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Схема формул английского сказуемого.




Схема формул английского сказуемого.


Общие понятия, использованные в схеме:

1. Залог (есть в русском языке).

Active (действительный) - когда подлежащее (главный член предложения) само выполняет действие:

Ученики пишут диктант – подлежащее ученики само выполняет действие => Active

Passive (страдательный) - когда действие выполняется над подлежащим:

Диктант пишется учениками. - подлежащее диктант подвергается действию со стороны дополнения (ученики) =>Passive

2. Характер действия (в русском языке отсутствует).

* Indefinite - сообщение о действии как обычном факте.

* Continuous - сообщение о действии, которое в описываемой ситуации требует затраты на себя определенного времени.

* Perfect - завершенность действия (не обязательно) + важность сообщения для собеседника + возможность для собеседника воспользоваться сообщением о выполненном действии.

* Perfect Continuous -сообщение о действии, происходящем в течение какого-то промежутка времени (промежуток времени указывается или

подразумевается).

3. Время (есть в русском языке).

* Past - прошедшее

* Present - настоящее

* Future - будущее


Как видно из рисунка – мы получим 21 время английского языка.

Как сказано ранее, формула для определения времени состоит из трех переменных. Этозалог, характер действия и время. Итак, рассмотрим формулы для правильного построения предложения:

 

ACTIVE – активный залог


1. Indefinite – простое действие

…глагол… Используется просто глагол без вспомогательных глаголов.

Past: Он работал вчера – He worked yesterday.

Present: Он работает каждое утро – He works every morning.

Future: Он будет работать завтра – He will work tomorrow.


2. Continuous – продолженное действие

to be + ... глагол … + ing. Используется глагол со вспомогательным глаголом to be и к основному глаголу добавляется окончание ing.


В прошедшем ((Past) времени глагол to be становить was (were – во множественном)

В настоящем (Present) времени глагол to be становить is (are - во множественном)

В будущее (Future) времени глагол to be становить will be (shall – если первое лицо, т.е. Я, Мы)


Past: Он работал вчера весь день – He was working yesterday the whole day.

Present: Он сейчас работает – He is working now.

Future: Он будет работать завтра весь вечер – He will be working tomorrow the whole evening.


3. perfect – совершенное действие (к данному моменту времени)

to have + ... глагол … ed (3-я форма)

Past: Он закончил работу вчера к 6 часам – He had finished the work yesterday by 6.

Present: Он закончил работу недавно – He has finished the work recently.

Future: Он закончит работу завтра к 3 часам – He will have finished the work tomorrow by 3.


4. perfect continuous – совершенное продолженное действие

to have been + ... глагол … + ing

Past: Он работал уже два часа, когда мы вернулись – He had been working for 2 hours when we returned.

Present: Он делает работу уже в течение 3-х часов – He has been doing the work for 3 hours already.

Future: К тому времени, как ты придешь, он проработает уже 2 часа. – When you come he will have been working for 2 hours already.

 

PASSIVE -- пассивный залог (страдательный).

Когда действие выполняется над подлежащим.

 

1. Indefinite
to be + ... глагол … + ed (3-я форма)

Past: Работа была сделана вчера – The work was done yesterday.

Present: Работа сделана – The work is done.

Future: Работа будет сделана завтра – The work will be done tomorrow.


2. Continues
to be being + ... глагол … + ed (3-я форма)

Past: was или were + be+ing + III ф.гл. Этот дом строился в течение целого года – This house was being built for a whole year.

Present: have или has + being + III ф.гл. Этот дом строится теперь – This house is being built now.

 

3. Perfect
to have been + ... глагол … + ed (3-я форма)

Past: had + been + III ф.гл. Пять новых зданий были построены к прошлому году в Москве – Five new houses had been built by last year in Moscow.

Present: have или has + been + III ф.гл. Этот дом был построен недавно – This house has been built recently.

Future: will + have + been + III ф.гл. Пять новых зданий будут построены к следующему году в Москве – Five new houses will have been built by next year in Moscow.

 


4. Perfect Continues
не существует


При построении любой фразы по-английски нам всякий раз необходимо выбрать одну формулу, соответствующую описываемой ситуации. Поставив на первое место в предложении подлежащее, мы начинаем поиск нужной формулы - ищем одну формулу из семи. Сначала, определяем какой залог: Active или Passive. Подлежащее само выполняет действие (Active), или действие выполняется над ним (Passive)? После этого нам остается определить только характер действия. Вариантов остается только 4 или 3 (в зависимости от залога).



Например:

Мама сейчас спит. - сама выполняет действие или действие выполняется над ней? – сама (Active)

Формулы Passive для этой ситуации нам не нужны, дальше продолжаем поиск только, из четырех формул Active.
Далее определяем характер действия Indefinite (Simple), Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous. Выбор характера действия - самый сложный момент в анализе английского сказуемого, потому что в русском языке мы это не делаем, значит, не имеем опыта.

 

 

Simple Present

FORM

[VERB] + s/es in third person

Examples:

· You speak English.

· Do you speak English?

· You do not speak English.

· My mother does not cook fish

Complete List of Simple Present Forms

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

Examples:

· I play tennis.

· She does not play tennis.

· Does he play tennis?

· The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.

· The train does not leave at 9 AM.

· When does the train usually leave?

· She always forgets her purse.

· He never forgets his wallet.

· Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.

· Does the Sun circle the Earth?

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You only speak English.

· Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active

· Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive

Present Continuous

FORM

[am/is/are + present participle]

Examples:

· You are watching TV.

· Are you watching TV?

· You are not watching TV.

Complete List of Present Continuous Forms

USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

Examples:

· You are learning English now.

· You are not swimming now.

· Are you sleeping?

· I am sitting.

· I am not standing.

· Is he sitting or standing?

· They are reading their books.

· They are not watching television.

· What are you doing?

· Why aren't you doing your homework?

USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.

Examples:

· I am meeting some friends after work.

· I am not going to the party tonight.

· Is he visiting his parents next weekend?

· Isn't he coming with us tonight?

USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

Examples:

· She is always coming to class late.

· He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.

· I don't like them because they are always complaining.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You are still watching TV.

· Are you still watching TV?

Simple Past

FORM

[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs

Examples:

· You called Debbie.

· Did you call Debbie?

· You did not call Debbie.

Complete List of Simple Past Forms

USE 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

Examples:

· I lived in Brazil for two years.

· Shauna studied Japanese for five years.

· They sat at the beach all day.

· They did not stay at the party the entire time.

· We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.

· A: How long did you wait for them?
B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

Examples:

· I studied French when I was a child.

· He played the violin.

· He didn't play the piano.

· Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?

· She worked at the movie theater after school.

· They never went to school, they always skipped class.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You just called Debbie.

· Did you just call Debbie?

Past Continuous

FORM

[was/were + present participle]

Examples:

· You were studying when she called.

· Were you studying when she called?

· You were not studying when she called.

Complete List of Past Continuous Forms

IMPORTANT

In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.

Examples:

· Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
I started eating at 6 PM.

· Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
I started earlier;and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner.

USE 3 Parallel Actions

When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.

Examples:

· I was studying while he was making dinner.

· While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.

· Were you listening while he was talking?

· I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.

· What were you doing while you were waiting?

· Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either.

· They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

USE 4 Atmosphere

In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.

Example:

· When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

Examples:

· She was always coming to class late.

· He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.

· I didn't like them because they were always complaining.

While vs. When

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.

Examples:

· I was studying when she called.

· While I was studying, she called.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You were just studying when she called.

· Were you just studying when she called?

Present Perfect

FORM

[has/have + past participle]

Examples:

· You have seen that movie many times.

· Have you seen that movie many times?

· You have not seen that movie many times.

Complete List of Present Perfect Forms

TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

Examples:

· I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.

· I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.

· I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.

· I think I have seen that movie before.

· He has never traveled by train.

· Joan has studied two foreign languages.

· A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.

Examples:

· You have grown since the last time I saw you.

· The government has become more interested in arts education.

· Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.

· My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

Examples:

· Man has walked on the Moon.

· Our son has learned how to read.

· Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

· Scientists have split the atom.

NOTICE

"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.

Examples:

· I went to Mexico last year.
I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.

· I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You have only seen that movie one time.

· Have you only seen that movie one time?

Present Perfect Continuous

FORM

[has/have + been + present participle]

Examples:

· You have been waiting here for two hours.

· Have you been waiting here for two hours?

· You have not been waiting here for two hours.

Complete List of Present Perfect Continuous Forms

USE 2 Recently, Lately

You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.

Examples:

· Recently, I have been feeling really tired.

· She has been watching too much television lately.

· Have you been exercising lately?

· Mary has been feeling a little depressed.

· Lisa has not been practicing her English.

· What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You have only been waiting here for one hour.

· Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

Past Perfect

FORM

[had + past participle]

Examples:

· You had studied English before you moved to New York.

· Had you studied English before you moved to New York?

· You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Complete List of Past Perfect Forms

MOREOVER

If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

Examples:

· She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

· She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Examples:

· She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct

· She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.

· Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Active

· Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. Passive

Past Perfect Continuous

FORM

[had been + present participle]

Examples:

· You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

· Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?

· You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

Complete List of Past Perfect Continuous Forms

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.

· Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. Active

· The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common.

Simple Future

Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.

FORM Will

[will + verb]

Examples:

· You will help him later.

· Will you help him later?

· You will not help him later.

FORM Be Going To

[am/is/are + going to + verb]

Examples:

· You are going to meet Jane tonight.

· Are you going to meet Jane tonight?

· You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

Complete List of Simple Future Forms

USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action

"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.

Examples:

· I will sendyou the information when I get it.

· I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.

· Will you help me move this heavy table?

· Will you make dinner?

· I will not do your homework for you.

· I won't do all the housework myself!

· A: I'm really hungry.
B: I'll make some sandwiches.

· A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
B: I'll get you some coffee.

· A: The phone is ringing.
B: I'll get it.

USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise

"Will" is usually used in promises.

Examples:

· I will call you when I arrive.

· If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.

· I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.

· Don't worry, I'll be careful.

· I won't tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan

"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.

Examples:

· He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.

· She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.

· A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.

· I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.

· Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.

· They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.

· Who are you going to invite to the party?

· A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.

USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction

Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.

Examples:

· The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.

· The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.

· John Smith will be the next President.

· John Smith is going to be the next President.

· The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.

· The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

IMPORTANT

In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence's meaning.

No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.

Examples:

· When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct

· When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You will never help him.

· Will you ever help him?

· You are never going to meet Jane.

· Are you ever going to meet Jane?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active

· The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive

· Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. Active

· A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. Passive

Future Perfect

Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect with "Will"

[will have + past participle]

Examples:

· You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

· Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?

· You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"

[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]

Examples:

· You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

· Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?

· You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning.

Complete List of Future Perfect Forms

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You will only have learned a few words.

· Will you only have learned a few words?

· You are only going to have learned a few words.

· Are you only going to have learned a few words?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active

· The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive

· They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active

· The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive

Future Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"

[will have been + present participle]

Examples:

· You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

· Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?

· You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"

[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

Examples:

· You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

· Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?

· You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.

Complete List of Future Perfect Continuous Forms

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

· You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

· Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

· You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

· Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active

· The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive

· The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active

· The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.

Used To

FORM

[used to + VERB]

Example:

· I used to go to the beach every day.

It is better not to use "used to" in questions or negative forms; however, this is sometimes done in informal spoken English. It is better to ask questions and create negative sentences using Simple Past.

USE 1 Habit in the Past

"Used to" expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. It indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now.

Examples:

· Jerry used to study English.

· Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.

· I used to start work at 9 o'clock.

· Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· Jerry used to pay the bills. Active

· The bills used to be paid by Jerry. Passive

Would Always

FORM

[would always + VERB]

Examples:

· You would always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach.

· Would you always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach?

· You would not always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach.

USE 1 Habit in the Past

Like "used to" and Simple Past, "would always" expresses the idea that something was an old habit which stopped in the past. It says that an action was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now. Unlike "used to" and Simple Past, "would always" suggests that someone willingly acted that way and sometimes expresses annoyance or amusement at the habit. It also often suggests the habit was extreme. To express the opposite idea, we can say "would never" to indicate that someone never did something in the past, but now they do.

Examples:

· She would always send me strange birthday gifts.

· Sam and Mary would always choose the most exotic vacation destinations.

· Sally would not always arrive early to class. She came late once or twice.

· Ned would always show up at our house without calling first.

· Mindy would not always walk to school. Sometimes, she took the bus.

· Christine would always come late to the meetings.

· Jeff would never pay for drinks when we went out together with our friends.
Refusing to do something or normally not doing something is also a form of habit.

REMEMBER "Would Always" is Different

"Would always" is not exactly the same as "used to" or the Simple Past. "Would always" cannot be used to talk about past facts or generalizations. It can only be used for repeated actions.

Examples:

· Sarah was shy, but now she is very outgoing. Correct

· Sarah used to be shy, but now she is very outgoing. Correct

· Sarah would always be shy, but now she is very outgoing. Not Correct

Forms Related to "Would Always"

In addition to "would always," English speakers often use "would constantly," "would often," "would forever" or simply "would." Although the last form "would" is correct, it is not suggested because it can easily be confused with other verb forms such as the Conditional or Future in the Past. Similarly, speakers can use "would rarely," "would occasionally" and "would seldom" to express the idea that an action was not often repeated.

Examples:

· Jerry would come to the parties every weekend.

· Jerry would constantly bring his girlfriend to the parties.

· Jerry would often bring his best friend to the parties.

· Jerry would occasionally bring his older brother to the parties.

· Jerry would seldom bring his sister to the parties.

· Jerry would never bring his younger brother to the parties.

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· My mother would always makethe pies. Active

· The pies would always be madeby my mother. Passive

Future in the Past

Like Simple Future, Future in the Past has two different forms in English: "would" and "was going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two different meanings.

FORM Would

[would + VERB]

Examples:

· I knew you would help him.

· I knew you would not help him.

FORM Was/Were Going To

[was/were + going to + VERB]

Examples:

· I knew you were going to go to the party.

· I knew you were not going to go to the party.

USE 1 Future in Past

Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. "Would" is used to volunteer or promise, and "was going to" is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future.

Examples:

· I told you he was going to come to the party. plan

· I knew Julie would make dinner. voluntary action

· Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone. plan

· I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster. prediction

· He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt. promise

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

· I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active

· I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive

· I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner. Active

· I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally. Passive

Active / Passive Verb Forms

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

Active / Passive Overview

  Active Passive
Simple Present Once a week, Tom cleans the house. Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous Right now, Sarah is writing the letter. Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past Sam repaired the car. The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect Many tourists have visited that castle. That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous Recently, John has been doing the work. Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.
Past Perfect Continuous Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future will Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM. The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future be going to Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous will At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous be going to At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfect will They will have completed the project before the deadline. The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect be going to They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous will The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous be going to The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to Jerry used to pay the bills. The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always My mother would always makethe pies. The pies would always be madeby my mother.
Future in the Past Would I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past Was Going to I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

 

 

Types of Verbs

Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups: Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed Verbs.

Group I Normal Verbs

Most verbs are "Normal Verbs." These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.

Normal Verbs

to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc.

Examples:

· I eat dinner every day.

· I am eating dinner now.

Abstract Verbs

to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist...

Possession Verbs

to possess, to own, to belong...

Emotion Verbs

to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind...

Examples:

· He is needing help now. Not Correct

· He needs help now. Correct

· He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct

· He wants a drink now. Correct

Group III Mixed Verbs

The third group, called "Mixed Verbs," is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb. Some meanings behave like "Non-Continuous Verbs," while other meanings behave like "Normal Verbs."

Mixed Verbs

to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh...

List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions:

to appear:

· Donna appears confused. Non-Continuous Verb
Donna seems confused.

· My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. Normal Verb
My favorite singer is giving a performance at the jazz club tonight.

to have:

· I have a dollar now. Non-Continuous Verb
I possess a dollar.

· I am having fun now. Normal Verb
I am experiencing fun now.

to hear:

· She hears the music. Non-Continuous Verb
She hears the music with her ears.

· She is hearing voices. Normal Verb
She hears something others cannot hear. She is hearing voices in her mind.

to look:

· Nancy looks tired. Non-Continuous Verb
She seems tired.

· Farah is looking at the pictures. Normal Verb
She is looking with her eyes.

to miss:

· John misses Sally. Non-Continuous Verb
He is sad because she is not there.

· Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. Normal Verb
She is not there to see her favorite program.

to see:

· I see her. Non-Continuous Verb
I see her with my eyes.

· I am seeing the doctor. Normal Verb
I am visiting or consulting with a doctor. (Also used with dentist and lawyer.)

· I am seeing her. Normal Verb
I am having a relationship with her.

· He is seeing ghosts at night. Normal Verb
He sees something others cannot see. For example ghosts, aura, a vision of the future, etc.

to smell:

· The coffee smells good. Non-Continuous Verb
The coffee has a good smell.

· I am smelling the flowers. Normal Verb
I am sniffing the flowers to see what their smell is like.

to taste:

· The coffee tastes good. Non-Continuous Verb
The coffee has a good taste.

· I am tasting the cake. Normal Verb
I am trying the cake to see what it tastes like.

to think:

· He thinks the test is easy. Non-Continuous Verb
He considers the test to be easy.

· She is thinking about the question. Normal Verb
She is pondering the question, going over it in her mind.

to weigh:

· The table weighs a lot. Non-Continuous Verb
The table is heavy.

· She is weighing herself. Normal Verb
She is determining her weight.

Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing:

to be:

· Joe is American. Non-Continuous Verb
Joe is an American citizen.

· Joe is being very American. Normal Verb
Joe is behaving like a stereotypical American.

· Joe is being very rude. Normal Verb
Joe is behaving very rudely. Usually he is not rude.

· Joe is being very formal. Normal Verb
Joe is behaving very formally. Usually he is not formal.

NOTICE: Only rarely is "to be" used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone's behavior is noticeably different.

to feel:

· The massage feels great. Non-Continuous Verb
The massage has a pleasing feeling.

· I don't feelwell today. Sometimes used as Non-Continuous Verb
I am a little sick.
I am not feeling well today. Sometimes used as Normal Verb
I am a little sick.

NOTICE: The second meaning of "feel" is very flexible and there is no real difference in meaning between "I don't feel well today" and "I am not feeling well today."

Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences:

1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person.

Examples:

· He can speak Chinese.

· She should be here by 9:00.

2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.

Examples:

· He should not be late.

· They might not come to the party.

3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses.

Examples:

· He will can go with us. Not Correct

· She musted study very hard. Not Correct

Common Modal Verbs

Can Could May Might Must Ought to Shall Should Will Would

For the purposes of this tutorial, we have included some expressions which are not modal verbs including had better, have to,and have got to. These expressions are closely related to modals in meaning and are often interchanged with them.

 

Схема формул английского сказуемого.


Общие понятия, использованные в схеме:

1. Залог (есть в русском языке).

Active (действительный) - когда подлежащее (главный член предложения) само выполняет действие:

Ученики пишут диктант – подлежащее ученики само выполняет действие => Active

Passive (страдательный) - когда действие выполняется над подлежащим:

Диктант пишется учениками. - подлежащее диктант подвергается действию со стороны дополнения (ученики) =>Passive





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