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Give the distinctive characteristics of the categories of fashion design.



(Environmental) Sustainable Design

Fig.7. Eco-design advantages

Sustainable design (also called environmentaldesign, environmentally

sustainable design, environmentally-conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment and services to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. In

some countries the term sustainable design is known as Ecodesign or green design.

The intention of sustainable design is to “eliminate negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design”.

Manifestations of sustainable designs require no non-renewable resources,

impact on the environment minimally, and relate people with the natural

environment.

Applications of this philosophy range from the microcosm – small objects

for everyday use, through to the macrocosm – buildings, cities, and the earth's

physical surface. It is a philosophy that can be applied in the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, urban planning, engineering, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, and fashion design.

Sustainable design is mostly a general reaction to global environmental

crises, the rapid growth of economic activity and human population, depletion of natural resources, damage to ecosystems and loss of biodiversity.

The limits of sustainable design that is reducing whole earth impacts are

beginning to be considered because growth in goods and services is consistently outpacing gains in efficiency. As a result, the net effect of sustainable design to date has been to simply improve the efficiency of rapidly increasing impacts.

The present approach, which focuses on the efficiency of delivering individual goods and services does not solve this problem. The basic dilemmas include: the increasing complexity of efficiency improvements, the difficulty of implementing new technologies in societies built around old ones, that physical impacts of delivering goods and services are not localized but distributed throughout the economies, and that the scale of resource uses is growing and not stabilizing.

The motivation for sustainable design was articulated in E.F. Schumacher's 1973 book Small Is Beautiful. In architecture, sustainable design is not the attachment or supplement of architectural design, but an integrated design process. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers and the client at all project stages, from the site selection, scheme formation, material selection and procurement and project implementation.

Glossary


sustainable design – гармоничный

дизайн, экологическое планирова-

ние, экодизайн

non-renewable resources – невозобновимые ресурсы

urban design, urban planning – градостроительное проектирование,

городское планирование

depletion – уменьшение, истоще-ние

net effect – результирующий эф-

фект; суммарное воздействие;

совокупный эффект

to outpace – опережать

E.F. Schumacher – Эрнст Фридрих

Шумахер

“Small Is Beautiful” – «Меньше –

лучше»


Exercises

Say whether these sentences are true or false.

1. Sustainable design, i.e. environmentally-unconscious design, is the philosophy

of designing objects with disregard to principles of economic, social

and ecological sustainability.

2. One of sustainable design manifestations is requirement of using-non

renewable resources.

3. Sustainable design philosophy could be applied for building cities only,

hence the name – sustainable design.

4. One of basic dilemmas of sustainable design is the difficulty of implementing

new technologies in societies around old ones.

5. The intention of sustainable design is to eradicate negative environmental

impact through skillful, sensitive design.

Answer the following questions.

1. According to E.F. Schumacher's book “Small is Beautiful”, what is a

sustainable design in architecture?

2. Describe factors responsible for the birth of sustainable design. 5. What dilemmas are associated with the net effect of sustainable design?

Design in the XXIst century

As in earlier decades, museums have continued to present industrial design

to the public. Many museums specifically devoted to design were constructed,

expanded, or remodeled during the 1980s and ’90s; examples include

the Design Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum, both in London, the museums of applied art in Frankfurt and Vienna, the Musé e des Arts Dé coratifs in Paris, and the Neue Sammlung (New Collection) in Munich.

Even more spectacular new museums featuring industrial design products

were established in the XXIst century, the most notable being the Glass Pavilion of the Toledo Museum of Art in Ohio, U.S., designed by Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa (opened 2006); the Mercedes Benz Museum in Stuttgart, Germany, designed by Ben van Berkel of UN Studio (opened 2006); and the Harley-Davidson Museum in Milwaukee, Wis., U.S., designed in 2006 by Jim Biber of Pentagram Architecture.

While museum buildings and exhibits lent a seriousness to the field of industrial design, the general public was increasingly obtaining firsthand experience with affordable designed artifacts through successful chains of specialty stores that concentrated on home furnishings, such as Williams-Sonoma, Pottery Barn, Crate and Barrel, IKEA, and the EXPO Design Centers created by Home Depot.

 

Fig. 6. iPods by Apple

Those stores owed an enormous debt to the design mogul Sir Terence

Conran and his pioneering designs for the Habitat Stores (1964 and later).

Conran wanted his stores to promote affordable, attractive, and functional

modern goods to the general public. His consistently well-designed displays and products prefigured contemporary efforts by manufacturers such as Apple to effectively retail their products within a compatibly designed space. Tim Kobe of the San Francisco architectural firm Eight Inc. designed the standard Apple computer stores from the earliest establishments in San Francisco

(2001) to shopping malls and renovated buildings across the United States (2001–2004), including larger new structures in Chicago (2003) and New York (2006). In part because of the success of these spaces, Kobe’s firm is planning and building similar standardized stores across the world for other firms. In all, these environments consistently present a company’s products in a way that is both ennobling, as in a museum, and approachable.

In one particular, specially designed stores are more effective tools than

design museums because the consumer can actually touch and take home the

products on display.

The public’s increasing access to well-designed objects has been accompanied by a growing integration of technology into design. In part, this has been made possible by the wealth of new materials available to designers, from electronic liquid crystal displays to composites such as carbon fibre, which provides great strength despite its light weight. Since the 1980s, industrial designers have helped produce the small electronic appliances – including laptop computers, mobile telephones with video capabilities and GPS (Global Positioning System) devices, and iPods – that have permeated people’s lives around the world.

Glossary

to ennoble – облагораживать

carbon fibre – углеродное волокно

GPS (Global Positioning System) –

глобальная система навигации и

определения положения

Exercises


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