrested in no time," said the desk sergeant.

"But I don't want him arrested", the young woman protested. "Just find

him for me. He promised to marry me."

***

A man sentenced to death was being taken to the execution place in very nasty weather.

"What lousy weather", he remarked.

"You are not the one to grumble", commented one of the escort.

"We've got yet to go back".

***

After an incident in Croydon involving a prison van and a concrete mixer, police are looking for eighteen hardened criminals.

The Two Ronies, BBC TV

***

Thieves respect property; they merely wish the property to become their property that they may more perfectly respect it.

O.K. Chesterton, The Man Who was Thursday, 1908

***

Eth: A professional burglar! Mr. Glum, you told me Ron's Uncle Charlie was a biologist.

Mr. Glum: All I said was, he studies cell structures.

* F.Muir, D. Nor den, The Glums,

London Weekend TV, 1978

***

Murder is always a mistake... One should never do anything that one cannot talk about after dinner.

Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, 1891

***

Eric: It was the corpse. He had a gun in his hand and a knife

in his back. Who d'you think poisoned him?

Erine: Who?

Eric: Nobody. He'd been strangled!

E.Morecambe, E. Wise,

The Morecambe and Wise Joke Book, 1979

***

Marriage is not a word. It is a sentence.

Storry's principle of criminal indictment

The degree of guilt is directly proportional to the intensity of the denial.

Glossary

accident (n) -1. an unusual, unexpected or unforeseen event

2. calamity, casualty, catastrophe, disaster.

3. any unpleasant or unfortunate occurrence that causes injury, loss, suffering or death.

accomplice (n)-one who helps a criminal in a criminal act. accuse (v) - see Ch.I. appoint (v) - see Ch.I.

arson (n) - the criminal act of setting fire to property in order to cause destruction.

- arsonist. v

assassinate (v) -to murder sb. for political reasons or a reward.

assassin (n) - one who murders sb. for a reward or political reasons.

assassination (n). assault (n) -1. a violent physical or verbal attack.

2. an attempt to do or immediate threat of doing unlawful personal

violence.

-assault (v). bail (n) (bond) - money paid by the accused to be released from custody

until the trial.

burglar (n) - one who breaks into houses or other buildings to steal. capital punishment - See Ch.IV. cell (n) - a small room in prison for one or more inmates. commit (v) - see Ch.I. community service (n) - unpaid work for the benefit of the community

done by the offender as punishment. compulsory (adj) - obligatory, mandatory, enforced. crime (n) - violation of law, a grave offence. criminal - see Ch. I. custody (n) - confinement or imprisonment.

- police ~.

- legal ~.

- detain in ~.

- keep in ~. damage(s)(n) - see Ch.IV.

detain (v) - to hold or retain in custody.

- detention (n).

- preventive detention.

detainee (n)- a person held in custody, esp. for political reasons. detective (n) - a policeman or other person engaged in investigating crimes or getting information that is not readily accessible.

- private ~.

deterrent (n) - anything which impedes or has a tendency to prevent

(e.g. punishment is a deterrent to crime). embezzle (v) - to appropriate (e.g. property entrusted to one's care)

fradulently to one's own use.

- embezzlement(n). enquiry (n) - see inquiry.

execute (v) - 1. to put completely into effect.

2. to put to death (legally) as punishment.

execution (n) - 1. putting into force.

2. putting to death as punishment. felony (n) - see Ch. IV. fine (v) - to sentence a person convicted of an offense to pay a penalty in

money.

fine (n) т 1. a sum payable as punishment for an offense.

2. a forfeiture or penalty paid to an injured party in a civil action. fingerprints (n) - impression of the lines of a fingertip taken for

purposes of identification. forge (v) - to fabricate by false imitation, to counterfeit.

a cheque, document, money, signature.

-forger (n)^

forgery (n) - 1. act of making a false or counterfeit document, money,

etc.

2. forged document, banknote, etc. fraud (n) - 1. sth. that is not what it seems to be.

2. anything intentionally calculated to deceive.

-fraudulent (adj). guard (v) - 1. to protect from danger, to make secure.

2. to watch over so as to prevent escape, entry, theft, etc.

guard (n) - a person or a body of men whose duty is to protect a

place, people, etc.

- bodyguard (n).

- safeguard (n). guilty (adj) - see Ch.I.

handcuffs (n) - a pair of metal rings connected by a chain for locking

round criminal's wrists.

handcuff(\).

homicide (n) - the act of killing a human being. illegal (adj) - not authorized by law. imprison (v) - to put into prison.

imprisonment (n), life ~. inquest (n) - judicial inquiry, esp. by a coroner, into the cause of a

sudden, unnatural or unusual death. inquire (v) (into) (also enquire) - to request for information, to

investigate.

- inquiry (n) (also enquiry). * ~ agent (n) - private detective.

investigate (v) -1. to make a systematic examination or study. 2. to conduct an official inquiry.

- ~ a case, a crime.

- investigator (n).

- investigation (n).

kidnap (v) - to seize or detain a person by force and often for ransom.

- kidnapper (n).

- kidnapping (n).

lawbreaker(n) - a person who violates the law.

11-6858

manslaughter(n) - the unlawful killing of a human without any malicious intent or deliberation, which may be involuntary, in the commission of a lawful act without due caution.

misdemeanor(n) - see Ch.IV.

mug(v) - to assault, esp. in the street with indent to rob.

- mugger (n).

murder(v) - to kill (sb.) unlawfully and intentionally.

- to commit ~.

- murderer (n).

- murder (n).

oath(n) - a solemn promise to tell the truth.

- to administer an ~.

- to take an ~.

- on/under ~

offence(n) - (US: offense) - see Ch.I.

penalty(n) - punishment legally imposed or incurred.

death ~ - capital punishment. pickpocket(n) - one who steals from pockets or bags. probation(n) - a method of dealing with (young) offenders by which a

sentence is suspended.

- put on ~.

- probationer - an offender on probation.

- ~ officer - an officer appointed to supervise the conduct of offenders on probation.

punish(v) - to impose a penalty on (an offender) or for (an offense).

- punishment

- capital ~

- corporal ~.





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