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THE COURT SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES




The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates' court. There are 700 magistrates’ courts and about 30,000 magistrates.

More serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County courts.

Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals from magistrates’ courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords. (Scotland has its own High Court in Edinburgh, which hears all appeals from Scottish courts.) Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. In addition, individuals have made the British Government change its practices in a number of areas as a result of petitions to the European Court of Human Rights.

The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners’ courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Branch ['bra:nt∫] – ветвь, отделение

Appeal [∂'pi:l] – апелляция

Juvenile ['dзu:vinail] – юный

Task 2

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

q общее право

q решение суда

q уголовный кодекс

q гражданский кодекс

q мировой судья

q Суд короны

q гражданское дело

q суды графств

q Европейский суд по делам человека

q правовая система

q суд по делам несовершеннолетних

q правонарушитель

q насильственная смерть

q уголовное дело

Exercise 2. Find all the types of courts in England and Wales and translate them.

Exercise 3. Find the sentences in the Passive Voice and translate them.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences.

1. The most common type of law court is ________.

2. Criminal cases go to ________ and Civil cases go to ________.

3. The legal system also includes ________.

4. Tribunals deal with disputes ________.

Exercise 5. Answer the questions.

1. Who is responsible for making laws in Britain?

2. In the United Kingdom what is the difference between criminal and civil law?

3. What is the most common type of law court in England and Wales?

4. Name three other types of British courts.

Exercise 6. Work in pairs and discuss the following

Which courts do you think would deal with:

a) a bank robbery?

b) a divorce case?

c) a burglary committed by a fifteen-year teen?

d) a drowning?

e) a case of driving too fast?

Exercise 7. Make up a scheme of the text.

Exercise 8. Retell the text.

UNIT 3

THE US GOVERNMENT

By the constitution the government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one and the judicial one. The executive power is headed by a President who holds office for four years and is elected, together with a Vice-President chosen for the same term, by electors from each state. The President must be a native-born citizen, resident in the country for fourteen years and at least thirty-five years old. The presidential election is held every fourth year on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

The legislative power is represented by a Congress, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of two members from each state, chosen for six years. The House of Representatives is elected every other year. The number of each state’s representatives depends on the number of people in this particular state.

An important role in the American legislature is played by so-called “lobbyists”. Their work is to make a congressman vote for measures favorable to the group the lobbyists represent. There are several basic principles which are found at all levels of American government. One of these says that legislators are elected from geographical districts directly by the voters. Under this principle all election districts must have the same number of residents. Another fundamental principle of American government is that compromise in politics is a matter of necessity, not choice. For example, the House of Representatives controls spending and finance, so the President must have its agreement for his proposals and programmes. In foreign affairs he is also strongly limited. So what a President wants to do is often a different thing from what a President is able to do.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Branch ['bra:nt∫] – ветвь

Executive [ig'zekj:tiv] – исполнительный

Judicial [dзu:'di∫∂l] – судебный

To head ['hed] – возглавлять

To hold office – занимать должность

To elect [i'lekt] – выбирать (голосованием)

Native-born ['neitiv bo:n] – уроженец

Resident ['rezid∂nt] – постоянный житель

Particular [p∂'tikjl∂] – отдельный

To vote ['v∂ut] – голосовать

Voter ['v∂ut∂] – избиратель

Measure ['meз∂] – мера

Favourable ['feiv∂r∂bl] – подходящий, удобный

To represent [¸repri'zent] – представлять

Level ['lev∂l] – уровень

Election district [i¸lek∫n'distrikt] – избирательный округ

Compromise in politics ['kompr∂maiz in 'politiks] – политический компромисс

Matter ['mæt∂] – вопрос

Choice ['t∫ois] – выбор

Finance [fai'næns] – доходы

Proposal [pr∂'p∂uz∂l] – предложение, план

Directly [di'rektli] – непосредственно

Legislative ['ledзisl∂tiv] – законодательный

Legislature ['ledзisleit∫∂] – законодательная власть, законодательный орган штата

Legislator ['ledзisleit∂] – законодатель

Task 2

Read the text.

Task 3

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

q согласно конституции

q возглавляется президентом

q представлена конгрессом

q занимает пост

q срок

q избиратель

q городской житель (уроженец города)

q палата представителей

q избирательный округ

q вопрос необходимости

q контролирует доходы и расходы

q внешняя политика

q строго ограничен

 

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences.

1. The USA government is composed of three branches: ________.

2. The US President must be ________.

3. The presidential election is held ________.

4. The work of “lobbyists” is ________.

5. The House of Representatives controls ________.

Exercise 3. Find kin words in the text and translate them.

e.g. to vote – voter - избиратель

1. to elect –

2. president –

3. to legislate –

4. direct –

5. strong –

6. to agree –

7. to propose –

Exercise 4. Insert the necessary words.

1. The _______ power is headed by a _______.

2. The President must be _______ in the country for 14 years.

3. The Presidential _______ is held every fourth year.

4. An important role in the American legislature is played by _______.

5. Legislators are elected from geographical districts by _______.

6. Compromise in politics is a matter of _______.

Exercise 5. Choose the correct Voice form.

1. The executive power (heads/ is headed) by a President.

2. The presidential election (holds/ is held) every fourth year.

3. Members of the Senate (are chosen/ choose) for six years.

4. “Lobbyists” (play/ is played) an important role in the American legislature.

5. Legislators (elect/ are elected) directly by the voters.

6. The House of Representatives (is controlled/ controls) spending and finance.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions on the text.

1. How many branches is the US government composed of?

2. How long does the US president hold office?

3. When is the presidential election held?

4. What Houses does the US Congress consist of?

5. Who plays an important role in the American legislature?

6. What are the basic principles of American government?

Exercise 7. Put questions to the underlined words.

1. The executive power is headed by a President.

2. The US President must be a native-born citizen.

3. The presidential election is held every fourth year.

4. The number of each state’s representatives depends on the number of people in this particular state.

5. In foreign affairs he is also strongly limited.

Exercise 8. Find in the text the information about:

ü the US President

ü the US Congress

ü “lobbyists”

ü basic principles of American government

Exercise 9. Compose a plan.

Exercise 10. Retell the text.

UNIT 4

CONGRESS

Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two from each state. One third of the Senators are elected every two years for six-year terms of office. The Senators represent all of the people in a state and their interests.

The House has 435 members. They are elected every two years two-year terms. They represent the population of “congressional districts” into which each state is divided. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its population. For instance, California, the state with the largest population, has 45 Representatives, while Delaware has one. There is no limit to the number of terms a Senator or a Representative may serve.

Almost all elections in the United States follow the “winner-take-all” principle: the candidate who wins the largest number of votes in a Congressional district is the winner.

Congress makes all laws, and each house of Congress has the power to introduce legislation. Each can also vote against legislation passed by the other. Because legislation only becomes law if both houses agree, compromise between them is necessary. Congress decides upon taxes and how money is spent. In addition, it regulates commerce among the states and with foreign countries. It also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign citizens.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

the Senate ['senit] – сенат

Representative [¸repri'zent∂tiv] – представитель, делегат

Population [¸popju'lei∫∂n] – население

To divide [di'vaid] – делить

To base ['beis] – базировать, основывать

California [¸kæli'fo:nj∂] – Калифорния

Delaware ['del∂wε∂] – Делавер

Limit ['limit] – ограничение, предел

To serve ['s∂:v] – служить

To follow ['fol∂u] – следовать чему-либо

Candidate ['kændidit] – кандидат

To make laws ['lo:z] – издавать законы

To introduce legislation [intr∂'dju:s ¸ledзis'lei∫∂n] – вносить законопроект на рассмотрение

Tax ['tæks] – налог, пошлина

Commerce ['kom∂:s] – торговля, общение

Naturalization [¸næt∫r∂lai'zei∫∂n] – натурализация, устройство

 

Task 2

Read the text.

Task 3

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

q законодательная речь

q сенатор

q 6-летний срок службы

q каждые два года

q избирательный округ

q базируется на

q выборы

q набирать наибольшее количество голосов

q голосовать против законопроекта

q если обе палаты согласны

q устанавливать размеры налогов

q регулировать отношения между штатами

q устройство иностранных граждан

Exercise 2. Give English equivalents in brackets.

1. Congress is made up of (Сенат) and (Палата представителей).

2. Each (сенатор) is elected for six years and each (представитель) for two years, with no limitation on the number of (сроков).

3. Almost all elections (следуют) the (победитель получает все) principle.

4. Each (палата) of (Конгресс) has the (полномочия) to introduce (законопроект).

5. Legislation only (становится законом) if (компромисс) between two houses is found.

6. Congress decides upon (налоги), (регулирует) commerce among the states and (устанавливает правила) for the (устройство) of foreign citizens.

Exercise 3. Find sentences with Passive Voice and translate them.

Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. The executive power is exercised by Congress.

2. The number of Representatives from each state depends on its population.

3. A Senator or a Representative may serve only one term.

4. Only the Senate has the power to introduce legislation.

5. The only function of Congress is regulating commerce among the states.

Exercise 5. Answer the questions on the text.

1. What power of the government does Congress exercise?

2. What Houses does Congress consist of?

3. How are the Senators and Representatives elected?

4. What do the Senators represent?

5. How many terms may a Senator or a Representative serve?

6. What candidate wins in the election?

7. What are the functions of Congress?

Exercise 6. Put questions to get these answers.

1. Each state is divided into “congressional districts”.

2. Almost all elections follow the “winner-take-all” principle.

3. Legislation becomes law if both Houses agree.

4. The House of Representatives has 435 members.

Exercise 7. Compose a plan.

Exercise 8. Retell the text.

 

UNIT 5

MARRIAGE AS A CONTRACT

In English law, marriage is an agreement by which a man and woman enter into a certain legal relationship with each other and which creates mutual rights and duties. Marriage is clearly a contract, it may be void or voidable. But it is, of course, quite unlike any commercial contract.

A marriage may only be contracted if special formalities are carried. The grounds on which a marriage may be void or voidable are for the most part completely different from those on which other contracts may be void or voidable. A contract of marriage cannot be discharged by agreement, frustration or breach. Apart from death, it can be terminated only by a decree of dissolution (or divorce) pronounced by a court of competent jurisdiction. Provided that they do not offend against rules of public policy or statutory prohibitions, the parties to a commercial contract may make such terms as they think fit. But the fact that marriage creates a status limits the parties' power to make their own terms and also may affect their legal rights and duties with respect to other persons.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Agreement [∂g'ri:m∂nt] – соглашение, договор

Mutual ['mju:tu∂l] – взаимный

Void ['void] – недействительный

Frustration [fr∂s'trei∫n] – расстройство планов

Breach ['bri:t∫] – разрыв отношений

Fit – подходящий

To discharge [dis't∫a:dз] – разрывать, расторгать

To terminate ['t∂:mineit] – положить конец, завершить

Decree [di'kri:] – постановление

Dissolution [¸dis∂'lu:∫∂n] – расторжение, ликвидация

Divorce [di'vo:s] – развод

To offend against smth – нарушать что-либо

Statutory ['stætjut∂ri] – установленный законом

Prohibition [¸pr∂hi'bi∫∂n] – запрещение

Voidable – действительный

Task 2

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents in the text.

q брак

q недействительный брак

q противоречить правилам

q подходящие условия

q расторгать брак

q законные права и обязанности

Exercise 2. Match the words from the two columns. Translate the phrases.

a) Legal duties
  Mutual formalities
  Special marriages
  statutory prohibitions
  Void relationships
b) a contract of competent jurisdiction
  a court of marriage
  a decree of dissolution
  a party of public policy
  Rules to a contract

Exercise 3. Find the international words in the text.

Exercise 4. Find the sentences with modal verbs in the text and translate them.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences. Consult the text.

1. Marriage is quite unlike ________.

2. A marriage may only be contracted if ________.

3. The parties may make the terms as ________.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions.

1. What is marriage in English law?

2. Is marriage like any commercial contract?

3. How many dissimilarities do we find between marriage and any commercial contract?

4. When may a marriage be contracted?

5. How can a voidable marriage be terminated?

6. Can the parties make their own terms for contracting a marriage?

Exercise 7. Agree or disagree to the following statements.

1. Marriage like other contracts may be void or voidable?

2. No special formalities are carried out in contracting a marriage.

3. A contract of marriage can be discharged by agreement of the parties concerned.

4. Marriage limits the parties power to make their own terms.

5. Marriage doesn’t affect the legal rights and duties of the parties with respect to other persons.

Exercise 8. Make up the plan of the text.

Exercise 9. Retell the text.

 

UNIT 6

PARENTS AND CHILDREN

Hands up any parent who has never smacked their child. Hands up anyone who was never smacked as a child. The numbers are few. Since the dawn of history parents have corrected their children by smacking. But it is already illegal in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Austria. Germany and Canada want to introduce some laws. Can Britain be far behind? The child experts agree that physical punishment should be outlawed. It leads to more violence in society.

But the cases of cruelty differ from smacks used by parents who teach their children how to behave.

In her excellent book on child care "Good children" Lynette Burrows writes that a quick, minimally-painful smack is the most sensible corrective in child development.

The mother is the ideal person to do this since she combines love and concern for the child with a physical presence.

The «experts» who believe all smacking should be outlawed perhaps don’t understand other forms of cruelty which are very damaging to children. Coldness, emotional rejection, hurtful words and not spending time with children are cruel, too.

Violent crime and aggression are just as often in non-smacking Scandinavia as elsewhere. In the Mediterranean summer resorts Swedish and Dutch teenagers bully and fight. In Greece and Spain people are appalled by the behavior of these more "progressive" tourists.

Parents must be responsible for their children until the age of majority.

Normal parents do not take any pleasure in punishing their children. Of course, we must reject cruelty or brutality to children: but making the reasonable smack illegal is not the way.

Task 1

Study the following words and expressions and memorize them:

Smack - to punish ['pΛni∫] – наказывать

Punishment – наказание

Violence ['vai∂l∂ns] – жестокость, насилие

Cruelty ['kru∂lti] – жестокость

To hold office – занимать должность

To elect [i'lekt] – выбирать (голосованием)

Native-born ['neitiv bo:n] – уроженец

Resident ['rezid∂nt] – постоянный житель

Particular [p∂'tikjl∂] – отдельный

To vote ['v∂ut] – голосовать

Voter ['v∂ut∂] – избиратель

Measure ['meз∂] – мера

Favourable ['feiv∂r∂bl] – подходящий, удобный

To represent [¸repri'zent] – представлять

Level ['lev∂l] – уровень

Election district [i¸lek∫n'distrikt] – избирательный округ

Compromise in politics ['kompr∂maiz in 'politiks] – политический компромисс

Matter ['mæt∂] – вопрос

Choice ['t∫ois] – выбор

Finance [fai'næns] – доходы

Proposal [pr∂'p∂uz∂l] – предложение, план

Directly [di'rektli] – непосредственно

Legislative ['ledзisl∂tiv] – законодательный

Legislature ['ledзisleit∫∂] – законодательная власть, законодательный орган штата

Legislator ['ledзisleit∂] – законодатель

Task 2

Read the text.

Task 3

Do the following exercises on the text.

Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the words below.

 

UNIT 7

The USA

The United States of America is situated in the central part of the North America continent. Its total area is about nine and a half million square kilometers. In size, the USA ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and China. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast - by the Atlantic Ocean. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-border with Russia.

The continental part of the USA consists of four physical geographical parts: two highland and two lowland regions. The highland regions are the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the Rocky Mountains in the west. The highest peak in the Appalachian Mountains is 2,037 meters high. The highest peak of the Cordillera in the USA is 4,418 meters high. The Appalachian Mountains are very old. The valleys between them are rich in coal. The Rocky Mountains are considered to be young, high, rough, and irregular in shape. The highest mountain is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska (6,198).

Between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains there are the central lowlands, called the prairie, and the eastern lowlands, called the Mississippi valley.

The five Great Lakes, between the USA and Canada, include Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. They are all joined together by short rivers or canals, and the St. Lawrence River joins them to the Atlantic Ocean. In the west of the USA there is another lake called the Great Salt Lake.

The main rivers of the USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grand, the Yukon, the Colorado, the Columbia, and the St. Lawrence River.

The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climate zones. The coldest regions are in the north and north-east, where much snow falls in winter. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast. The region around the Great Lakes is known for its changeable weather.

Vocabulary

To rank – занимать какое-либо место

Mexico ['meksik∂u] – Мексика

Highland ['hail∂nd] – плоскогорье, нагорье

Lowland ['l∂ul∂nd] – низина, долина

The Appalachian Mountains – г. Аппалачи

The Cordillera - Кордильеры

The Rockey Mountains – Скалистые горы

Rough ['rΛf] – неровный, зазубренный, резкий

The prairie ['prε∂ri] – прерия, степь

The Great Lakes – Великие озера

Lake Superior – Верхнее озеро

Lake Michigan ['mi∫ig∂n] – озеро Мичиган

Lake Huron – озеро Гурон

Lake Erie – озеро Эри

Lake Ontario – озеро Онтарио

St. Lawrence River – река Св. Лаврентия

the Missouri - Миссури

Exercise 1. Fill in the prepositions.

1) The USA is situated … the central part of the North American continent.

2) In size, the US ranks fourth … the nations after Russia, Canada, China.

3) Its western coast is washed … the Pacific Ocean.

4) The USA borders … Canada in the north and … Mexico in the south.

5) It also has a sea-border … Russia.

6) The valley … the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains are rich … coal.

7) The Rocky Mountains are rough and irregular … shape.

8) The St. Laurens River joins the five Great Lakes … the Atlantic Ocean.

9) Hot winds blowing … the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons.

10) The climate … the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

11) The region … the Great Lakes is known for its changeable weather.

Exercise 2. Find and replace wrong words.

1) The USA is situated in the eastern part of the North American continent.

2) In size, the USA ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and Japan.

3) The eastern coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean.

4) The USA borders on Canada in the North and on Australia in the south.

5) The low land regions are the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the Cordillera and the Rocky Mountains in the west.

6) The Appalachian Mountains are very young.

7) The central lowlands are called the meadows and the eastern lowlands are called the Missouri valley.

8) The five Great Lakes are all separated together by short rivers or canals.

9) The climate of Alaska is subtropical.

10) Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons.

UNIT 8

US Cities

The population of the USA is nearly 239 million people. Most of them are townspeople. The native population is only about 1 million Indians of different tribes. Many of them live in reservations. As a result of prolonged immigration, now there are more than 25 million British Americans (nearly half the population of Britain), about 23 million African Americans, 25 million German Americans and more Irish Americans than the whole population of Ireland, many people from the Middle East and the Far East. The official language is English.

The capital of the USA is Washington, the District of Columbia (D.C.). The US Congress has its seat in the Capitol, and the White House is the residence of the President.

New York is the largest city and port with its suburbs, it has a population of about 13 million people. It is the financial and business center of the capitalist world. It is famous for its skyscrapers.

The second largest city is Chicago. It is situated on the Lake Michigan, in Illinois. It is one of the biggest industrial center.

The third largest city is Los Angeles, in California. It is an important centre of modern industries. Not far from it is Hollywood, the world-known centre of the US film business.

The forth largest city is Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania. Light industry is highly developed here. Philadelphia is an important cultural centre with many fine buildings and a university. The Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed, is situated in the city.

San-Francisco, on the Pacific Coast, is a big port and ship-building centre. It is the heartland of California of great interest are its nine bridges over the Golden Gate Channel between the Pacific Ocean and San-Francisco Bay.

Detroit, in the Great Lake region, is the largest city of Michigan. It is known as an automobile capital. General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, American Motors are well-known automobile companies.

Boston is one of the first towns founded on the Atlantic coast of America. It is historically famous for the Boston Tea Party, which later developed into the War for Independence. Now it is the capital and the largest city in Massachusetts, an important port, a financial and cultural centre.

Vocabulary

A tribe – племя

Reservation [,rez∂’vei∫n]– резервация

Prolonged – затянувшийся, долгий

Suburbs – окраины

Skyscraper – небоскреб

Chicago [∫I’ka:gou]

Illinois [,il∂’noi]

Los Angeles [los’ændз∂li:z]

California [,kæl∂’fo:ni∂]

Pennsylvania [,pnsl’veini∂]

San-Francisco [,sænfr∂n’sisk∂u]

Bay – залив

Detroit [di’troit]

Massachusetts [,mæs∂’t ∫u:sits]

Exercise 1. Divide the text into parts. Give titles to each part.

Exercise 3. Put questions to the first part of the text.

Exercise 4. What city are these words about?

a) the largest city in Massachusetts; one of the first towns on the Atlantic coast;

b) the heartland of California;

c) has a population of about 133 million people;

d) the third largest city in the USA;

e) is situated on the Lake Michigan, in Illinois;

f) the White House is situated in this city;

g) is famous for its skyscrapers;

h) is in Pennsylvania; an important cultural centre;

i) is an automobile capital;

j) the nine bridges over the Golden Gate Channel is the main sightseeing of this city;

k) here you can find the Independence Hall.

UNIT 9

National Economy

The US economy is based on the free enterprise system. Private businesses compete against one another with relatively little interference from the government. Since the depression of the 1930-s, when the economy essentially collapsed, laws have been made giving the government a more active role in economic and other matters.

The USA is one of the most highly developed states. It leads the world in industrial and agricultural production, leaving some countries far behind.

The United States owes its high level of economic development mainly to its great mineral riches. It has been able to use them for a long time without wars. No one of the world wars of the 20th century took place on its territory. The US monopolies only became richer from the world wars.

The US is rich in a variety of mineral resources. It is a world leader in the production of many important mineral resources, such as aluminum, cement, copper, lead, phosphates, potash, salt, uranium, and zinc. The country is rich in coal, iron, oil, petroleum, natural gas and holds first place in the capitalist world for their production. It also has gold, silver, such non-ferrous as aluminum, magnesium, titanium. Since the end of World War II the US has exported raw materials, agricultural and industrial products.

Computers, and automatic systems characterize the advances in technology. The heavy industries are for the most part in the Middle West, in the region of the Great Lakes, around Detroit and Chicago, in the north-eastern states and near Birmingham. The automobile industry and all kinds of machine-building are highly developed especially in and near Detroit, in California and in the areas of heavy industry. Ship-building is developed along the Atlantic coast and also in San-Francisco and Seattle on the Pacific coast. The textile industry is concentrated in the north-east, in Boston and other cities; but it is especially well developed in the South, where much cotton is grown, in the Mississippi valley.

The USA has a highly developed railway system. It also has the best system of roads in the world. The Great Lakes and the rivers, especially the Saint Lawrence River and the Mississippi, are used for transport. In recent years the growth of air traffic has been observed.

American agriculture produces more food products than any other country. Much of them are exported. The USA produces 52 per cent or more of the world’s corn, soy-beans, edible vegetable oils, wheat, tobacco, rice, cotton, and barley. Animal husbandry is also developed in the country.

The US harvests a lot of vegetables such as tomatoes, potatoes and onions. Arizona, Florida, California and Texas are the major citrus-producing states. They grow oranges, tangerines, grapefruit, lemons. Strawberries and apples are also produced.

The highlands in the west of the country are famous for their cattle-farming. Poultry-farming and vegetable-growing are concentrated in the country-side near all the big cities.

Vocabulary

To owe smth to [ou] – быть обязанным чем-либо

Copper ['kop∂] – медь

Lead [led] – свинец

Potash ['potæ∫] – поташ, углекислый калий

Petroleum [pi'troulj∂m] – нефть

Non-ferrous – цветные металлы

Raw materials – сырье

Soy-beans – соя, соевые бобы

Edible vegetable oils ['edibl] – пищевые растительные масла

Barley – ячмень

Animal husbandry – животноводство

Onion – лук

Cattle-farming – разведение крупного рогатого скота

Poultry-farming [poultry] - птицеводство

Compete [k∂m'pi:t] – конкурировать

Interference [,int∂'fi∂r∂ns] – вмешательство

Essentially [i'sen∫li] – по существу

Collapse [k∂'læps] - рушиться, терпеть крах

Aluminum [∂'lu:min∂m]

Cement [si'ment]

Uranium [ju'reini∂m]

Zinc [ziŋk]

Magnesium [mæg'ni:zi∂m]

Titanium [tai'teini∂m]

Seattle [si'ætl]

Arizona[,æri'zoun∂]

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for:

1) оставляя далеко позади другие страны;

2) использовать долгое время без войн;

3) разбогатели на мировых войнах;

4) мировой лидер по производству;

5) удерживает первое место в мире по их производству;

6) где выращивают много хлопка;

7) лучшая система дорог в мире;

8) собирает большие урожаи овощных культур, таких как;

9) овощеводство;

10) США является одной из самых высокоразвитых стран;

11) высоким уровнем экономического развития она в основном обязана

огромному богатству своих полезных ископаемых;

12) применение компьютеров и автоматических систем характеризует успехи в технологии;

13) большая их часть экспортируется;

14) в стране также развито животноводство.

Exercise 2. Fill in the prepositions.

1) Private businesses compete … one another … relatively little interference from the government.

2) The USA leads the world … industrial and agricultural production.

3) The US owes its high level of economic development … its great mineral riches.

4) The US monopolies only became richer … the world wars.

5) The Great Lakes and the rivers are used … transport.

6) … recent years the growth of air traffic has been observed.

Exercise 3. Match two parts:

the Middle West the region of Great Lakes Detroit Chicago the north-eastern states Birmingham California the Atlantic coast San-Francisco Seattle Boston the southern states the Mississippi valley Arizona Florida Texas the highlands in the west   heavy industry   automobile industry   ship-building   textile   food / citrus production   cattle-farming   poultry farming   vegetable growing  

Exercise 4. Answer the questions.

1) What is the US economy based on?

2) What does the USA owe its high level of economic development to?

3) What are the main mineral resources of the country?

4) How can you characterize the US industry?

5) What have you learned about agriculture of the country?

6) What is the US transportation system?

Exercise 5. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) The USA is a backward (отсталая) country.

2) The USA is poor in mineral resources.

UNIT 10

Political System of the USA

The USA is a federal republic, consisting of fifty states, each of which has its own government. In some ways, the US is like fifty small countries. Every state has its own governor, its own police, and its own laws. The present Constitution was proclaimed in 1787 in Philadelphia.

Within the national government, power is divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

The legislative branch consists of Congress, which has two parts – the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress’s main function is to make laws. The House of Representatives has 435 members (the number from each state depends on the size of the state’s population). And there are 100 senators (two from each state). The Capitol is the seat of the USA Congress.

The executive branch administers the laws (decides how the laws should be carried out). The President is the head of the executive branch and the country and is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President makes the most important decisions and chooses the ministers, the members of his cabinet. But the President cannot do just what he wants. The Congress must agree first. Americans choose a new President every four years. The residence of the President is the famous White House in Washington D.C., the capital city. In addition to the President, the Vice President, and their staffs, the executive branch consists of departments and agencies.

The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution. There are several levels of federal courts. The Supreme Court is the most important. It has nine members who are appointed for life.

The system of checks and balances, established by the Constitution, is meant to prevent any branch from having too much power. Each branch has certain controls over the other branches. For example, Congress makes the laws, but the President can veto, or reject, a law and the Supreme Court can decide a law is unconstitutional.

The US has two main political parties – the Democratic and Republican parties. Many other smaller parties play little if any role. There are not clear differences between these two parties. The Republican tend to be more conservative and to have more support among the upper classes, while the Democrats tend to be more liberal and to have more support among the working classes and the poor.

Vocabulary

Armed Forces – вооруженные силы

Executive [ig'zekjutiv] – исполнительный

Legislative ['ledзisl∂tiv] – законодательный

Judicial [dзu'di∫l] – судебный

The Senate ['senit]

The Commander-in-Chief [k∂,ma:nd∂rin't∫i:f] – главнокомандующий

To interpret [in't∂:prit] – толковать

The Supreme Court [su'pri:m 'ko:t] – верховный суд

To reject [ri'dзekt] – отвергать

Democratic [,dem∂'krætik] – демократический

Republican [ri'p^blik∂n] – республиканский

Police [p∂'li:s] – полиция

Administer – управлять, вести (дела), снабжать

Exercise 1. Fill in the words:

1) The USA is a … … .

2) Every state has its own … .

3) The present Constitution was … in 1787 in Philadelphia.

4) Power is divided into three branches: …, …, … .

5) The … branch consists of Congress.

6) Congress is represented by … of … and … .

7) Congress’s main function is to … .

8) … is the seat of the USA Congress.

9) … branch administers the laws.

10) The President is the head of … branch and … .

11) The President is the …-in-… of the Armed Forces.

12) The functions of the President are … .

13) The residence of the President is … .

14) The … branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the …

15) The … Court is the most important.

16) The US has two main political parties … and … .

Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

1) What can you say about political system in the USA in general?

2) How many branches is the government divided into?

3) What is the legislative branch represented by?

4) Who is the House of Representatives and the Senate represented by?

5) What are the functions of the Congress?

6) Who is the executive branch represented by?

7) What are the functions of the President?

8) How often is the President chosen?

9) What are the functions of the judicial branch?

10) What is the most important court? How many members is it represented by?

11) What prevents branches from having too much power?

12) What are the differences between two main political parties?

UNIT 11

The Bald Eagle

In 1782, soon after the United States won its independence, the bald eagle was chosen as the national bird of the new country. American leaders wanted the eagle to be a symbol of their country because it is a bird of strength and courage. They chose the bald eagle because it was found all over North America.

Today, the bald eagle has almost disappeared from the country. In 1972 there were only 3,000 bald eagles in the entire United States. The reason for the bird's decreasing population is pollution, especially pollution of the rivers by pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals used to kill insects and other ani­mals that attack and destroy crops. Unfortunately, rain often washes pesti­cides into rivers. Pesticides pollute the rivers and poison the fish. Eagles eat these fish and then the eggs eagles lay are not healthy. The eggs have very thin shells and do not hatch. Because many of the eggs did not hatch and produce more eagles, the number of eagles quickly became smaller.

Today, the American government and the American people are trying to protect the bald eagle. The number of bald eagles is slowly increasing. It now appears that the American national bird will survive.

Exercise 1. Find the meanings of the words in italics.

1. In 1972 there were only 3,000 bald eagles in the entire United States.

a. whole b. central c. western

2. The reason for the bird's decreasing population was pollution.

a. other animals b. dirty air and water c. people

3. The eggs have thin Shells and do not hatch.

a. open b. fly c. smash

4. Eagles lay only two or three eggs a year.

a. eat b. produce c. deserve

5. Pesticides kill animals that attack and destroy crops

a. insects b. plants c. flowers

6. It now appears that the American national bird will survive.

a. die b. flyaway c. live

Exercise 2. Find the right answers to the following questions:

1. Why was the bald eagle chosen as the symbol of the United States?

a. It was the cause of the American independence.

b. It began to disappear.

c. American leaders chose it because it is a bird of strength and courage, and it was found all over North America.

2. Why has the bald eagle almost disappeared from the country?

a. Because in 1972 there were only 3,000 bald eagles in the entire United States.

b. The bald eagle has almost disappeared from the country because of pollution.

c. The eggs have very thin shells and do not hatch.

Exercise 3. Find the wrong word in each sentence and replace it by the right one.

1. The United States won its independence after 1782.

2. American leaders wanted the eagle to be a sample of their country.

3. They chose the bald eagle because it was found all over South America.

4. Today, a little over 200 years late, the bald eagle has almost disappeared.

5. In 1972 there were only 30,000 bald eagles.

6. Unfortunately, rain often washes crops into rivers.

7. The eagles have very thin shells and do not hatch.

8. Today, the American government and the American people are trying to pollute the bald eagle.

UNIT 12

The Statue of Liberty

One of the most famous statues in the world stands on an island in New York Harbor. This statue is, of course, the Statue of Liberty. The Statue of Liberty is a woman who holds a torch up high. She symbolizes a welcome to a land of freedom. Visitors can go inside the statue. The statue is so large that as many as twelve people can stand inside the torch. Many more people can stand in other parts of the statue. The statue weighs 225 tons and is 301 feet tall.

The Statue of Liberty was put up in 1886. It was a gift to the United States from the people of France. Over the years France and the United States had a special relationship. In 1776 France helped the American colonies gain independence from England. The French wanted to do something special for the U.S. centennial, its 100th birthday.

Laboulaye was a well-known Frenchman who admired the U.S. One night at a dinner in his house, Laboulaye talked about the idea of a gift. Among guests was the French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi. Bartholdi thought of a statue of liberty. He offered to design the statue.

Many people contributed in some way. The French people gave money for the statue. Americans designed and built the pedestal for the statue to stand on. The American people raised money to pay for the pedestal. The French engineer Alexander Eiffel, who was famous for his Eiffel Tower in Paris, figured out how to make the heavy statue stand.

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences.

1. The people of France wanted to give the United States a special ____.

a. gift b. torch c. woman

2. France and the United States had a special _______.

a. independence b. relationship c. feeling

3. France helped the American colonies _____ independence.

a. build b. gain c. protect

4. A famous Frenchman, Laboulaye, _____ the United States.

a. admired b. visited c. designed

5. Frederic Bartholdi _____ to design the statue.

a. contributed b. offered с. Ordered

6. The Statue of Liberty stands on a _____.

a. building b. harbor c. pedestal

Exercise 2. Finish the sentences.

1. The Statue of Liberty is a famous statue in ________.

a. France b. the United States

2. The Statue of Liberty was a gift ______

a. from the people of France to the United States

b. from Laboulaye and Eiffel to the United States

3. The Statue of Liberty symbolizes _______.

a. a woman with a torch b. a land of freedom

Exercise 3. Find the information that is not mentioned in the text.

1. Twelve people can stand inside the torch of the Statue of Liberty.

2. The United States helped France gain its independence in 1776.

3. Alexander Eiffel was among the guests at Laboulaye's house.

4. Frederic Auguste Barthofdi was a French engineer.

5. Alexander Eiffel figured out how to make the statue stand.

6. Americans designed the pedestal for the statue.

UNIT 13

The Fifty States

The fifty states of the United States, or the USA, join to make one nation. The United States did not always have fifty states. At first there were thirteen. As the United States grew, more states joined the union. The last two states to join were Alaska and Hawaii. They both joined in 1959. The area of the United States covers every type of land. There are forests, deserts, moun­tains, and flat land. The area of the United States also covers every type of climate. The size of each state is different too. Alaska is the biggest state. Rhode Island is the smallest state. Alaska is 500 times bigger than Rhode Island.

About 250 million people live in the United States. The people of the US come from all over the world. People often name cities after where they come from. For example, in the United States you find Paris, Rome, Delhi, and Frankfurt. The state with the highest population is California. The state with the lowest population is Alaska.

Each state has its own name. The name gives the state its identity and. personality More than half the states have names from American Indian origin. Each state also has a flag with colors that have a special meaning for the state. The flag is the emblem, or the symbol, of the state. There is also a state flower, tree, and bird.

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences.

nation climate flat land

emblem origin population

union its identity

1. The United States is a country of fifty states.

2. The United States grew, and more states joined the group.

3. The United States has forests, deserts, mountains, and land which is level and not high.

4. The United States also has every type of weather.

5. The state with the highest number of people is California.

6. More than half the states have names from American Indian beginnings.

7. The flag is the symbol of the state.

8. The name gives the state a name to say what it is.

Exercise 2. Choose the correct answer.

1. The United States _____.

a. was always fifty states b. has fifty states today c. is not a nation of fifty states

2. The United States has _____.

a. about 250 million people

b. people from Europe and India only

c. the highest population in the world

3. Each state has _____.

a. an American Indian name

b. no personality

c. its own name and flag

Exercise 3. Find the wrong word in each sentence and replace it by the correct one.

1. There is a state flag, mountain, tree, and bird.

2. Hawaii is 500 times bigger than Rhode Island.

3. More than half the states have people from American Indian origin.

4. The state with the lowest population is Hawaii.

5. Each state has a flag with colors that have a special meaning for the nation.

6. People often name states after where they come from.

UNIT 14





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