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IX. Put the different types of questions to the text.


Text C: Engineering specialties.

Read and translate the text.


One result of the rapid expansion of scientific knowledge was an increase in the number of engineering specialties. By the end of the nineteenth century not only were mechanical, civil, and mining and metallurgical engineering established but the newer specialties of chemical and electrical engineering also emerged. This growth in the number of specialties is continuing with the establishment of such disciplines as aerospace, nuclear, petroleum, and electronic engineering. Many of these are subdivisions of earlier specialties — for example, electronic from electrical engineering or petroleum from chemical. Within the field of mechanical engineering the major subdivision is industrial engineering which is concerned with complete mechanical systems for industry rather than individual machines.

Engineers design and make machines, equipment and the like. Such work requires creative ability and working knowledge of scientific principles. The engineer must also have an understanding of the various processes and materials available to him/her and could be working in any of the following areas: the organization of manufacture, research and development, design, construction, sales and education.

Because of the large number of engineering fields today there are often many different kinds of engineers working on large projects such as the development of nuclear power or new aircraft. In the design of a new aircraft mechanical engineers work not only on the plane's engines but on other mechanical aspects such as the braking system. When the aircraft goes into production mechanical and industrial engineers are involved in designing the machines necessary to fabricate the different parts as well as the entire system for assembling them. In both phases of such a project mechanical engineers work with specialists in fields such as aerospace and electronic engineering. Each engineer is a member of a team often headed by a systems engineer able to combine the contributions made by all the different disciplines.

Another result of the increase of scientific knowledge is that engineering has become a profession. A profession is an occupation like law or medicine that requires specialized advanced education. Today it requires at least four or five years of university study leading to a Bachelor of Science degree. More and more often engineers, especially those engaged in research, get an advanced master's or doctor's degree.


Active Vocabulary

specialty -специальность, особенность

mining -горное дело, горная промышленность

establish -основывать, создавать, учреждать

emerge -появляться, выясняться

major -более важный, старший, главный

is concerned with -речь идет о..., касаться

involve -вовлекать, включать в себя, предполагать

complete -заканчивать, завершать, комплектовать

entire -полный, целый, совершенный

engage -занимать(ся), зацеплять(ся), включать

assembling -монтирование, сборка




I. Translate the following words and word combinations, using the meanings of the words in italics.

to expand –расширять: expansion of scientific knowledge;

to increase –увеличивать: the increase of scientific knowledge;

to grow –расти: the growth in the number of specialists; the growth inthe number of engineering fields;

competition –соревнование: to compete with somebody;

to contribute –делать вклад: to combine the contributions made by allthe different disciplines;

advanced –продвинутый, повышенного типа: advanced education;


II. Give the English equivalents for the words below.


1. появляться; 2. подразделение; 3. творческая способность;. 4. знание научных принципов; 5. организация производства; 6. исследование; 7. разработка; 8. проектирование; 9. тормозная система; 10. производит; 11. сборка; 12. следить за изменениями.


III. Find all the types of engineering specialties mentioned in the text and translate them into Russian.


V. Render the text in your own words.





I. Text A: «Metals», Text B: «Steel», Text C: «Methods of steel heat treatment»

II. Famous Scientists. Dmitry Ivanovlch Mendeleyev.

Text A: «METALS»

Metals are materials most widely used in industry be­cause of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense. The atoms are arranged regu­larly and can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (can be deformed and bent without frac­ture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals depend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain struc­ture and properties of metals.

All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, ham­mering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical proc­esses. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

The ways of working a metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but spe­cial conditions are required for metals that react with air.


property — свойство

metallurgy — металлургия

separation — разделение, отстояние

dense — плотный

arrangement — расположение

regularly — регулярно, правильно

to slide — скользить

malleable — ковкий, податливый, способ­ный деформироваться

bent pp of bend — гнуть

to fracture — ломать

ductile — эластичный, ковкий

to draw — волочить, тянуть

wire — проволока

lead — свинец

iron — железо, чугун

grain — зерно

to depend — зависеть

size — размер, величина

shape — форма, формировать

composition — состав

coarse — грубый, крупный

treatment — обработка

quenching — закалка

tempering — отпуск после закалки, нор­мализация

annealing — отжиг, отпуск

rolling — прокатка

to hammer — ковать (напр. молотом)

extrusion — экструзия

metal fatigue — усталость металла

creep — ползучесть

stress — давление,

failure — повреждение, разрушение

vessel — сосуд, котел, судно

lathe — токарный станок

milling machine — фрезерный станок

shaper — строгальный станок

grinder — шлифовальный станок

to melt — плавить, плавиться расплавить

to cast — отливать, отлить

mould — форма (для отливки)

General understanding:

1. What are metals and what do we call metallurgy?

2. Why are most metals dense?

3. Why are metals malleable?

4. What is malleability?

5. What are grains?

6. What is alloying?

7. What is crystalline structure?

8. What do the properties of metals depend on?

9. What changes the size of grains in metals?

10. What are the main processes of metal forming?

11. How are metals worked?

12. What is creeping?

Exercise 1.1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. Свойства металлов

2. расстояние между атомами

3. правильное расположение

4. сильно отличаются по своим свойствам

5. кристаллическая структура

6. размер зерен

7. форма зерен

8. закалка

9. отжиг





14. структура и свойства зерна

15. горячая обработка

16. усталость металла

17. ползучесть металла

18. плавка и отливка в формы

19. способы обработки металлов

Exercise 1.2. Complete the following sentences:

1. Metals are...

2. Metallurgy is...

3. Most metals are...

4. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals...

5. Irregular crystals...

6. The properties of the metals depend...

7. Metals with small grains will be...

8....controls the nature of the grains in the metal.

9. Alloying is...

10. All metals can be formed by...

11. Creep is...

12. Metals can be worked using...

Exercise 1.3. Explain in English the meaning of the following words:

1. malleability

2. crystalline structure

3. grains

4. heat treatment

5. alloying

6. creep

Exercise 1.4. Translate into English:

1. Металлы — плотные материалы потому, что между атомами в металлах малое расстояние.

2. Металлы имеют кристаллическую структуру из-за правильного расположения атомов.

3. Чем меньше зерна, тем тверже металл.

4. Закалка и отжиг изменяют форму и размер зе­рен в металлах.

5. Легирование изменяет структуру зерен и свой­ства металлов.

6. Металл деформируется и разрушается из-за ус­талости и ползучести.

Text В: «STEEL»

The most important metal in industry is iron and its alloy — steel. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is strong and stiff, but corrodes easily through rusting, although stainless and other special steels resist corro­sion. The amount of carbon in a steel influences its prop­erties considerably. Steels of low carbon content (mild steels) are quite ductile and are used in the manufacture of sheet iron, wire, and pipes. Medium-carbon steels con­taining from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent carbon are tougher and stronger and are used as structural steels. Both mild and medium-carbon steels are suitable for forging and weld­ing. High-carbon steels contain from 0.4 to 1.5 per cent carbon, are hard and brittle and are used in cutting tools, surgical instruments, razor blades and springs. Tool steel, also called silver steel, contains about 1 per cent carbon and is strengthened and toughened by quenching and tempering.

The inclusion of other elements affects the properties of the steel. Manganese gives extra strength and tough­ness. Steel containing 4 per cent silicon is used for trans­former cores or electromagnets because it has large grains acting like small magnets. The addition of chro­mium gives extra strength and corrosion resistance, so we can get rust-proof steels. Heating in the presence of carbon or nitrogen-rich materials is used to form a hard surface on steel (case-hardening). High-speed steels, which are extremely important in machine-tools, contain chromium and tungsten plus smaller amounts of vana­dium, molybdenum and other metals.


alloy — сплав

carbon — углерод

stiff — жесткий

to corrode — разъедать, ржаветь

rusty — ржавый

stainless — нержавеющий

to resist — сопротивляться

considerably — значительно, гораздо

tough — крепкий, жесткий, прочный, вынос­ливый

forging — ковка

welding — сварка

brittle — хрупкий, ломкий

cutting tools — режущие инструменты

surgical instruments — хирургические ин­струменты

blade — лезвие

spring — пружина

inclusion — включение

to affect — влиять

manganese — марганец

silicon — кремний

rust-proof — нержавеющий

nitrogen — азот

tungsten — вольфрам

General understanding:

1. What is steel?

2. What are the main properties of steel?

3. What are the drawbacks of steel?

4. What kinds of steel do you know? Where are they used?

5. What gives the addition of manganese, silicon and chromium to steel?

6. What can be made of mild steels (medium-carbon steels, high-carbon steels)?

7. What kind of steels can be forged and welded?

8. How can we get rust-proof (stainless) steel?

9. What is used to form a hard surface on steel?

10. What are high-speed steels alloyed with?


Exercise 1.5. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. сплав железа и углерода

2. прочный и жесткий

3. легко коррозирует

4. нержавеющая сталь

5. низкое содержание углерода

6. ковкость

7. листовое железо, проволока, трубы

8. конструкционные стали

9. пригодны для ковки и сварки

10. твердый и хрупкий

11. режущие инструменты

12. хирургические инструменты

13. инструментальная сталь


15. добавление марганца (кремния, хрома, вольфра­ма, молибдена, ванадия)



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