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Violation – infringement – contravention




Lawyer – jurist

Act – action

 

g Explain the meaning of these sentences, in simplier words and translate the sentences into Russian:

 

1 International lawyers have increasingly addressed the problem of low-level uses of force.

2 French action clearly fell within the broad concept of «international delinquency».

3 This concept encompasses acts short of belligerency.

4 The attack was universally condemned as contrary to international law.

5 The abuse of New Zealand sovereignty was illegal.

6 The goverment initially claimed the agents had merely engaged in «surveillance».

7 A more accurate description would be spying.

8 International law is oblivious to the peacetime practice of espionage.

 

h Summarise the text in English and translate it into Russian.

 

i Complete the following sentences the way you think appropriate:

 

1 This law review article says that..............................................................................................................

2 The article adds that.................................................................................................................................

3 The article also mentions that..................................................................................................................

4 It stresses that...........................................................................................................................................

5 It underlines that......................................................................................................................................

Text 4

 

The concept of State criminality although widely used in propaganda is not strongly supported in law. State responsibility for delicts is limited to liability for reparations. It is also an established principle that a State which sends agents to commit an acta jure imperii abroad is liable rather than the agents who should enjoy immunity from local courts.

After Mafart and Prieur had been charged with murder and arson but before standing trial, the French government admitted responsibility for the act and was willing to apologise. Consequently, so France claimed, the trial in New Zealand was unjustified and contrary to international practice.

There is a view that individuals are increasingly recognised as subjects of international law, and that agents are liable because they are the means by which acts of State are carried out. On the question of superior orders precepts of the Nürnberg Charter (adopted by a UN Resolution on 11 December 1946) are commonly regarded as part of positive international law.

New Zealand's Memorandum to the Secretary-General cited the International Treaties to support the argument that superior orders was no defence, either in international law or in New Zealand law which the agents were subjected.

New Zealand treated the two agents as common criminals.

International law is inadequate to cope with perpetrators of sporadic violence across State boundaries. Besides the situations including the Rainbow Warrior incident, it has been impossible to establish immunity from local jurisdiction for perpetrators making unauthorised, illegal entries with the official purpose of committing unlawful acts.

The principle of agent immunity cannot apply since officially spies do not exist in time of peace. Sponsoring States typically disown them. For example in the Powers case of 1960 President Eisenhower broke with usual practice and admitted that Powers was spying in plain clothes in a camouflaged U2 plane. American officials justified the espionage, but Powers still stood trial in the then Soviet Union.

When a Soviet submarine ran aground inside a Swedish military security area which it had entered without consent on 27– 28 October 1981, the Swedish authorities assumed jurisdiction over the vessel and crew without Soviet permission. Though for political reasons Sweden made only limited use of its rights.

 

Vocabulary notes

 

immunity [I'mju:nItI] неприкосновенность, иммунитет  
congressional immunity   неприкосновенность члена конгресса  
diplomatic immunity   дипломатическая неприкосновенность  
parliamentary immuntiy   парламентская неприкосновенность  
personal immunity   неприкосновенность личности, право личной  
    неприкосновенности  
presidential immunity   президентский иммунитет  
delict ['dI:lIkt] нарушение закона, правонарушение  
in flagrant delict   на месте преступления  
acta jure imperil (Lat.)   приказ верховной власти  
to apologise [@'pol@³aIz] приносить официальные извинения; извиняться  
to apologise for smth   извиняться за что-либо  
to apologise to smb   извиняться перед кем-либо  
view   взгляд, мнение, точка зрения  
  there is a view that...   существует мнение, что...
  in my view   по моему мнению
  subject ['söb³@kt] 1) субъект; 2) подданный
  superior [sju'pIrI@] старший, начальник
  precept ['prI:sept] 1) указание, инструкция;
      2) вызов в суд, предписание
  to cope with smth   справляться с чем-либо
  boundary ['baund@rI] граница, межа
  to form a boundary   являться границей
  to codify ['koudIfaI] составлять кодекс, кодифицировать
  to codify the laws   составлять кодекс законов
  unauthorised [ön'o:T@raIzd] 1) неправомочный; 2) неразрешенный
  to sponsor   устраивать, организовывать, поддерживать, субсидировать
  in plain clothes   в штатском
  plain-clothes man   переодетый полицейский
  to run aground   сесть на мель
  syn.to go aground    
  to strike aground    
  consent [k@n'sent] согласие
  by common consent   с общего согласия
  age of consent   совершеннолетие
  silence gives consent   молчание – знак согласия
  vessel [vesl] судно
  syn. ship    
  crew [kru:] команда, экипаж (на судне, самолете)
  compare: team   команда (политическая, спортивная)
       
             

 



§ Words and Grammar

 

a Find the English equivalents in the text:

 

признать ответственность...........................................................................................................................

ответственность государства......................................................................................................................

право личной неприкосновенности............................................................................................................

пользоваться неприкосновенностью..........................................................................................................

предстать перед судом................................................................................................................................

поддерживать мнение.................................................................................................................................

приказ свыше...............................................................................................................................................

относиться к ним как к обычным преступникам.....................................................................................

 

b Match the words which are close in their meanings:

 

perpetrator secret
covert affair
boundary criminal
delict breach of law
liability frontier
precept responsibility
view instruction
incident opinion

 

с Match the words having opposite meaning:

 

legal inadequate international inferior
authorised illegal superior without
adequate unjustified common local
justified unauthorised peace special
responsible unofficial with war
lawful unlawful inside to reject
official irresponsible to own outside
    to assume to disown
    sporadic continuous

 

d Mark (with a tick) the meaning in which the following words are used in the text:

 

 

e Choose the correct preposition and make a few sentences with these phrases:

 

to cope with/in perpetrators

to admit responsibility of/to the act

the responsibility is limited to/in liability for/in reparations

to be contrary to/with international practice

to be subjected to/with New Zealand law

sporadic violence of/offStateboundaries

to spy in/at plain clothes

 

fInsert the correct article, if necessary:

 

It is not strongly supported in... law.

part of... positive international law

in... international law

in... New Zealand law

to be charged with... murder and... arson

to stand... trial

... Nürnberg Charter

... President Eisenhower

g Use the correct forms of the verbs:

 

1 This concept (not to support) strongly in law.

2 After the French agents (to charge) with murder and arson, the French government (to admit) responsibility.

3 The French government (to be willing) to apologise.

4 They (to subject) to New Zealand law.

5 New Zealand (to treat) the agents as common criminals.

 

h Underline the participles and translate the following into Russian:

 

the concept widely used in practice.....................................................................................................................

the Nürnberg Charter adopted by a UN Resolution............................................................................................

situations including this incident.........................................................................................................................

perpetrators making illegal entries......................................................................................................................

an established practice.........................................................................................................................................

codified legal provision.......................................................................................................................................

a camouflaged plane............................................................................................................................................

 

i Translate the following sentences into Russian:

 

1 A State which sends agents is liable rather than the agents themselves.

2 The individuals are increasingly recognised as subjects of international law.

3 The agents are the means by which these acts are carried out.

4 Superior orders was no defence either in international law or in New Zealand law.

5 It has been impossible to establish immunity from local jurisdiction.

6 Powers stood trial in the then USSR.

7 In another incident the Swedish authorities assumed jurisdiction without the other side's permission.

 

j Write out all the words and expressions associated with immunity from the text.

 

§ Suggested activities

k Find the answers in the text:

 

1 How does law treat State criminality and responsibility?

2 How does law treat individuals involved in such cases?

3 What was France's view on this case before the agents stood trial?

4 What was the position of New Zealand government?

 

l Complete these question:

 

1 Were the French agents codified as spies or.........................................?

2 Did the Americans recognise Powers was a spy when.........................?

3 How did Sweden react when a Soviet submarine..................................?

 

m Agree or disagree and substantiate your viewpoint:

 

1 Spies exist only in time of war.

2 New Zealand had every reason to treat the French agents as common criminals.

Text 5

 

The Rainbow Warrior affair bolsters the notion that there is an international doctrine of non-intervention. France was obliged to recognise this, and also to make restitution for contravening the doctrine outlawing armed attack. Further, the case may have a positive long-term benefit in drawing attention to those areas of deficiency, remarked upon by Falk, Lauchterpracht, Crawford and others, in both the substantive rule of international law and its procedures, especially concerning immunity, low-level force, and peacetime espionage. Certainly in government torts the international trend in State practice is to restrict State immunity and assert local jurisdiction, to the extent that it has been said to contribute to the «demystification of the State as a supreme being».

Jurists will note that the outcome of the intergovernment dispute was based on an individual's concept of fairness, producing a ruling rather than a legal judgement. De Cuellar resisted any attempt to imbue the case with theoretical significance or to refer to norms – though no doubt legality as well as practicality formed part of his private deliberations. Yet in so far as the settlement can be considered as an example of State practice, it significantly challenges the principle that either a State or its agents – but not both – are liable for acts contrary to law outside the Geneva Conventions.

 

Vocabulary notes

 

to bolster   1) поддерживать, подкреплять
to bolster a notion    
    поддерживать мнение
to bolster an idea   поддерживать идею
to bolster a theory   поддерживать теорию
to bolster a cause   поддерживать какое-либо дело
    2) подстрекать
restitution [,restI'tju:Sn] 1) реституция (восстановление первоначального правового положения)
    2) реституция (возмещение убытков)
to draw (drew, drawn) [dro, dru:, drO:n] 1) привлечь (внимание)
to draw attention to smth   привлечь (чье-либо) внимание к чему-либо
    2) рисовать
to pay attention to smth   обратить (свое) внимание на что-либо
deficiency [dI'fISnsI] недостаточность, отсутствие (законов)
substantive ['söbst@ntIv] самостоятельный, по сути, по существу
a substantive motion   предложение по существу
tort   деликт, гражданское правонарушение
to assert [@'s@:t] отстаивать, защищать
to assert oneself (one's rights)   отстаивать свои права
mystification [,mIstIfI'keISn] мистификация
outcome ['autköm] результат, последствие, исход
syn. effect, result    
outcome of a dispute   результат обсуждения
outcome of an event   результат мероприятия
outcome of some circumstances   результат каких-либо обстоятельств
fairness   справедливость, чистота,
    незапятнанность
in all fairness   по совести (говоря)
to resist smth [rI'zIst] противостоять чему-либо устоять против чего- либо
to resist an attempt   противостоять попытке
to resist temptation   устоять против соблазна
to imbue [Im'bju:] 1) насыщать; 2) окрашивать
deliberation [,dIlIb@'reISn] 1) обдумывание, взвешивание, размышление
after long deliberation   по зрелом размышлении
    2) обсуждение, дискуссия
to challenge ['tS{lIn³] бросать вызов
    отрицать, сомневаться
    оспаривать, подвергать
    сомнению
       

 

Word stady

aGive the word families of the following words:

 

 

b Write what parts of speech the following words are, how they are formed and translate them into Russian:

international......................... to outlaw.....................................

non-intervention................... to outcome..................................

low-level................................. especially....................................

long-term................................ espionage....................................

peacetime.............................. demystification............................

 

c Complete and translate the following sentences into Russian:

 

1 The case may have a positive long-term.....................................

2 Probably many countries may....................................in future.

3 He spoke without a....................................

4 Jurists will....................................that the outcome was based on an individual's concept of fairness.

5 He resisted any....................................to imbue the case with theoretical significance.

6 They cannot....................................to disagree now.

7 It significantly....................................this principle.

8 They supported his.....................................

 

d Write down synonyms or synonymous expressions of the words in italics and translate the sentences into Russian:

 

1 The Rainbow Warrior affair bolsters the notions (.......................................) that there is an international doctrine of non-intervention.

2 France was obliged (..............................................) to recognise this.

3 It made restitution for contravening (................................................) the doctrine outlawing armed attack.

4 The outcome of the dispute based on an individual's concept of fairness produced a ruling (.........................................................) rather than a legal judgement.

5 The Secretary-General resisted any attempt (..............................................................) to refer to norms.

6 Yet in so far as the settlement can be considered (.................................................) as an example of State practice it challenges the principle that only a State or its agent – but not both – can be liable for acts contrary to law outside the Geneva Conventions.

 

e Group the words and expressions from the box into a few logical units:

government torts, intergovernment dispute, doctrine of nonintervention, doctrine outlawing armed attack, area of deficiency in the substantive rule, area of deficiency in the procedures, low level force, peacetime espionage, concept of fairness, to make restitution for contravening the doctrine, to be liable for acts contrary to law

 

Group
         

 

Suggested activities

 

f The text contains both statements of fact and statements of personal opinion. Decide which statements are based on the author's personal opinion. Write down the words, phrases or sentences expressing the author's opinion.

 

g Agree or disagree and substantiate your viewpoint::

 

1 The outcome of the dispute is very simple.

2 The Greenpeace activities are constantly in focus of worldwide press.

3 This material is of great importance to any jurist.

 





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