Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


VIII. Put the different types of questions to the text.




 

Model: Each day, millions of people across the world fill their cars with gas to make them move.

Общий вопрос:

Do millions of people across the world fill their cars with gas to make them move? -Yes, they do.

Альтернативный вопрос:

Do millions of people across the world fill their cars with gas or with other type of fuel to make them move?

Разделительный вопрос:

Each day, millions of people across the world fill their cars with gas to make them move, don‘t they?

Специальный к подлежащему:

Who fills their cars with gas to make them move each day?

Специальный вопрос к дополнению:

What do millions of people across the world fill with gas?

 

 

UNIT 3

Engineering

 

Text A : The Engineering Profession

Read and translate the text.

Engineering is one of the most ancient occupations in history. Without the skills included in the broad field of engineering, our present-day civilization never could have evolved. The first toolmakers who chipped arrows and spears from rock were the forerunners of modern mechanical engineers. The craftsmen who discovered metals in the earth and found ways to refine and use them were the ancestors of mining and metallurgical engineers. And the skilled technicians who devised irrigation systems and erected the marvelous buildings of the ancient world were the civil engineers of their time.

Engineering is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mathematics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information that depended on observation and experience.

The great engineering works of ancient times were constructed and operated largely by means of slave labor. During the Middle Ages people began to seek devices and methods of work that were more efficient and humane. Wind, water and animals were used to provide energy for some of these new devices. This led to the Industrial Revolution which began in the eighteenth century, first steam engines and then other kinds of machines took over more and more of the work that had previously' been done by human beings or by animals. James Watt, one of the key figures in the early development of steam engines, devised the concept of horsepower to make his customers understand the amount of work his machines could perform.

Since the nineteenth century both scientific research and practical application of its results have escalated. The mechanical engineer now has the mathematical ability to calculate the mechanical advantage that results from the complex interaction of many different mechanisms. He or she also has new and stronger materials to work with and enormous new sources of power. The Industrial Revolution began by putting water and steam to work; since then machines using electricity, gasoline, and other energy sources have become so widespread that they now do a very large proportion of the work of the world.

 

Active Vocabulary

engineering–инженерное искусство,техника,машиностроение

occupation -занятие,профессия

skill - навык, умение

to evolve - развиваться

toolmaker - обработчик металла

сhip - обтесывать, стругать

forerunner-предвестник

craftsman -мастер,ремесленник

to refine - улучшать, усовершенствовать

empirical - эмпирический, основанный на опыте

to widespread-распространяться

civil engineer-инженер-строитель

branch - отрасль

by means of…-посредством…

depend on - зависеть от…

to devise - придумывать, изобретать

observation - наблюдение

experience - опыт

application - применение

ancestor - предок

technician - техник, специалист

steam engine-паровой двигатель

advantage - преимущество

to result from-происходить в результате,проистекать

customer-потребитель

enormous-громадный

interaction-взаимодействие

 

EXERCISES

 

I. Find in the text the following words and word combinations, translate them and compose your own sentences using these words.

 

engineering, field, toolmaker, craftsman, mining engineer, mechanical engineer, civil engineer, metallurgical engineer, skilled technician, device science, devise, machine, perform, calculate, empirical information.

 

II. Give the English equivalents for the expressions below.

 

Практическое применение теоретического знания; отрасли машиностроения; наблюдения и опыт; паровой двигатель; количество работы; лошадиная сила; научное исследование; практическое применение; комплексное взаимодействие различных машин; источники энергии; преимущество механической конструкции.

 

 

III. Answer the following questions.

 

1. Who were the forerunners of modern mechanical, mining, metallurgical and civil engineers? 2. How is engineering often defined? 3. What kind of information were many of the early branches of engineering based on? Give some examples. 4. Name two important factors in the explosion of scientific knowledge in modern times. 5. What made people in the Middle Ages in Europe begin to experiment with new devices and methods of work? 6. What was the historical result of experimentation with different kinds of energy? 7. Who was James Watt? Why did he devise the concept of horse power? 8. What advantages have scientific research and its applications given to the mechanical engineer? 9. What energy sources have come into common use since steam engines were developed at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?

 

IV. Say some sentences about the history of engineering development.

 

Text B: Engineering in social content

Read and translate the text.

 

Engineering is a subject that ranges from large collaborations to small individual projects. Almost all engineering projects depend on some sort of financing agency: a company, a set of investors, or a government.

By its very nature engineering is connected with society and human behavior. Every product or construction used by modern society is influenced by engineering design. Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility. Many engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the at large.



Engineering projects can be subject for discussion. Examples from different engineering disciplines include the development of nuclear weapons, the design and use of sport utility vehicles and the extraction of oil. In response, some western engineering companies have enacted serious corporate and social responsibility policies.

Engineering is a key driver of human development. For example, Sub-Saharan Africa in particular has a very small engineering capacity. Therefore, many African nations are unable to develop infrastructure without outside aid. The main goal nowadays is to achieve sufficient engineering capacity to develop infrastructure and maintain technological development.

Today there are a lot of different charitable organizations which aim is to use engineering directly for the good of mankind. Among these organizations are the following ones: Engineers Without Borders, Engineering Against Poverty, Registered Engineers for Disaster Relief, Engineers for a Sustainable World.

 

VII. Look through the text once more and find the verbs in the Passive Voice in it.

 

VIII. Transform some sentences from the text with the verbs in Active Voice into Passive.

 

1. Many engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the at large. 2. Its application brings with it a great responsibility. 3. Many African nations couldn't develop infrastructure without outside aid. 4. Examples from different engineering disciplines include the development of nuclear weapons, the design and use of sport utility vehicles and the extraction of oil. 5. Some western engineering companies have enacted serious corporate and social responsibility policies.

 





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