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On History of the University of London




In the early 19th century Oxford and Cambridge were the only two universities in England. The cost of education at these universities was so high that only the sons of the wealthier classes could afford to attend. But more restrictive still were the religious tests; only Church of England members could attend. It was to overcome these limitations that in 1827, in Gover Street, London, a non-denominational college - "University College" - was founded. Its first years were years of struggle for survival against hostile forces of the Church and State. The "godless" college was opposed by Archbishop of Canterbury, Sir Robert Peel and the Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington, who opened a rival institution - King's College.

In 1836 these two institutions, University College and King's College, joined forces through a typically English compromise. Each retained the control of its own internal organization, faculty and teaching; a separate body, the University of London, was created to "conduct the examination of and confer degrees upon their students". Thus was born the University of London.

The long reign of Victoria saw many changes in the University such as: Medical schools of the various teaching hospitals, Bedford College for women, Imperial College of Science and Technology, and many others. The famed London School of Economics was a newcomer in 1895.

Up until 1900 the University was only an examining body, but in that year an Act of Parliament allowed the first actual teaching on any level. Today the University has much the same form of organization adapted to accommodate its increased size and complexity. It is governed by a Vice-Chancellor, a Court, and a Senate. The Senate composed of representatives of the constituent colleges and school nominees of the crown, the London Country Council, certain professional bodies and graduates, is the supreme academic authority. The Court, also broadly representative body, allocates to the colleges money derived from the national government and the London Country Council. In brief, the University of London is a federation of colleges, each largely independent, and the whole independent of the British Parliament in academic matters.

In many ways the University has departed from the traditions of Oxford and Cambridge. London University was the first to abolish religious tests, to grant degrees without residence. Recently the Senate abolished - not without a stir - the requirement of being English for entrance. The cap and gown are missing here, but the tradition of schooling is strong.

I.

1. According to the text in the 1st half of the 19th century ______

A Oxford and Cambridge were founded B there were only two universities

C the history of the University of London began

D the University College and the King's College were closed

 

2. In 1836 the King's College and the University College lost the following privilege:__.

A to have their own internal structure

B to have their own buildings

C to hold examinations for the University degree

D to provide modern teaching

 

3. It follows from the text that the creation of the University of London could best be described as _______.

A a struggle for survival B an opposition to the Church

C an opening of a rival institution D a compromise

 

4. Among the forces opposing the University College the author fails to mention ____.

A the Church C the Queen

B the State D the Head of the Government

 

5. Among the traditional requirements abandoned by the University of London the reader does not find the requirement _______:

A to be English

B to have a religious background

C to admit men only

D to be a resident of the UK

II.

6. At the examination she demonstrated______excellent knowledge of English.

A hers C the

B an D its

 

7. A massive green space - Osterley Park – a centre around a Tudor Mansion by the same name, built as a country home for Sir Thomas Gresham, ____ man in 16th century.

A the most wealthiest C the wealthiest
B wealthiest D the more wealthy

 

8. She looked at me_ , but didn't say___.

A kindly, anything C kindly, nothing

B kind, something D kind, anything

 

9. Mark was sure to get acknowledged as he worked_____.

A hardly C too hardly

B hardly enough D hard enough

 

10. Before her marriage, she lived in London, where she worked for____National Gallery in ___ Trafalgar Square.

A the, the C__ , ___

B _____ , the D the, _

 

11. Agatha Christie is ____ master of ____ detective story.

A a, the C__ , ___

B a, a D the, a

 

12. You haven't ____ time if you want to catch the train.

A many C much

B plenty D a lot

 

13. Average life expectancy in Europe dramatically over the last hundred years.

A had risen C rises

B has risen D is rising

 

14. At first the authorities thought the athlete drugs, but they soon realized they ____ up the results of the tests.

A had taken, had mixed

B took, have mixed

C taking, mixed

D has been taken, had mixed

 

15. I really hate those cartoons where Tom ___ Jerry.

A has always chasing C always chase

B is always chasing D is being chased

16.Your money could ____ to good use instead of ____ idle in the Bank.

A be put, being left C to be put, being left
B put, to be left D have put, to be left

17. He suggested __ go rowing on the river and ____ take a picnic lunch with them.

A to, to B that they should,

C___ , ______ D that they will, to

 

18. It's time that team _____ a match. They haven't won a match for ages.

A has won C won

B wins D will win

 

19. If you _____ some money, you _____ so hard up now,

A have saved, won't be B save, wouldn't have been

C had saved, wouldn't be D haven't saved, haven't been

 

20. She gave ____ waiting _____ the landlord to repair the roof and paid for it.

A up, for C with, for
B in, to D up,__

 

21. Sometimes when his aunt sent him off to school he would go part of the way and then turn and so to the river to swim or fish instead.

A aside B outside C inside

 

22. She took _____ of her father's good mood and asked if her boyfriend could stay for dinner.

A use B benefit C advantage

 

23. The United Kingdom is very small ____ many countries in the world.

A compared with B depending on C taking

 

24. Whether you are a flower fanatic, or simply love ______ outdoor attractions, London and its outlying areas offer gardens for all tastes.

A exploiting B exploring C exploding

 

25. My aunt Emily likes reading and gardening, and she goes for long ________over the hills with her dog, Buster.

A walks B steps C voyages

 

26.__ If people planned their holidays- they would always be _________with their rest.

A satisfactory B satisfied C fond

 

27._____________ She won't take_____ in the bridge tournament as she goes away in April.

A place B part C round

 

28. In Scotland, where there are good _______ for winter sports, skiing and climbing are very popular.

A conventions B circumstances C conditions

 

29. A vast array of artifacts and treasures are available to all museum _____.

A applicants B visitors C workers

 

30. Needless to say, it is particularly young people to look forward to Valentine's Day, hoping to_____ many cards.

A receive B initiate C revise

 

31. The ceremony would be televised ______. The BBC agreed to do it.

A irrationally B nationally C exceptionally

 

32. The speed and efficiency of a TV technology ____ that when something happens on the other side of the world, we can hear about it within hours.

A expresses B means C makes

33. Last year a profit of two million pounds was ____ in the first six months but this was cancelled by a loss of seven million pounds.

A done B made C put

 

34. Since the 1930s Oxford had developed _____as an industrial and commercial centre.

A funnily B rapidly C rarely

 

35. More ___ needs to be carried out so that we can cut down the use of harmful chemicals in agriculture.

A knowledge B experience C research





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