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Выпишите из словаря транскрипцию и перевод следующих слов. Запомните их произношение и значения.



Введение

 

Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов факультета «Автоматические системы управления технологическими процессами» и имеет цель развить навыки чтения и перевода специальной научно-технической литературы. Тексты посвящены общим вопросам автоматического управления производственными процессами.

Работа состоит из 24 уроков, приложений и словаря. Каждый урок включает два текста: для устного изучения и для письменного перевода. Предшествующие текстам упражнения имеют цель снять фонетические, лексические и грамматические трудности и определить словарный минимум, который студенты должны заучить. Послетекстовые упражнения предназначены для активизации лексико-грамматических знаний студентов по данной теме и повторения словарного минимума урока. Тексты для письменного перевода служат углублению навыков изучающего чтения по специальности.

Раздел «Приложения» содержит:

1. Коррективный фонетико-орфоэпический курс на лексике специальности.

2. Таблицы основных грамматических трудностей перевода технических текстов и упражнения к ним также на специальной лексике.

Все методические материалы «Приложения» используются преподавателем по своему усмотрению.

Словарь, прилагаемый в конце пособия, включает необходимые для перевода слова в их контекстуальном значении.

Урок 1

 

Вспомните основные правила чтения согласных букв в английском языке (Приложение 1, часть 1). Прочитайте следующие слова и объясните их чтение .

supervision, manufacturing, stochastic, machine, require, ensure, beginning, increase, essential

 

Выпишите из словаря транскрипцию и перевод следующих слов. Запомните их произношение и значения.

supervise (v), supervision (n), recognize (v), involve (v), relieve (v), drive (v), obtain (v), require (v), reduce (v), increase (v), grow (v), monitor (v), on-line (a)

 

Правильно прочитайте интернациональные слова и дайте их русский эквивалент. Посмотрите в словаре, выпишите с переводом и выучите подчёркнутые слова.

product [‘prɒdʌkt], production [prə’dʌkʃn], automation [,ɔ:tə’meɪʃn], manufacture [,mænjʊ’fækʧə], parameter [pə’ræmɪtə]

 

От данных глаголов с помощью суффиксов -tion (-ation, -ion, -sion) образуйте существительные со значением названия действия или его результата. Переведите их .

supervise, operate, optimize, apply, specify, produce, inform, concentrate, associate, decide

 

Переведите следующие существительные, образованные с помощью суффикса -ing и означающие название действия или его результат.

manufacturing, monitoring, beginning, meaning, increasing, checking, machining, functioning

 

Прочитайте и переведите словосочетания .

production system, production process, control system, end product, machine tool, research work, error signal, rule base, reagent flow requirement, on-line human activity

 

Переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные значения слова “since”.

1) Since the atomic structure became known, many chemical processes were explained.

2) The need for automatic supervision has been recognized since the very beginning of industrial manufacture.

3) Since many factors can lead to many undesirable (нежелательный) effects, complete automatic monitoring is possible in exceptional (исключительный) cases.

4) Since the beginning of the 1940s, the computing technique has started to develop successfully.

 

Урок 2

 

Вспомните основные правила чтения гласных букв в английском языке. (Приложение 1, часть 2). Прочитайте следующие слова и объясните их чтение.

related, produce, production, requirement, optimization, disturbance

Выпишите из словаря следующие слова с транскрипцией и переводом. Запомните их произношение и значение .

apply (v), batch (n), consider (v), demand (n), dimension (n), designate(v), level (n), mean (v), meaning (n), quality (n), property (n), tolerance (n)

Урок 3

 

Вспомните основные правила чтения сочетаний гласных (Приложение 1, часть 3). Прочитайте следующие слова и объясните их чтение.

feature, obtain, measure, tool

Урок 4

Вспомните основные правила ударения в английском языке (Приложение 1, часть 4). Прочитайте следующие слова и объясните ударение в них .

to permit, disturbances, supervise, supervising, manufacturing, control, controller, the ‘reject, to re’ject

 

Урок 5

 

Урок 6

 

Урок 7

 

Урок 8

 

Урок 9

 

Урок 10

 

Урок 11

 

Урок 12

 

Урок 13

 

Урок 14

 

Урок 15

 

Урок 16

 

Урок 17

 

Урок 18

 

Урок 19

 

Урок 20

 

Переведите словосочетания.

безошибочный, программа обнаружения ошибки, обнаружить местоположение ошибки, ошибки происходят, обнаруженная ошибка, различать ошибки, разнообразие методов

 

Урок 21

 

Урок 22

 

Урок 23

 

Vice versa – наоборот .

 

1) In a closed-loop system the influence of all disturbances on the measured quantity may be corrected, but a posteriori.

2) External errors cause internal errors and vice versa.

3) A monitoring unit can receive the data of one of the several functions via adequate interface.

4) We know a priori the advantage of this system.

 

10. Подберите термины (break-down; signal processing; intelligent monitoring system) к следующим определениям .



1) A failure in operation which causes a stoppage of the process.

2) Self-improving monitoring system with some ability to learn on the basis of monitoring experience.

3) Set of operations performed on the signal in order to derive the desired information.

 

Урок 24

 

Герундий: упражнения

 

  1. Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Drafting involves using the computer as a tool in making, checking, correcting and revising original drawings.
  2. The computer can be used for converting a rough sketch into a finished working drafting, for producing numerical control, process control.
  3. Selecting one type over the other is almost always a trade-off (выбор) between the cost of the machine and computational speed it can handle.
  4. Real picture can be "photographed" into the computer system by being scanned by a digital camera.
  5. Determining the best output device for a particular CAD/CAM application is a three-step process: 1) specifying how hardcopies (копии на твердой основе) will be used; 2) identifying quality and cost criteria and 3) selecting equipment most suited for the application.
  6. In order to communicate with such a minimal system the user needs also a simple device capable of displaying or recording the computer output.
  7. A common method of transferring large blocks of data between a computer and a peripheral device is called a direct memory access.
  8. The problem of converting analog electrical signals into precise digital equipment is most often solved by using an analog-to-digital converter.
  9. Personal computers with their standard 16-bit processors have an advantage of being able to run (обслуживать) a substantial amount of software such as programs for word processing.

 

 



Инфинитив: упражнения

А

  1. To find the mass of the electron was then of prime importance.
  2. To be fully effective control must start with the production of raw materials.
  3. To improve the automatic system the engineers had to make numerous experiments.
  4. To improve the accuracy of automatic supervision means to expand its usefulness.
  5. To supervise manufacturing process is of great importance for every industry.
  6. To supervise manufacturing process the engineers have to study all kinds of disturbances influencing the production run.
  7. To pick (брать) the product parts requires high robot repeatability accuracy.
  8. To transfer the product parts the movements of the robot must be as quick as possible.
  9. The problem to consider next is concerned with classification of supervisory systems.
  10. It was the first significant factor to be studied.
  11. The method to be followed is based upon some peculiar properties of these rays.
  12. There was only one signal to be detected.
  13. There is only finite number of waves to characterize electronic states.
  14. Attractive forces make molecules collide.

B

  1. The central processing unit carries out program instructions to perform operations on data.
  2. The task is to set up (установить) robotized complexes and flexible productions capable of transferring easily and quickly to an output of new goods (изделия).
  3. Artificial intelligence and robotics are actually in their infancy, but they promise a lot of useful things to do.
  4. Lasers work with program interactively to synthesize logic functions and produce functional designs.
  5. The technology to support the development of microprocessor has grown significantly and has made possible to include larger number of devices on a single piece of silicon.
  6. The first option (вариант) to be selected by the system designer is the use of the type of processor technology.
  7. A practical aspect to be considered is power plant production control.
  8. The user specifies the protocol to be used in a program in a microprocessor unit.
  9. The choice of methods depends on the peripheral, the access time of the memory involved and the size of the data block to be transferred.
  10. There is a choice to be made between hardware designed especially for the particular application and general purpose microcomputer card which requires the minimum of special logic.
  11. There were many additional problems to be overcome to implement the smaller bubble films (магнитная лента) for 1-Mbit devices.
  12. To create the model the interactive terminal screen is usually divided into sections showing various views of the model.
  13. An expert system is a computer program which deals with a specialized field requiring some expertise to provide solutions to problems and/or to give advice.
  14. One purpose of processing the image may be to count all the objects in an area, another may be to describe them, the third may be to determine their exact location, the fourth – to find all kinds of irregularities that can put different problems.

 



Приложение 3

Safety systems

Safety systems, sometimes also called monitoring systems in industry, are on-line diagnosing systems used to prevent break-downs or to minimize the damage caused by catastrophic tool failure. These systems usually monitor the process, and the control action that is taken is a simple on/off signal. A safety system may be considered as a "safety net" for the machine tool, the tool or the workpiece. A safety system is a system that monitors the process and stops execution at dangerous level.

Of all the supervision systems used in industry today, safety systems are the most common, especially in turning (токарные работы) and boring (сверлильные работы). The existing systems all belong to the emergency type of safety systems.

The first systems appeared on the market in the mid-1970s. Since then, the systems have developed to such an extent that one could even speak of different generations.

Safety systems of the first generation usually consist of a monitoring device made up of a transducer, an amplifier and electronic devices that analyse the measured signal. They also work with teaching techniques. It means that information about the measured process quantity is recorded and memorized together with NC information. This in turn means that the system records the process parameter for each NC block used for machining a component.

After the information related to all the machining involved in making a completed component is stored, the actual monitoring phase can take place for the next workpieces. As soon as the instantaneous measured process parameter exceeds the unit calculated on the recorded value, the process is stopped and an alarm signal is activated. Since any process is a more-or-less stochastic, the measured values will always differ from the recorded values. In order to handle this, an appropriate tolerance band has to be defined, i.e. the process is stopped only when the measured value is outside this tolerance of, for instance, +/-20%.

One big disadvantage of this kind of system is that the operator must calibrate it by using the first workpiece as a calibrating device. The time and memory used for this can be enormous especially for more complex workpieces using long PC programs. Furthermore, in modern small-batch production, the number of workpieces can be so small that even just one workpiece can be a considerable percentage of the whole batch.

In the second generation of safety systems signal processing and signal evaluation of the system have become more advanced. Also, the use of more advanced transducers is typical. Most systems now used in industrial applications belong to this generation. These systems may still have the teaching strategy, meaning that at least one initial workpiece has to be used as a calibrating instrument.

The third generation of safety systems has eliminated the necessity for the teaching mode. This means that such systems can work adequately from the first small-batch production. These systems also have a higher level of intelligence that is they can distinguish between different operational situations. At the same time, they all retain the safety features of the earlier generations of systems. Yet, another advance is their computational ability, which makes it possible to store historic information that can help the operator.

The safety system usually has two different operational modes. In the first, maximum cutting forces are memorized for each NC-block during the machining of the first component. From these values, minimum and maximum cutting-force limits are created for each NC-block. Three different limits are established: tool wear limit, tool breakage limit and minimum limit. The minimum limit is used for the checking of a missing workpiece or tool, or completely broken tools. When components are machined, actual cutting forces are monitored and checked to ensure that they are within the established limits. Another global maximum force limit for the machine tool is determined by the operator according to the size of the machine tool and motor power available.

The tool-wear function assumes that the cutting force will increase with tool wear. Since this is not always the case, one should be aware of the misinterpretation that may occur. The force limit is decided, for instance, as 130% of the recorded force value. As soon as the tool-wear force limit is exceeded after a steady increase of the force, a signal from the system will tell the NC system that a new tool is needed. Of a new tool should be available, a change can be activated. Otherwise, an alarm signal will alert the operator to a malfunction.

The breakage force limit is decided, for instance as 150% of the recorded force value. When the breakage force limit is exceeded for a certain pre-determined time after a fast increase of the force, the spindle (вал) and the feed are immediately stopped and an alarm will alert the operator to investigate the machine.

The minimum force limit with the typical value will usually not stop the machine tool immediately, but only after the on-going (продолжающий работать) NC block has come to an end.

One common problem with these systems is that machine tool friction will vary with time. The system therefore must be calibrated during idle running (холостой ход) of the NC program. The stored values must then be deducted from the measured values in order to obtain the true machining values. While this may be a nuisance (вред), the recorded values will also yield information about the general machine tool condition.

The main advantage of this type of system is that integration with the NC system is very easy and, especially when current-measuring systems are used, the installation can easily be carried out. The disadvantage, as many industrial installations will show, is the frequent number of false alarms, often forcing the operator to disconnect the system.

Because of the nature of the measured values, safety systems of this type are usually only used for medium and heavy cuts. Cutting forces for finishing operations will usually be too close to the friction forces of the system.

Perhaps the most advanced safety system on the market is the US Montronix system, originally developed and marketed by Kennametal. This system can be considered as belonging to the third generation of safety systems, mainly because no learning process is necessary. This means that the first component can be monitored and the system is thus also suitable even for batch production down to a single component.

The transducer installation is somewhat similar to that of the Prometec transducer installation, and three-component piezo-electric transducers are used.

The system is capable of discriminating (распознавание) between tool wear, tool breakage, collision and missing tool. Tool wear is sensed by monitoring the relatively changes between the three cutting-force components. A new tool signifies a relative wear index of 100%, and a worn out tool signifies an index of 0%. The relative change in tool wear can be pre-set (установить заранее) by the operator, that means that various wear magnitudes of the tool can be used.

Tool breakage is sensed by using advanced pattern recognition of changes in the cutting force. This is done by simultaneously comparing the cutting force to stored cutting force patterns. Several different patterns are stored in the system, each signifying a different tool breakage event, or typical patterns for different tool materials or work materials. Standard installation of 16 different patterns are made, but customer (заказчик) design of new patterns is possible. As soon as a pattern is recognized, an alarm indicating tool breakage is activated.

The collision detection will activate the alarm when the cutting force exceeds a pre-set value. In order not to generate false alarms arising from sudden high and very short cutting-force levels, a collision time delay may be pre-set. As soon as the force level has exceeded the force limit for a time period longer than this collision delay, an alarm signal will be sent to the emergency shutdown of the CNC system. The response times of the monitoring system are fast enough to allow for this check without any serious damage.

Cutting tests performed at KTH, Sweden, have shown that the Montronix system is able to detect tool wear and tool breakage with extremely good reliability.

 

Введение

 

Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов факультета «Автоматические системы управления технологическими процессами» и имеет цель развить навыки чтения и перевода специальной научно-технической литературы. Тексты посвящены общим вопросам автоматического управления производственными процессами.

Работа состоит из 24 уроков, приложений и словаря. Каждый урок включает два текста: для устного изучения и для письменного перевода. Предшествующие текстам упражнения имеют цель снять фонетические, лексические и грамматические трудности и определить словарный минимум, который студенты должны заучить. Послетекстовые упражнения предназначены для активизации лексико-грамматических знаний студентов по данной теме и повторения словарного минимума урока. Тексты для письменного перевода служат углублению навыков изучающего чтения по специальности.

Раздел «Приложения» содержит:

1. Коррективный фонетико-орфоэпический курс на лексике специальности.

2. Таблицы основных грамматических трудностей перевода технических текстов и упражнения к ним также на специальной лексике.

Все методические материалы «Приложения» используются преподавателем по своему усмотрению.

Словарь, прилагаемый в конце пособия, включает необходимые для перевода слова в их контекстуальном значении.

Урок 1

 

Вспомните основные правила чтения согласных букв в английском языке (Приложение 1, часть 1). Прочитайте следующие слова и объясните их чтение .

supervision, manufacturing, stochastic, machine, require, ensure, beginning, increase, essential

 

Выпишите из словаря транскрипцию и перевод следующих слов. Запомните их произношение и значения.

supervise (v), supervision (n), recognize (v), involve (v), relieve (v), drive (v), obtain (v), require (v), reduce (v), increase (v), grow (v), monitor (v), on-line (a)

 







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